Draft Genome Sequences of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates from Wounded Military Personnel.
ABSTRACT: Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative bacterium capable of causing hospital-acquired infections that has been grouped with Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species as ESKAPE pathogens because of their extensive drug resistance phenotypes and increasing risk to human health. Twenty-four multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains isolated from wounded military personnel were sequenced and annotated.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium that causes severe hospital-acquired infections, is grouped as an ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogen because of its extensive drug resistance phenotypes and effects on human health worldwide. Five multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa strains isolated from wounded military personnel were sequenced and annotated in this work.
Project description:Patients recovering from traumatic injuries or surgery often require weeks to months of hospitalization, increasing the risk for wound and surgical site infections caused by ESKAPE pathogens, which include A. baumannii (the ESKAPE pathogens are Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species). As new therapies are being developed to counter A. baumannii infections, animal models are also needed to evaluate potential treatments. Here, we present an excisional, murine wound model in which a diminutive inoculum of a clinically relevant, multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolate can proliferate, form biofilms, and be effectively treated with antibiotics. The model requires a temporary, cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia to establish an infection that can persist. A 6-mm-diameter, full-thickness wound was created in the skin overlying the thoracic spine, and after the wound bed was inoculated, it was covered with a dressing for 7 days. Uninoculated control wounds healed within 13 days, whereas infected, placebo-treated wounds remained unclosed beyond 21 days. Treated and untreated wounds were assessed with multiple quantitative and qualitative techniques that included gross pathology, weight loss and recovery, wound closure, bacterial burden, 16S rRNA community profiling, histopathology, peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization, and scanning electron microscopy assessment of biofilms. The range of differences that we are able to identify with these measures in antibiotic- versus placebo-treated animals provides a clear window within which novel antimicrobial therapies can be assessed. The model can be used to evaluate antimicrobials for their ability to reduce specific pathogen loads in wounded tissues and clear biofilms. Ultimately, the mouse model approach allows for highly powered studies and serves as an initial multifaceted in vivo assessment prior to testing in larger animals.
Project description:A single-tube method, ligation-mediated real-time PCR high-resolution melt analysis (LMqPCR HRMA), was modified for the rapid typing of Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp. (ESKAPE) pathogens. A 97% agreement (60/62 isolates) was achieved in comparison to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results, which indicates that LMqPCR HRMA is a rapid and accurate screening tool for monitoring nosocomial outbreaks.
Project description:ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) are among the most common opportunistic pathogens in nosocomial infections. ESKAPE pathogens distinguish themselves from normal ones by developing a high level of antibiotic resistance that involves multiple mechanisms. Contemporary therapeutic strategies which are potential options in combating ESKAPE bacteria need further investigation. Herein, a broad overview of the antimicrobial research on ESKAPE pathogens over the past five years is provided with prospective clinical applications.
Project description:Trauma is one of the leading causes of death in people under the age of 49 and complications due to wound infection are the primary cause of death in the first few days after injury. The ESKAPE pathogens are a group of bacteria that are a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections and a major concern in terms of antibiotic resistance. Here, we demonstrate a novel and highly accurate approach for the rapid identification of ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.) directly from infected wounds in 3D in vitro skin models. Wounded skin models were inoculated with bacteria and left to incubate. Bacterial proteins were identified within minutes, directly from the wound, by liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry. This approach was able to distinguish closely related strains and, unlike genomic approaches, can be modified to provide dynamic information about pathogen behaviour at the wound site. In addition, since human skin proteins were also identified, this method offers the opportunity to analyse both host and pathogen biomarkers during wound infection in near real-time.
Project description:Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are a global health problem that affect both civilian and military populations. Among wounded warriors, MDROs further complicate the care of trauma-related infections, resulting in extended duration of hospitalization, as well as increased morbidity and mortality. During the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, extended spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were frequently isolated from wounded warriors. The potential emergence of difficult-to-treat carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae represented a serious challenge for clinicians. We examined carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae prevalence among wounded military personnel over a 6-year period (2009-2015). Among 4090 Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected, 16 (0.4%) were carbapenem-resistant, of which the majority was Enterobacter aerogenes (44%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (37%), and Escherichia coli (19%). Five isolates (31%) collected from 2 patients were carbapenemase-producers with one associated with an infection. All 5 carbapenemase-producing isolates were resistant to all tested carbapenems and each carried one carbapenemase gene (4 with blaKPC-3 and 1 with blaNDM-1). Overall, although a large number of Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected, only a small proportion was carbapenem-resistant and data indicate a lack of a cluster. Due to these limited numbers, it is difficult to make any conclusions regarding the association between carbapenem resistance, antibiotic exposure, and clinical outcomes.
