Tumor Protein (TP)-p53 Members as Regulators of Autophagy in Tumor Cells upon Marine Drug Exposure.
ABSTRACT: Targeting autophagic pathways might play a critical role in designing novel chemotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of human cancers, and the prevention of tumor-derived chemoresistance. Marine compounds were found to decrease tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Some of them were shown to induce autophagic flux in tumor cells. In this study, we observed that the selected marine life-derived compounds (Chromomycin A2, Psammaplin A, and Ilimaquinone) induce expression of several autophagic signaling intermediates in human squamous cell carcinoma, glioblastoma, and colorectal carcinoma cells in vitro through a transcriptional regulation by tumor protein (TP)-p53 family members. These conclusions were supported by specific qPCR expression analysis, luciferase reporter promoter assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation of promoter sequences bound to the TP53 family proteins, and silencing of the TP53 members in tumor cells.
Project description:The tumor suppressor, p53, plays an essential role in the cellular response to stress through regulating the expression of genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and autophagy. Here, we used a cell-based reporter system for the detection of p53 response transcription to identify the marine sponge metabolites, ilimaquinone and ethylsmenoquinone, as activators of the p53 pathway. We demonstrated that ilimaquinone and ethylsmenoquinone efficiently stabilize the p53 protein through promotion of p53 phosphorylation at Ser15 in both HCT116 and RKO colon cancer cells. Moreover, both compounds upregulate the expression of p21WAF1/CIP1, a p53-dependent gene, and suppress proliferation of colon cancer cells. In addition, ilimaquinone and ethylsmenoquinone induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased caspase-3 cleavage and the population of cells that positively stained with Annexin V-FITC, both of which are typical biochemical markers of apoptosis. Furthermore, autophagy was elicited by both compounds, as indicated by microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) puncta formations and LC3-II turnover in HCT116 cells. Our findings suggest that ilimaquinone and ethylsmenoquinone exert their anti-cancer activity by activation of the p53 pathway and may have significant potential as chemo-preventive and therapeutic agents for human colon cancer.
Project description:Two chromomycin SA analogs, chromomycin SA(3) and chromomycin SA(2), along with deacetylchromomycin A(3) and five previously reported chromomycin analogs were isolated from a marine-derived Streptomyces sp. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, HRMS and chemical methods. Chromomycin SA(3) and chromomycin SA(2) are the first naturally occuring chromomycin analogs with truncated side-chains. Biological evaluation of chromomycin analogs for cytotoxicity against two non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell-lines, A549 and HCC44, demonstrated a decrease in cytotoxicity for the truncated sides chain chromomycin analogs.
Project description:In this study, the anti-tumor activity of ilimaquinone (IQ), a sesquiterpene quinone isolated from marine sponge Halichondria sp., in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells, was investigated. IQ suppressed the viability of the OSCC cell lines SCC4 and SCC2095 with IC50 values of 7.5 and 8.5 ?M, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that IQ induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in SCC4 cells and modulated the expression of several cell growth-related gene products, including Akt, p38, Mcl-1, and p53. Notably, p53 knockdown caused higher resistance to IQ's anti-tumor activity. In addition, IQ increased reactive oxygen species generation, which was partially reversed by the addition of antioxidants. Furthermore, it triggered autophagy, as evidenced by acidic organelle formation and LC3B-II and Atg5 expression in SCC4 cells. Pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or chloroquine partially decreased IQ-induced apoptosis, suggesting that IQ induced protective autophagy. In summary, IQ has potential to be used in OSCC therapy.
Project description:The Wnt signaling pathway regulates cell growth and development in metazoans, and is therefore of interest for drug discovery. By screening a library of 5808 pre-fractionated marine extracts in a cell-based Wnt signaling assay, several signaling activators and inhibitors were observed. LCMS-based fractionation rapidly identified an active compound from Pseudoceratina purpurea as psammaplin A, a known HDAC inhibitor. Other HDAC inhibitors similarly activated signaling in this assay, indicating HDAC inhibitors will be identified through many cell-based reporter assays. In a large scale analysis of P. purpurea, three previously undescribed bromotyrosine based natural products were identified; the structure of one of these was confirmed by synthesis. Additionally, three other derivatives of psammaplin A were prepared: a mixed disulfide and two sulfinate esters. Finally, evidence to support a structural reassignment of psammaplin I from a sulfone to the isomeric sulfinate ester is presented.
Project description:Largazole, isolated from a marine Cyanobacterium of the genus Symploca, is a potent and selective Class I HDAC (histone deacetylation enzymes) inhibitor. This natural 16-membered macrocyclic depsipeptide features an interesting side chain unit, namely 3-hydroxy-7-mercaptohept-4-enoic acid, which occurs in many other natural sulfur-containing HDAC inhibitors. Notably, one similar fragment, where the amide moiety replaces the trans alkene moiety, appears in Psammaplin A, another marine natural product with potent HDAC inhibitory activities. Inspired by such a structural similarity, we hypothesized the fluoroolefin moiety would mimic both the alkene moiety in Largazole and the amide moiety in Psammaplin A, and thus designed and synthesized two novel fluoro olefin analogs of Largazole. The preliminary biological assays showed that the fluoro analogs possessed comparable Class I HDAC inhibitory effects, indicating that this kind of modification on the side chain of Largazole was tolerable.
