Mitochondrial Protein Interaction Mapping Identifies Regulators of Respiratory Chain Function.
ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are essential for numerous cellular processes, yet hundreds of their proteins lack robust functional annotation. To reveal functions for these proteins (termed MXPs), we assessed condition-specific protein-protein interactions for 50 select MXPs using affinity enrichment mass spectrometry. Our data connect MXPs to diverse mitochondrial processes, including multiple aspects of respiratory chain function. Building upon these observations, we validated C17orf89 as a complex I (CI) assembly factor. Disruption of C17orf89 markedly reduced CI activity, and its depletion is found in an unresolved case of CI deficiency. We likewise discovered that LYRM5 interacts with and deflavinates the electron-transferring flavoprotein that shuttles electrons to coenzyme Q (CoQ). Finally, we identified a dynamic human CoQ biosynthetic complex involving multiple MXPs whose topology we map using purified components. Collectively, our data lend mechanistic insight into respiratory chain-related activities and prioritize hundreds of additional interactions for further exploration of mitochondrial protein function.
Project description:Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) is essential for electron transport in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and antioxidant defense. The relative importance of respiratory chain defects, ROS production, and apoptosis in the pathogenesis of CoQ(10) deficiency is unknown. We determined previously that severe CoQ(10) deficiency in cultured skin fibroblasts harboring COQ2 and PDSS2 mutations produces divergent alterations of bioenergetics and oxidative stress. Here, to better understand the pathogenesis of CoQ(10) deficiency, we have characterized the effects of varying severities of CoQ(10) deficiency on ROS production and mitochondrial bioenergetics in cells harboring genetic defects of CoQ(10) biosynthesis. Levels of CoQ(10) seem to correlate with ROS production; 10-15% and >60% residual CoQ(10) are not associated with significant ROS production, whereas 30-50% residual CoQ(10) is accompanied by increased ROS production and cell death. Our results confirm that varying degrees of CoQ(10) deficiency cause variable defects of ATP synthesis and oxidative stress. These findings may lead to more rational therapeutic strategies for CoQ(10) deficiency.
Project description:Coenzyme Q (CoQ) lipids are ancient electron carriers that, in eukaryotes, function in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In mitochondria, CoQ lipids are built by an inner membrane-associated, multicomponent, biosynthetic pathway via successive steps of isoprenyl tail polymerization, 4-hydroxybenzoate head-to-tail attachment, and head modification, resulting in the production of CoQ. In yeast, we discovered that head-modifying CoQ pathway components selectively colocalize to multiple resolvable domains in vivo, representing supramolecular assemblies. In cells engineered with conditional ON or OFF CoQ pathways, domains were strictly correlated with CoQ production and substrate flux, respectively, indicating that CoQ lipid intermediates are required for domain formation. Mitochondrial CoQ domains were also observed in human cells, underscoring their conserved functional importance. CoQ domains within cells were highly enriched adjacent to ER-mitochondria contact sites. Together, our data suggest that CoQ domains function to facilitate substrate accessibility for processive and efficient CoQ production and distribution in cells.
Project description:Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is an essential component of the respiratory chain but also participates in other mitochondrial functions such as regulation of the transition pore and uncoupling proteins. Furthermore, this compound is a specific substrate for enzymes of the fatty acids beta-oxidation pathway and pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. Furthermore, CoQ is an antioxidant that acts in all cellular membranes and lipoproteins. A complex of at least ten nuclear (COQ) genes encoded proteins synthesizes CoQ but its regulation is unknown. Since 1989, a growing number of patients with multisystemic mitochondrial disorders and neuromuscular disorders showing deficiencies of CoQ have been identified. CoQ deficiency caused by mutation(s) in any of the COQ genes is designated primary deficiency. Other patients have displayed other genetic defects independent on the CoQ biosynthesis pathway, and are considered to have secondary deficiencies. This review updates the clinical and molecular aspects of both types of CoQ deficiencies and proposes new approaches to understanding their molecular bases.
