Positive feedback regulation between IL10 and EGFR promotes lung cancer formation.
ABSTRACT: The role of IL10 in the tumorigenesis of various cancer types is still controversial. Here, we found that increased IL10 levels are correlated with a poor prognosis in lung cancer patients. Moreover, IL10 levels were significantly increased in the lungs and serum of EGFRL858R- and Kras4bG12D-induced lung cancer mice, indicating that IL10 might facilitate lung cancer tumorigenesis. IL10 knockout in EGFRL858R and Kras4bG12D mice inhibited the development of lung tumors and decreased the levels of infiltrating M2 macrophages and tumor-promoting Treg lymphocytes. We also showed that EGF increases IL10 expression by enhancing IL10 mRNA stability, and IL10 subsequently activates JAK1/STAT3, Src, PI3K/Akt, and Erk signaling pathways. Interestingly, the IL10-induced recruitment of phosphorylated Src was critical for inducing EGFR through the activation of the JAK1/STAT3 pathway, suggesting that Src and JAK1 positively regulate each other to enhance STAT3 activity. Doxycycline-induced EGFRL858R mice treated with gefitinib and anti-IL10 antibodies exhibited poor tumor formation. In conclusion, IL10 and EGFR regulate each other through positive feedback, which leads to lung cancer formation.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutants drive lung tumorigenesis and are targeted for therapy. However, resistance to EGFR inhibitors has been observed, in which the mutant EGFR remains active. Thus, it is important to uncover mediators of EGFR mutant-driven lung tumors to develop new treatment strategies. The protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) Shp2 mediates EGF signaling. Nevertheless, it is unclear if Shp2 is activated by oncogenic EGFR mutants in lung carcinoma or if inhibiting the Shp2 PTP activity can suppress EGFR mutant-induced lung adenocarcinoma. Here, we generated transgenic mice containing a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible PTP-defective Shp2 mutant (tetO-Shp2CSDA). Using the rat Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP)-rtTA-directed transgene expression in the type II lung pneumocytes of transgenic mice, we found that the Gab1-Shp2 pathway was activated by EGFRL858R in the lungs of transgenic mice. Consistently, the Gab1-Shp2 pathway was activated in human lung adenocarcinoma cells containing mutant EGFR. Importantly, Shp2CSDA inhibited EGFRL858R-induced lung adenocarcinoma in transgenic animals. Analysis of lung tissues showed that Shp2CSDA suppressed Gab1 tyrosine phosphorylation and Gab1-Shp2 association, suggesting that Shp2 modulates a positive feedback loop to regulate its own activity. These results show that inhibition of the Shp2 PTP activity impairs mutant EGFR signaling and suppresses EGFRL858R-driven lung adenocarcinoma.
Project description:The efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is limited by adaptive activation of cell survival signals. We hypothesized that both signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and Src-YES-associated protein 1 (YAP1) signaling are dually activated during EGFR TKI treatment to limit therapeutic response.We used MTT and clonogenic assays, immunoblotting, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the efficacy of EGFR TKI alone and in combination with STAT3 and Src inhibition in three EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell lines. The Chou-Talalay method was used for the quantitative determination of drug interaction. We examined tumor growth inhibition in one EGFR-mutant NSCLC xenograft model (n?=?4 mice per group). STAT3 and YAP1 expression was evaluated in tumors from 119 EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients (64 in an initial cohort and 55 in a validation cohort) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the correlation between survival and gene expression. All statistical tests were two-sided.We discovered that lung cancer cells survive initial EGFR inhibitor treatment through activation of not only STAT3 but also Src-YAP1 signaling. Cotargeting EGFR, STAT3, and Src was synergistic in two EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell lines with a combination index of 0.59 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54 to 0.63) for the PC-9 and 0.59 (95% CI?=?0.54 to 0.63) for the H1975 cell line. High expression of STAT3 or YAP1 predicted worse progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.02, 95% CI?=?1.54 to 5.93, P = .001, and HR?=?2.57, 95% CI?=?1.30 to 5.09, P = .007, respectively) in an initial cohort of 64 EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients treated with firstline EGFR TKIs. Similar results were observed in a validation cohort.Our study uncovers a coordinated signaling network centered on both STAT3 and Src-YAP signaling that limits targeted therapy response in lung cancer and identifies an unforeseen rational upfront polytherapy strategy to minimize residual disease and enhance clinical outcomes.
Project description:Persistently activated IL-6/STAT3 pathway promotes acquired resistance to targeted therapy with epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. miR-206 has been verified to be dysregulated and plays as a negative regulator in lung cancer. However, whether miR-206 may overcome IL6-induced gefitinib resistance in EGFR-mutant lung cancer remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-206 in IL6-induced gefitinib-resistant EGFR-mutated lung cancer cell lines. We showed that forced miR-206 expression restored gefitinib sensitivity in IL6-induced gefitinib-resistant EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells by inhibiting IL6/JAK1/STAT3 pathway. Specifically, mechanistic investigations revealed that miR-206 blocked IL-6/STAT3 signalling via directly targeting the 3'-UTR of intracellular IL-6 messenger RNA. Moreover, IL-6 induced miR-206 down-regulation by reducing the cropping process of primary miR-206 (pri-miR-206) into the Drosha/DGCR8 complex. Taken together, our findings reveal a direct role of miR-206 in regulating IL-6/STAT3 pathway and contrarily activated IL-6/STAT3 signalling mediates the miR-206 maturation process in gefitinib-resistant EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells.
