The Golgi apparatus acts as a platform for TBK1 activation after viral RNA sensing.
ABSTRACT: After viral infection and the stimulation of some pattern-recognition receptors, TANK-binding kinase I (TBK1) is activated by K63-linked polyubiquitination followed by trans-autophosphorylation. While the activated TBK1 induces type I interferon production by phosphorylating the transcription factor IRF3, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying TBK1 activation remain unclear.We report here the localization of the ubiquitinated and phosphorylated active form of TBK1 to the Golgi apparatus after the stimulation of RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) or Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3), due to TBK1 K63-linked ubiquitination on lysine residues 30 and 401. The ubiquitin-binding protein optineurin (OPTN) recruits ubiquitinated TBK1 to the Golgi apparatus, leading to the formation of complexes in which TBK1 is activated by trans-autophosphorylation. Indeed, OPTN deficiency in various cell lines and primary cells impairs TBK1 targeting to the Golgi apparatus and its activation following RLR or TLR3 stimulation. Interestingly, the Bluetongue virus NS3 protein binds OPTN at the Golgi apparatus, neutralizing its activity and thereby decreasing TBK1 activation and downstream signaling.Our results highlight an unexpected role of the Golgi apparatus in innate immunity as a key subcellular gateway for TBK1 activation after RNA virus infection.
Project description:Trafficking of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to endolysosomes and its subsequent proteolytic cleavage are required for it to sense viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and trigger antiviral response, yet the underlying mechanisms remain enigmatic. We show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM3 is mainly located in the Golgi apparatus and transported to the early endosomes upon stimulation with the dsRNA analog poly(I:C). TRIM3 mediates K63-linked polyubiquitination of TLR3 at K831, which is enhanced following poly(I:C) stimulation. The polyubiquitinated TLR3 is recognized and sorted by the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) complexes to endolysosomes. Deficiency of TRIM3 impairs TLR3 trafficking from the Golgi apparatus to endosomes and its subsequent activation. <i>Trim3</i> <sup><i>-/-</i></sup> cells and mice express lower levels of antiviral genes and show lower levels of inflammatory response following poly(I:C) but not lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. These findings suggest that TRIM3-mediated polyubiquitination of TLR3 represents a feedback-positive regulatory mechanism for TLR3-mediated innate immune and inflammatory responses.
Project description:TANK-binding kinase (TBK1) is essential for transcription of the interferon (IFN) ? gene in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and double-stranded RNA, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie the activation of TBK1 are incompletely understood. Previously, we identified the NF-?B essential modulator (NEMO)-related polyubiquitin-binding protein, optineurin (OPTN), as a novel binding partner of TBK1. To determine whether the ubiquitin-binding function of OPTN is involved in regulating TBK1 and IFN? production, we generated a mouse in which wild-type optineurin was replaced by the polyubiquitin binding-defective mutant, OPTN(D477N/D477N). In this study, we found that LPS or poly(I:C)-induced TBK1 activity was significantly reduced in bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) from OPTN(D477N/D477N) mice. Consistent with this, the phosphorylation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and the production of IFN? mRNA and secretion were reduced. Stimulation of BMDMs with LPS triggered the phosphorylation of OPTN, which was reversed by phosphatase treatment and prevented by pharmacological inhibition of both the canonical I?B kinases (IKK?/?) and the IKK-related kinases (TBK1/IKK?). In contrast, LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of OPTN(D477N) was markedly reduced in BMDMs from OPTN(D477N/D477N) mice, and inhibition of the canonical IKKs alone prevented phosphorylation, providing further evidence that ubiquitin binding to OPTN contributes to LPS-induced TBK1 activation. TBK1 and IKK? phosphorylated OPTN preferentially at Ser-177 and Ser-513, respectively, in vitro. In conclusion, our results suggest that OPTN binds to polyubiquitylated species formed in response to LPS and poly(I:C), enhancing the activation of TBK1 that is required for optimal phosphorylation of IRF3 and production of IFN?.