Project description:Dilute ethanol (EtOH) is a widely used agent to remove the corneal epithelium during the modern refractive surgery. The application of EtOH may cause the underlying corneal fibroblasts to undergo apoptosis. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect and potential mechanism of the respiratory chain coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)), an electron transporter of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and a ubiquitous free radical scavenger, against EtOH-induced apoptosis of corneal fibroblasts. Corneal fibroblasts were pretreated with CoQ(10) (10 µM) for 2 h, followed by exposure to different concentrations of EtOH (0.4, 2, 4, and 20%) for 20 s. After indicated incubation period (2-12 h), MTT assay was used to examine cell viability. Treated cells were further assessed by flow cytometry to identify apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the change in mitochondrial membrane potential were assessed using dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate/2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCFH-DA/DCF) assays and flow-cytometric analysis of JC-1 staining, respectively. The activity and expression of caspases 2, 3, 8, and 9 were evaluated with a colorimetric assay and western blot analysis. We found that EtOH treatment significantly decreased the viability of corneal fibroblasts characterized by a higher percentage of apoptotic cells. CoQ(10) could antagonize the apoptosis inducing effect of EtOH. The inhibition of cell apoptosis by CoQ(10) was significant at 8 and 12 h after EtOH exposure. In EtOH-exposed corneal fibroblasts, CoQ(10) pretreatment significantly reduced mitochondrial depolarization and ROS production at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min and inhibited the activation and expression of caspases 2 and 3 at 2 h after EtOH exposure. In summary, pretreatment with CoQ(10) can inhibit mitochondrial depolarization, caspase activation, and cell apoptosis. These findings support the proposition that CoQ(10) plays an antiapoptotic role in corneal fibroblasts after ethanol exposure.
Project description:The heterodimeric human (h) electron-transferring flavoprotein (ETF) transfers electrons from at least 13 different flavin dehydrogenases to the mitochondrial respiratory chain through a non-covalently bound FAD cofactor. Here, we describe the discovery of an irreversible and pH-dependent oxidation of the 8α-methyl group to 8-formyl-FAD (8f-FAD), which represents a unique chemical modification of a flavin cofactor in the human flavoproteome. Furthermore, a set of hETF variants revealed that several conserved amino acid residues in the FAD-binding pocket of electron-transferring flavoproteins are required for the conversion to the formyl group. Two of the variants generated in our study, namely αR249C and αT266M, cause glutaric aciduria type II, a severe inherited disease. Both of the variants showed impaired formation of 8f-FAD shedding new light on the potential molecular cause of disease development. Interestingly, the conversion of FAD to 8f-FAD yields a very stable flavin semiquinone that exhibited slightly lower rates of electron transfer in an artificial assay system than hETF containing FAD. In contrast, the formation of 8f-FAD enhanced the affinity to human dimethylglycine dehydrogenase 5-fold, indicating that formation of 8f-FAD modulates the interaction of hETF with client enzymes in the mitochondrial matrix. Thus, we hypothesize that the FAD cofactor bound to hETF is subject to oxidation in the alkaline (pH 8) environment of the mitochondrial matrix, which may modulate electron transport between client dehydrogenases and the respiratory chain. This discovery challenges the current concepts of electron transfer processes in mitochondria.
Project description:Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is an essential cofactor, primarily found in the mitochondrial inner membrane where it functions as an electron carrier in the respiratory chain, and as a lipophilic antioxidant. The redox state of the CoQ pool is the ratio of its oxidised (ubiquinone) and reduced (ubiquinol) forms, and is a key indicator of mitochondrial bioenergetic and antioxidant status. However, the role of CoQ redox state in vivo is poorly understood, because determining its value is technically challenging due to redox changes during isolation, extraction and analysis. To address these problems, we have developed a sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay that enables us to extract and analyse both the CoQ redox state and the magnitude of the CoQ pool with negligible changes to redox state from small amounts of tissue. This will enable the physiological and pathophysiological roles of the CoQ redox state to be investigated in vivo.
Project description:Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a key component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, but it also has several other functions in the cellular metabolism. One of them is to function as an electron carrier in the reaction catalyzed by sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), which catalyzes the first reaction in the hydrogen sulfide oxidation pathway. Therefore, SQR may be affected by CoQ deficiency. Using human skin fibroblasts and two mouse models with primary CoQ deficiency, we demonstrate that severe CoQ deficiency causes a reduction in SQR levels and activity, which leads to an alteration of mitochondrial sulfide metabolism. In cerebrum of Coq9R239X mice, the deficit in SQR induces an increase in thiosulfate sulfurtransferase and sulfite oxidase, as well as modifications in the levels of thiols. As a result, biosynthetic pathways of glutamate, serotonin, and catecholamines were altered in the cerebrum, and the blood pressure was reduced. Therefore, this study reveals the reduction in SQR activity as one of the pathomechanisms associated with CoQ deficiency syndrome.