Project description:Evidence is presented for the nuclear presence of a functional heteromeric complex of epidermal growth factor (EGFR), Src and the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (Stat)3 proteins in pancreatic cancer cells. Stat3 remains nuclear and associated with Src or EGFR, respectively, upon the siRNA knockdown of EGFR or Src, demonstrating the resistance of the complex to the modulation of EGFR or Src alone. Significantly, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses reveal the nuclear EGFR, Src and Stat3 complex is bound to the c-Myc promoter. The siRNA knockdown of EGFR or Src, or the pharmacological inhibition of Stat3 activity only marginally suppressed c-Myc expression. By contrast, the concurrent modulation of Stat3 and EGFR, or Stat3 and Src, or EGFR and Src strongly suppressed c-Myc expression, demonstrating that the novel nuclear heteromeric complex intricately regulates the c-Myc gene. The prevalence of the transcriptionally functional EGFR, Src, and Stat3 nuclear complex provides an additional and novel mechanism for supporting the pancreatic cancer phenotype and explains in part the insensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells to the inhibition of EGFR, Src or Stat3 alone.
Project description:Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have clinically benefited to lung cancer patients harboring a subset of activating EGFR mutations. However, even with the remarkable therapeutic response at the initial TKI treatment, most lung cancer patients eventually have relapsed aggressive tumors due to acquired resistance to the TKIs. Here, we report that 3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoic acid or gallic acid (GA), a natural polyphenolic compound, shows anti-tumorigenic effects in TKI-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using both in vitro growth assay and in vivo xenograft animal model, we demonstrated tumor suppressive effect of GA was more selective for the TKI-resistant cancer compared to the TKI-sensitive one. Mechanistically, GA treatment inhibited Src-Stat3-mediated signaling and decreased the expression of Stat3-regulated tumor promoting genes, subsequently inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the TKI-resistant lung cancer but not in the TKI-sensitive one. Consistent with the in vitro results, in vivo xenograft experiments showed the TKI-resistant tumor-selective growth inhibition and suppression of Src-Stat3-dependent signaling in the GA-treated tumors isolated from the xenograft model. This finding identified an importance of Src-Stat3 signaling cascade in GA-mediated tumor-suppression activity and, more importantly, provides a novel therapeutic insight of GA for advanced TKI-resistant lung cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although EGFR mutant tumors exhibit low response rates to immune checkpoint blockade overall, some EGFR mutant tumors do respond to these therapies. However, there is a lack of understanding of the characteristics of EGFR mutant lung tumors responsive to immune checkpoint blockade. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We retrospectivity analyzed de-identified clinical and molecular data on 171 cases of EGFR mutant lung tumors treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors from the Yale Cancer Center, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, University of California Los Angeles, and Dana Farber Cancer Institute. A separate cohort of 383 EGFR mutant lung cancer cases with sequencing data available from the Yale Cancer Center, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and The Cancer Genome Atlas was compiled to assess the relationship between tumor mutation burden and specific EGFR alterations. RESULTS:Compared to 212 EGFR wild-type lung cancers, outcomes with PD-(L)1 blockade were worse in patients with lung tumors harboring alterations in exon 19 of EGFR (EGFRΔ19) but similar in EGFRL858R lung tumors. EGFRT790M status and PD-L1 expression did not impact response or survival outcomes to immune checkpoint blockade. PD-L1 expression was similar across EGFR alleles. Lung tumors with EGFRΔ19 alterations harbored a lower tumor mutation burden compared to EGFRL858R lung tumors despite similar smoking history. CONCLUSIONS:EGFR mutant tumors have generally low response to immune checkpoint inhibitors, but outcomes vary by allele. Understanding the heterogeneity of EGFR mutant tumors may be informative for establishing the benefits and uses of PD-(L)1 therapies for patients with this disease.