Project description:Certain missense mutations in optineurin/OPTN and amplification of TBK1 are associated with normal tension glaucoma. A glaucoma-associated variant of OPTN, M98K, induces autophagic degradation of transferrin receptor (TFRC) and death in retinal cells. Here, we have explored the role of Tbk1 in M98K-OPTN-induced autophagy and cell death, and the effect of Tbk1 overexpression in retinal cells. Cell death induced by M98K-OPTN was dependent on Tbk1 as seen by the effect of Tbk1 knockdown and blocking of Tbk1 activity by a chemical inhibitor. Inhibition of Tbk1 also restores M98K-OPTN-induced transferrin receptor degradation. M98K-OPTN-induced autophagosome formation, autophagy and cell death were dependent on its phosphorylation at S177 by Tbk1. Knockdown of OPTN reduced starvation-induced autophagosome formation. M98K-OPTN expressing cells showed higher levels of Tbk1 activation and enhanced phosphorylation at Ser177 compared to WT-OPTN expressing cells. M98K-OPTN-induced activation of Tbk1 and its ability to be phosphorylated better by Tbk1 was dependent on ubiquitin binding. Phosphorylated M98K-OPTN localized specifically to autophagosomes and endogenous Tbk1 showed increased localization to autophagosomes in M98K-OPTN expressing cells. Overexpression of Tbk1 induced cell death and caspase-3 activation that were dependent on its catalytic activity. Tbk1-induced cell death possibly involves autophagy, as shown by the effect of Atg5 knockdown, and requirement of autophagic function of OPTN. Our results show that phosphorylation of Ser177 plays a crucial role in M98K-OPTN-induced autophagosome formation, autophagy flux and retinal cell death. In addition, we provide evidence for cross talk between two glaucoma associated proteins and their inter-dependence to mediate autophagy-dependent cell death.
Project description:Damaged mitochondria are detrimental to cellular homeostasis. One mechanism for removal of damaged mitochondria involves the PINK1-PARKIN pathway, which poly-ubiquitylates damaged mitochondria to promote mitophagy. We report that assembly of ubiquitin chains on mitochondria triggers autophagy adaptor recruitment concomitantly with activation of the TBK1 kinase, which physically associates with OPTN, NDP52, and SQSTM1. TBK1 activation in HeLa cells requires OPTN and NDP52 and OPTN ubiquitin chain binding. In addition to the known role of S177 phosphorylation in OPTN on ATG8 recruitment, TBK1-dependent phosphorylation on S473 and S513 promotes ubiquitin chain binding in vitro as well as TBK1 activation, OPTN mitochondrial retention, and efficient mitophagy in vivo. These data reveal a self-reinforcing positive feedback mechanism that coordinates TBK1-dependent autophagy adaptor phosphorylation with the assembly of ubiquitin chains on mitochondria to facilitate efficient mitophagy, and mechanistically links genes mutated in Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a common selective autophagy pathway.
Project description:Damaged mitochondria are turned over through a process of selective autophagy termed mitophagy. In mitophagy, unhealthy mitochondria are recognized and ubiquitinated by Parkinson disease-linked proteins PINK1 and PARK2. The subsequent recruitment of ubiquitin-binding autophagy receptors leads in turn to the sequestration of the damaged organelles into LC3-positive phagophores, precursors to autophagosomes. The precise identity of these receptors and how they are regulated has been the focus of considerable attention. Our recent work uses live-cell imaging to explore the dynamics and regulation of autophagy receptor recruitment. Utilizing multiple paradigms to induce mitochondrial damage, we identified the rapid, 2-step recruitment of autophagy receptors OPTN, CALCOCO2/NDP52, and TAX1BP1. All 3 receptors are recruited to damaged mitochondria with similar kinetics; however, only OPTN is necessary for efficient formation of a phagophore sequestering damaged mitochondria from the cytosol. OPTN is co-recruited to damaged mitochondria along with its upstream kinase TBK1. Depletion of OPTN or TBK1, or expression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked mutations in either protein, interfere with efficient autophagic engulfment of depolarized mitochondria. These observations suggest that insufficient autophagy of damaged mitochondria may contribute to neurodegenerative disease.
Project description:Viral infection activates several transcription factors including NF-?B and IRF3, which collaborate to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and innate antiviral response. MITA (also called STING) is a critical adaptor protein that links virus-sensing receptors to IRF3 activation upon infection by both RNA and DNA pathogens. Here we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif protein 32 (TRIM32) ubiquitinated MITA and dramatically enhanced MITA-mediated induction of IFN-?. Overexpression of TRIM32 potentiated virus-triggered IFNB1 expression and cellular antiviral response. Consistently, knockdown of TRIM32 had opposite effects. TRIM32 interacted with MITA, and was located at the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. TRIM32 targeted MITA for K63-linked ubiquitination at K20/150/224/236 through its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, which promoted the interaction of MITA with TBK1. These findings suggest that TRIM32 is an important regulatory protein for innate immunity against both RNA and DNA viruses by targeting MITA for K63-linked ubiquitination and downstream activation.