Project description:Primary human CoQ(10) deficiencies are clinically heterogeneous diseases caused by mutations in PDSS2 and other genes required for CoQ(10) biosynthesis. Our in vitro studies of PDSS2 mutant fibroblasts, with <20% CoQ(10) of control cells, revealed reduced activity of CoQ(10)-dependent complex II+III and ATP synthesis, without amplification of reactive oxygen species (ROS), markers of oxidative damage, or antioxidant defenses. In contrast, COQ2 and ADCK3 mutant fibroblasts, with 30-50% CoQ(10) of controls, showed milder bioenergetic defects but significantly increased ROS and oxidation of lipids and proteins. We hypothesized that absence of oxidative stress markers and cell death in PDSS2 mutant fibroblasts were due to the extreme severity of CoQ(10) deficiency. Here, we have investigated in vivo effects of Pdss2 deficiency in affected and unaffected organs of CBA/Pdss2(kd/kd) mice at presymptomatic, phenotypic-onset, and end-stages of the disease. Although Pdss2 mutant mice manifest widespread CoQ(9) deficiency and mitochondrial respiratory chain abnormalities, only affected organs show increased ROS production, oxidative stress, mitochondrial DNA depletion, and reduced citrate synthase activity, an index of mitochondrial mass. Our data indicate that kidney-specific loss of mitochondria triggered by oxidative stress may be the cause of renal failure in Pdss2(kd/kd) mice.
Project description:Coenzyme Q is an essential lipid with redox capacity that is present in all organisms. In yeast its biosynthesis depends on a multiprotein complex in which Coq7 protein has both catalytic and regulatory functions. Coq7 modulates CoQ<sub>6</sub> levels through a phosphorylation cycle, where dephosphorylation of three amino acids (Ser/Thr) by the mitochondrial phosphatase Ptc7 increases the levels of CoQ<sub>6</sub>. Here we analyzed the role of Ptc7 and the phosphorylation state of Coq7 in yeast mitochondrial function. The conversion of the three Ser/Thr to alanine led to a permanently active form of Coq7 that caused a 2.5-fold increase of CoQ<sub>6</sub> levels, albeit decreased mitochondrial respiratory chain activity and oxidative stress resistance capacity. This resulted in an increase in endogenous ROS production and shortened the chronological life span (CLS) compared to wild type. The null <i>PTC7</i> mutant (<i>ptc7</i>?) strain showed a lower biosynthesis rate of CoQ<sub>6</sub> and a significant shortening of the CLS. The reduced CLS observed in <i>ptc7</i>? was restored by the overexpression of <i>PTC7</i> but not by the addition of exogenous CoQ<sub>6</sub>. Overexpression of <i>PTC7</i> increased mitophagy in a wild type strain. This finding suggests an additional Ptc7 function beyond the regulation of CoQ biosynthesis. Genetic disruption of <i>PTC7</i> prevented mitophagy activation in conditions of nitrogen deprivation. In brief, we show that, in yeast, Ptc7 modulates the adaptation to respiratory metabolism by dephosphorylating Coq7 to supply newly synthesized CoQ<sub>6</sub>, and by activating mitophagy to remove defective mitochondria at stationary phase, guaranteeing a proper CLS in yeast.
Project description:Electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF)-ubiquinone (2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone) oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) is a membrane-bound iron-sulphur flavoprotein that participates in an electron-transport pathway between eleven mitochondrial flavoprotein dehydrogenases and the ubiquinone pool. ETF is the intermediate electron carrier between the dehydrogenases and ETF-QO. The steady-state kinetic constants of human ETF-QO were determined with ubiquinone homologues and analogues that contained saturated n-alkyl substituents at the 6 position. These experiments show that optimal substrates contain a ten-carbon-atom side chain, consistent with a preliminary crystal structure that shows that only the first two of ten isoprene units of co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10) interact with the protein. Derivatives with saturated alkyl side chains are very good substrates, indicating that, unlike other ubiquinone oxidoreductases, there is little preference for the methyl branches or rigidity of the CoQ side chain. Few of the compounds that inhibit ubiquinone oxidoreductases inhibit ETF-QO. Compounds found to act as inhibitors of ETF-QO include 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, a naphthoquinone analogue, 2-(3-methylpentyl)-4,6-dinitrophenol and pentachlorophenol. 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB), which inhibits the mitochondrial bc1 complex and the chloroplast b6 f complex in redox-dependent fashion, can serve as an electron acceptor for human ETF-QO. The observation of simple Michaelis-Menten kinetic patterns and a single type of quinone-binding site, determined by fluorescence titrations of the protein with DBMIB and 6-(10-bromodecyl)ubiquinone, are consistent with one ubiquinone-binding site per ETF-QO monomer.