Project description:A marine-derived actinomycete (Streptomyces sp. MBTI36) exhibiting antibacterial activities was investigated in the present study. The strain was identified using genetic techniques. The 16S rDNA sequence of the isolate indicated that it was most closely related to Streptomyces microflavus. Furthermore, a new chromomycin A9 (1), along with chromomycin Ap (2), chromomycin A2 (3), and chromomycin A3 (4), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract. Their structures were determined using extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR, and HRMS, as well as comparisons with previously reported data. Compounds 1-4 showed potent antibacterial activities against Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). During a passage experiment, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for compounds 1-4 showed no more than a 4-fold increase from the starting MIC value, indicating that no resistance was detected over the 21 passages.
Project description:Genetic alterations which impair the function of the TP53 signaling pathway in TP53 wild-type human tumors remain elusive. To identify new components of this pathway, we performed a screen for genes whose loss-of-function debilitated TP53 signaling and enabled oncogenic transformation of human mammary epithelial cells. We identified transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) as a putative tumor suppressor in the TP53 pathway. TGM2 suppressed colony formation in soft agar and tumor formation in a xenograft mouse model. The depletion of growth supplements induced both TGM2 expression and autophagy in a TP53-dependent manner, and TGM2 promoted autophagic flux by enhancing autophagic protein degradation and autolysosome clearance. Reduced expression of both CDKN1A, which regulates the cell cycle downstream of TP53, and TGM2 synergized to promote oncogenic transformation. Our findings suggest that TGM2-mediated autophagy and CDKN1A-mediated cell cycle arrest are two important barriers in the TP53 pathway that prevent oncogenic transformation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the major component of tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. TAMs are heterogeneous, with distinct phenotypes influenced by the microenvironment surrounding tumor tissues, but relatively little is known about the key molecular in these cells that contribute to malignant phenotypes. Autophagic activity is a critical factor in tumor development that contributes to enhancing cellular fitness and survival in the hostile tumor microenvironment. However, the molecular basis and relations between autophagy and TAMs polarization remain unclear.<h4>Methods</h4>Cathepsin S (Cat S) expression was analyzed in human colon carcinoma and normal colon tissues. In vivo effects were evaluated using PancO2 subcutaneous tumor model and SL4 hepatic metastasis model. Immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry and real-time PCR were done to examine TAMs polarization. Western blotting assay, transmission electron microscopy, mCherry-GFP-LC3 transfection and DQ-BSA degradation assays were carried out to determine its role in regulating autophagy.<h4>Results</h4>In the present study, we showed that the enhanced expression of Cat S correlated with the severity of histologic grade as well as clinical stage, metastasis, and recurrence, which are known indicators of a relatively poor prognosis of human colon carcinoma. Cat S knockout led to decreased tumor growth and metastasis. Moreover, Cat S knockout inhibited M2 macrophage polarization during tumor development. We further demonstrated that Cat S was required for not only autophagic flux but also the fusion processes of autophagosomes and lysosomes in TAMs. Importantly, we found that Cat S contributed to tumor development by regulating the M2 phenotype of TAMs through the activation of autophagy.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These results indicated that Cat S-mediated autophagic flux is an important mechanism for inducing M2-type polarization of TAMs, which leads to tumor development. These data provide strong evidence for a tumor-promoting role of autophagy in TAMs and suggest Cat S could be a potential target for cancer therapy.
Project description:Although anti-angiogenic therapies (AATs) have some effects against multiple malignancies, they are limited by subsequent tumor vasculogenesis and progression. To investigate the mechanisms by which tumor vasculogenesis and progression following AATs, we transfected microRNA (miR)-9 into human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to mimic the tumor-associated endothelial cells in hepatocellular carcinoma and simulated the AATs in vitro and in vivo. We found that administration of the angiogenesis inhibitor vandetanib completely abolished miR-9-induced angiogenesis and promoted autophagy in HUVECs, but induced the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-enriched exosomes. These VEGF-enriched exosomes significantly promoted the formation of endothelial vessels and vasculogenic mimicry in hepatocellular carcinoma and its progression in mice. Anti-autophagic therapy is proposed to improve the efficacy of AATs. However, similar effects by AATs were observed with the application of anti-autophagy by 3-methyladenine. Our results revealed that tumor vasculogenesis and progression after AATs and anti-autophagic therapies were due to the cross-talk between endothelial and tumor cells via VEGF-enriched exosomes.
Project description:The hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) transcription factor regulates cellular oxygen homeostasis. Agents that activate HIF-1 and downstream HIF targets represent potential drug leads for the prevention and/or treatment of ischemic disorders. In a search for small-molecule HIF-1 activators, 1936 marine invertebrate and algal extract samples (U.S. National Cancer Institute's Open Repository) were evaluated for HIF-1 activation activity in a cell-based reporter assay. Bioassay-guided fractionation of two active extracts of the sponge Dactylospongia elegans afforded four new sesquiterpene quinones (2-5), one new sesquiterpene phenol (6), the known Golgi disruptor ilimaquinone (1), and three previously reported ilimaquinone analogues (7-9). While antiproliferative activity was observed at higher concentrations, the sesquiterpene quinones (1-3) possessing a 2-hydroxy-5-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone moiety activated HIF-1 and increased the expression of HIF-1 target gene vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in T47D cells.