Project description:Klebsiella pneumoniae, an ESKAPE group (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogen, has acquired multiple antibiotic resistance genes and is becoming a serious public health threat. Here, we report the genome sequences of two representative strains of K. pneumoniae from the emerging K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) outbreak in northeast Ohio belonging to sequence type 258 (ST258) (isolates Kb140 and Kb677, which were isolated from blood and urine, respectively). Both isolates harbor a blaKPC gene, and strain Kb140 carries blaKPC-2, while Kb677 carries blaKPC-3.
Project description:Extending from a study we recently published examining the antitrypanosomal effects of a series of GroEL/ES inhibitors based on a pseudosymmetrical bis-sulfonamido-2-phenylbenzoxazole scaffold, here, we report the antibiotic effects of asymmetric analogs of this scaffold against a panel of bacteria known as the ESKAPE pathogens ( Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species). While GroEL/ES inhibitors were largely ineffective against K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, and E. cloacae (Gram-negative bacteria), many analogs were potent inhibitors of E. faecium and S. aureus proliferation (Gram-positive bacteria, EC50 values of the most potent analogs were in the 1-2 ?M range). Furthermore, even though some compounds inhibit human HSP60/10 biochemical functions in vitro (IC50 values in the 1-10 ?M range), many of these exhibited moderate to low cytotoxicity to human liver and kidney cells (CC50 values > 20 ?M).
Project description:Animal-assisted interventions are widely implemented in different contexts worldwide. Particularly, animal-assisted therapies and animal-assisted activities are often implemented in hospitals, rehabilitation centers, and other health facilities. These interventions bring several benefits to patients but can also expose them to the risk of infection with potentially zoonotic agents. The dog is the main animal species involved used in these interventions. Therefore, we aimed at collecting data regarding the occurrence of the pathogens ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp.) in dogs, in order to draft guidelines concerning the possible monitoring of dogs involved in animal-assisted therapies and animal-assisted activities in healthcare facilities. We performed a literature search using the PRISMA guidelines to examine three databases: PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus. Out of 2604 records found, 52 papers were identified as eligible for inclusion in the review/meta-analysis. Sixteen papers reported data on E. faecium; 16 on S. aureus; nine on K. pneumoniae; four on A. baumannii; eight on P. aeruginosa; and six on Enterobacter spp. This work will contribute to increased awareness to the potential zoonotic risks posed by the involvement of dogs in animal-assisted therapies, and animal-assisted activities in healthcare facilities.
Project description:Acinetobacter baumannii represents nowadays an important nosocomial pathogen of poorly defined reservoirs outside the clinical setting. Here, we conducted whole-genome sequencing analysis of the Acinetobacter sp. NCIMB8209 collection strain, isolated in 1943 from the aerobic degradation (retting) of desert guayule shrubs. Strain NCIMB8209 contained a 3.75-Mb chromosome and a plasmid of 134?kb. Phylogenetic analysis based on core genes indicated NCIMB8209 affiliation to A. baumannii, a result supported by the identification of a chromosomal bla OXA-51-like gene. Seven genomic islands lacking antimicrobial resistance determinants, 5 regions encompassing phage-related genes, and notably, 93 insertion sequences (IS) were found in this genome. NCIMB8209 harbors most genes linked to persistence and virulence described in contemporary A. baumannii clinical strains, but many of the genes encoding components of surface structures are interrupted by IS. Moreover, defense genetic islands against biological aggressors such as type 6 secretion systems or CRISPR-cas are absent from this genome. These findings correlate with a low capacity of NCIMB8209 to form biofilm and pellicle, low motility on semisolid medium, and low virulence toward Galleria mellonella and Caenorhabditis elegans Searching for catabolic genes and concomitant metabolic assays revealed the ability of NCIMB8209 to grow on a wide range of substances produced by plants, including aromatic acids and defense compounds against external aggressors. All the above features strongly suggest that NCIMB8209 has evolved specific adaptive features to a particular environmental niche. Moreover, they also revealed that the remarkable genetic plasticity identified in contemporary A. baumannii clinical strains represents an intrinsic characteristic of the species.IMPORTANCE Acinetobacter baumannii is an ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) opportunistic pathogen, with poorly defined natural habitats/reservoirs outside the clinical setting. A. baumannii arose from the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex as the result of a population bottleneck, followed by a recent population expansion from a few clinically relevant clones endowed with an arsenal of resistance and virulence genes. Still, the identification of virulence traits and the evolutionary paths leading to a pathogenic lifestyle has remained elusive, and thus, the study of nonclinical ("environmental") A. baumannii isolates is necessary. We conducted here comparative genomic and virulence studies on A. baumannii NCMBI8209 isolated in 1943 from the microbiota responsible for the decomposition of guayule, and therefore well differentiated both temporally and epidemiologically from the multidrug-resistant strains that are predominant nowadays. Our work provides insights on the adaptive strategies used by A. baumannii to escape from host defenses and may help the adoption of measures aimed to limit its further dissemination.