Project description:Background: Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been reported to be implicated in the pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Several EGFR inhibitors have been used in clinical treatment of NSCLC, but the emergence of EGFRL858R/T790M resistant mutation has reduced the efficacy of the clinical used EGFR inhibitors. There is an urgent need to develop novel EGFRL858R/T790M inhibitors for better NSCLC treatment. Methods: By screening a natural product library, we have identified gossypol as a novel potent inhibitor targeting EGFRL858R/T790M. The activity of gossypol on NSCLC cells was evaluated by cell proliferation, cell apoptosis and cell migration assays. Kinase activity inhibition assay and molecular docking were used to study the inhibition mechanism of gossypol to EGFRL858R/T790M. Western blotting was performed to study the molecular mechanism of gossypol inhibiting the downstream pathways of EGFR. Results: Gossypol inhibited the cell proliferation and cell migration of NSCLC cells, and induced caspase-dependent cell apoptosis of NSCLC cells by upregulating the expression of pro-apoptotic protein BAD. Molecular docking revealed that gossypol could bind to the kinase domain of EGFRL858R/T790M with good binding affinity through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Gossypol inhibited the kinase activity of EGFRL858R/T790M with EC50 of 150.1 nM. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that gossypol inhibited the phosphorylation of EGFR and its downstream signal pathways in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: Gossypol inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of NSCLC cells by targeting EGFRL858R/T790M. Our findings provided a basis for developing novel EGFRL858R/T790M inhibitors for treatment of NSCLC.
Project description:Src activation is involved in cancer progression and the interplay with EGFR. Inhibition of Src activity also represses the signalling pathways regulated by EGFR. Therefore, Src has been considered a target molecule for drug development. This study aimed to identify the compounds that target Src to suppress lung cancer tumourigenesis and metastasis and investigate their underlying molecular mechanisms. Using a molecular docking approach and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) compound dataset, eight candidate compounds were selected, and we evaluated their efficacy. Among them, rhodomycin A was the most efficient at reducing the activity and expression of Src in a dose-dependent manner, which was also the case for Src-associated proteins, including EGFR, STAT3, and FAK. Furthermore, rhodomycin A significantly suppressed cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and clonogenicity in vitro and tumour growth in vivo. In addition, rhodomycin A rendered gefitinib-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells more sensitive to gefitinib treatment, implying a synergistic effect of the combination therapy. Our data also reveal that the inhibitory effect of rhodomycin A on lung cancer progression may act through suppressing the Src-related multiple signalling pathways, including PI3K, JNK, Paxillin, and p130cas. These findings will assist the development of anti-tumour drugs to treat lung cancer.
Project description:Many molecular aberrations occur in pancreatic cancer. Although aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Src, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) are implicated in pancreatic cancer, therapies that target only one of these entities are undermined by signaling cross-talk. In the human pancreatic cancer lines, Panc-1 and Colo-357, pY845EGFR, pY1068EGFR, pY1086EGFR, and pY1173EGFR levels and pY416c-Src are concurrently elevated with aberrantly active Stat3 in a complex signaling cross-talk. Thus, understanding the signaling integration would facilitate the design of effective multiple-targeted therapeutic modalities. In Panc-1 and Colo-357 lines, pY845EGFR, pY1068EGFR, and pY1086EGFR levels are responsive to c-Src inhibition in contrast to pY1173EGFR, which is EGFR kinase-dependent. Constitutively active Stat3 is sensitive to both EGFR and Src inhibition, but the early suppression of aberrantly active Stat3 in response to the inhibition of EGFR and Src is countered by a Janus kinase (Jaks)-dependent reactivation, suggesting that Jaks activity is a compensatory mechanism for Stat3 induction. The inhibition of EGFR, Src, or Stat3 alone induced weak biological responses. By contrast, the concurrent inhibition of Stat3 and EGFR or Src induced greater viability loss and apoptosis and decreased the migration/invasion of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Significantly, the concurrent inhibition, compared with monotargeting modality, induced stronger human pancreatic tumor growth inhibition in xenografts. We infer that the tumor growth inhibition in vivo is caused by the simultaneous suppression of the abnormal functions of Stat3 and EGFR or Src. These studies strongly suggest that the concurrent targeting of Stat3 and EGFR or Src could be a beneficial therapeutic approach for pancreatic cancer.
Project description:Lung adenocarcinoma patients harboring kinase domain mutations in Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have significant clinical benefit from EGFR-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Although a majority of patients experience clinical symptomatic benefit immediately, an objective response can only be demonstrated after 6-8 weeks of treatment. Evaluation of patient response by imaging shows that 30-40% of patients do not respond due to intrinsic resistance to these TKIs. We investigated immediate-early effects of EGFR-TKI treatment in mutant EGFR-driven transgenic mouse models by FDG-PET and MRI and correlated the effects on the tumor and the tumor microenvironment. Within 24 hours of erlotinib treatment we saw approximately 65% tumor regression in mice with TKI-sensitive EGFRL858R lung adenocarcinoma. However, mice with EGFRL858R/T790M-driven tumors did not respond to either erlotinib or afatinib monotherapy, but did show a significant tumor response to afatinib-cetuximab combination treatment. The imaging responses correlated with the inhibition of downstream EGFR signaling, increased apoptosis, and decreased proliferation in the tumor tissues. In EGFRL858R-driven tumors, we saw a significant increase in CD45+ leukocytes, NK cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and lymphocytes, particularly CD8+ T cells. In response to erlotinib, these dendritic cells and macrophages had significantly higher MHC class II expression, indicating increased antigen-presenting capabilities. Together, results of our study provide novel insight into the immediate-early therapeutic response to EGFR TKIs in vivo.