Project description:Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) recognition leads to TANK-binding kinase (TBK1) polyubiquitination and activation by transautophosphorylation, resulting in IFN-? production. Here, we describe a mouse model of optineurin insufficiency (Optn?(157) ) in which the TBK1-interacting N-terminus of optineurin was deleted. PAMP-stimulated cells from Optn?(157) mice had reduced TBK1 activity, no phosphorylation of optineurin Ser(187) , and mounted low IFN-? responses. In contrast to pull-down assays where the presence of N-terminus was sufficient for TBK1 binding, both the N-terminal and the ubiquitin-binding regions of optineurin were needed for PAMP-induced binding. This report establishes optineurin as a positive regulator TBK1 via a bipartite interaction between these molecules.
Project description:TARDBP/TDP-43 (TAR DNA binding protein) proteinopathies are a common feature in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and Alzheimer disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying TARDBP-induced neurotoxicity are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that TARDBP proteinopathies induce impairment in the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), as evidenced by an accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and a reduction in proteasome activity in neuronal cells. Through kinase inhibitor screening, we identified PTK2/FAK (PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2) as a suppressor of neurotoxicity induced by UPS impairment. Importantly, PTK2 inhibition significantly reduced ubiquitin aggregates and attenuated TARDBP-induced cytotoxicity in a <i>Drosophila</i> model of TARDBP proteinopathies. We further identified that phosphorylation of SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) at S403 (p-SQSTM1 [S403]), a key component in the autophagic degradation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins, is increased upon TARDBP overexpression and is dependent on the activation of PTK2 in neuronal cells. Moreover, expressing a non-phosphorylated form of SQSTM1 (SQSTM1<sup>S403A</sup>) significantly repressed the accumulation of insoluble poly-ubiquitinated proteins and neurotoxicity induced by TARDBP overexpression in neuronal cells. In addition, TBK1 (TANK binding kinase 1), a kinase that phosphorylates S403 of SQSTM1, was found to be involved in the PTK2-mediated phosphorylation of SQSTM1. Taken together, our data suggest that the PTK2-TBK1-SQSTM1 axis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of TARDBP by regulating neurotoxicity induced by UPS impairment. Therefore, targeting the PTK2-TBK1-SQSTM1 axis may represent a novel therapeutic intervention for neurodegenerative diseases with TARDBP proteinopathies.<b>Abbreviations</b>: ALP: macroautophagy/autophagy lysosomal pathway; ALS: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; ATXN2: ataxin 2; BafA1: bafilomycin A<sub>1</sub>; cCASP3: cleaved caspase 3; CSNK2: casein kinase 2; FTLD: frontotemporal lobar degeneration; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; OPTN: optineurin; PTK2/FAK: PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TARDBP/TDP-43: TAR DNA binding protein; TBK1: TANK binding kinase 1; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; UPS: ubiquitin-proteasome system.
Project description:Viral invasion into a host is initially recognized by the innate immune system, mainly through activation of the intracellular cytosolic signaling pathway and coordinated activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) transcription factors that promote type I interferon gene induction. The TANK-binding Kinase 1 (TBK1) phosphorylates and activates IRF3. Here, we show that Optineurin (Optn) dampens the antiviral innate immune response by targeting the deubiquitinating enzyme CYLD to TBK1 in order to inhibit its enzymatic activity. Importantly, we found that this regulatory mechanism is abolished at the G2/M phase as a consequence of the nuclear translocation of CYLD and Optn. As a result, we observed, at this cell division stage, an increased activity and phosphorylation of TBK1 that lead to its relocalization to mitochondria and to enhanced interferon production, suggesting that this process, which relies on Optn function, might be of major importance to mount a preventive antiviral response during mitosis.
Project description:Microbial nucleic acids are critical for the induction of innate immune responses, a host defense mechanism against infection by microbes. Recent studies have indicated that double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) induces potent innate immune responses via the induction of type I IFN (IFN) and IFN-inducible genes. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying dsDNA-triggered signaling are not fully understood. Here we show that the translocation and assembly of the essential signal transducers, stimulator of IFN genes (STING) and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), are required for dsDNA-triggered innate immune responses. After sensing dsDNA, STING moves from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus and finally reaches the cytoplasmic punctate structures to assemble with TBK1. The addition of an ER-retention signal to the C terminus of STING dampens its ability to induce antiviral responses. We also show that STING co-localizes with the autophagy proteins, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and autophagy-related gene 9a (Atg9a), after dsDNA stimulation. The loss of Atg9a, but not that of another autophagy-related gene (Atg7), greatly enhances the assembly of STING and TBK1 by dsDNA, leading to aberrant activation of the innate immune response. Hence Atg9a functions as a regulator of innate immunity following dsDNA stimulation as well as an essential autophagy protein. These results demonstrate that dynamic membrane traffic mediates the sequential translocation and assembly of STING, both of which are essential processes required for maximal activation of the innate immune response triggered by dsDNA.