Necroptosis Promotes Staphylococcus aureus Clearance by Inhibiting Excessive Inflammatory Signaling.
ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus triggers inflammation through inflammasome activation and recruitment of neutrophils, responses that are critical for pathogen clearance but are associated with substantial tissue damage. We postulated that necroptosis, cell death mediated by the RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL pathway, would function to limit pathological inflammation. In models of skin infection or sepsis, Mlkl-/- mice had high bacterial loads, an inability to limit interleukin-1b (IL-1b) production, and excessive inflammation. Similarly, mice treated with RIPK1 or RIPK3 inhibitors had increased bacterial loads in a model of sepsis. Ripk3-/- mice exhibited increased staphylococcal clearance and decreased inflammation in skin and systemic infection, due to direct effects of RIPK3 on IL-1b activation and apoptosis. In contrast to Casp1/4-/- mice with defective S. aureus killing, the poor outcomes of Mlkl-/- mice could not be attributed to impaired phagocytic function. We conclude that necroptotic cell death limits the pathological inflammation induced by S. aureus.
Project description:Necroptosis is a caspase-independent form of cell death that is triggered by activation of the receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 3 (RIPK3) and phosphorylation of its pseudokinase substrate mixed lineage kinase-like (MLKL), which then translocates to membranes and promotes cell lysis. Activation of RIPK3 is regulated by the kinase RIPK1. Here we analyze the contribution of RIPK1, RIPK3, or MLKL to several mouse disease models. Loss of RIPK3 had no effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis, dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis, cerulein-induced pancreatitis, hypoxia-induced cerebral edema, or the major cerebral artery occlusion stroke model. However, kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury, myocardial infarction, and systemic inflammation associated with A20 deficiency or high-dose tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were ameliorated by RIPK3 deficiency. Catalytically inactive RIPK1 was also beneficial in the kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury model, the high-dose TNF model, and in A20(-/-) mice. Interestingly, MLKL deficiency offered less protection in the kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury model and no benefit in A20(-/-) mice, consistent with necroptosis-independent functions for RIPK1 and RIPK3. Combined loss of RIPK3 (or MLKL) and caspase-8 largely prevented the cytokine storm, hypothermia, and morbidity induced by TNF, suggesting that the triggering event in this model is a combination of apoptosis and necroptosis. Tissue-specific RIPK3 deletion identified intestinal epithelial cells as the major target organ. Together these data emphasize that MLKL deficiency rather than RIPK1 inactivation or RIPK3 deficiency must be examined to implicate a role for necroptosis in disease.
Project description:Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) regulates cell death and inflammation through kinase-dependent and -independent functions. RIPK1 kinase activity induces caspase-8-dependent apoptosis and RIPK3 and mixed lineage kinase like (MLKL)-dependent necroptosis. In addition, RIPK1 inhibits apoptosis and necroptosis through kinase-independent functions, which are important for late embryonic development and the prevention of inflammation in epithelial barriers. The mechanism by which RIPK1 counteracts RIPK3-MLKL-mediated necroptosis has remained unknown. Here we show that RIPK1 prevents skin inflammation by inhibiting activation of RIPK3-MLKL-dependent necroptosis mediated by Z-DNA binding protein 1 (ZBP1, also known as DAI or DLM1). ZBP1 deficiency inhibited keratinocyte necroptosis and skin inflammation in mice with epidermis-specific RIPK1 knockout. Moreover, mutation of the conserved RIP homotypic interaction motif (RHIM) of endogenous mouse RIPK1 (RIPK1mRHIM) caused perinatal lethality that was prevented by RIPK3, MLKL or ZBP1 deficiency. Furthermore, mice expressing only RIPK1mRHIM in keratinocytes developed skin inflammation that was abrogated by MLKL or ZBP1 deficiency. Mechanistically, ZBP1 interacted strongly with phosphorylated RIPK3 in cells expressing RIPK1mRHIM, suggesting that the RIPK1 RHIM prevents ZBP1 from binding and activating RIPK3. Collectively, these results show that RIPK1 prevents perinatal death as well as skin inflammation in adult mice by inhibiting ZBP1-induced necroptosis. Furthermore, these findings identify ZBP1 as a critical mediator of inflammation beyond its previously known role in antiviral defence and suggest that ZBP1 might be implicated in the pathogenesis of necroptosis-associated inflammatory diseases.
Project description:Receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK)-1 is involved in RIPK3-dependent and -independent signaling pathways leading to cell death and/or inflammation. Genetic ablation of ripk1 causes postnatal lethality, which was not prevented by deletion of ripk3, caspase-8, or fadd. However, animals that lack RIPK1, RIPK3, and either caspase-8 or FADD survived weaning and matured normally. RIPK1 functions in vitro to limit caspase-8-dependent, TNFR-induced apoptosis, and animals lacking RIPK1, RIPK3, and TNFR1 survive to adulthood. The role of RIPK3 in promoting lethality in ripk1(-/-) mice suggests that RIPK3 activation is inhibited by RIPK1 postbirth. Whereas TNFR-induced RIPK3-dependent necroptosis requires RIPK1, cells lacking RIPK1 were sensitized to necroptosis triggered by poly I:C or interferons. Disruption of TLR (TRIF) or type I interferon (IFNAR) signaling delayed lethality in ripk1(-/-)tnfr1(-/-) mice. These results clarify the complex roles for RIPK1 in postnatal life and provide insights into the regulation of FADD-caspase-8 and RIPK3-MLKL signaling by RIPK1.
Project description:The ubiquitination status of RIPK1 is considered to be critical for cell fate determination. However, the in vivo role for RIPK1 ubiquitination remains undefined. Here we show that mice expressing RIPK1<sup>K376R</sup> which is defective in RIPK1 ubiquitination die during embryogenesis. This lethality is fully rescued by concomitant deletion of Fadd and Ripk3 or Mlkl. Mechanistically, cells expressing RIPK1<sup>K376R</sup> are more susceptible to TNF-? induced apoptosis and necroptosis with more complex II formation and increased RIPK1 activation, which is consistent with the observation that Ripk1<sup>K376R/K376R</sup> lethality is effectively prevented by treatment of RIPK1 kinase inhibitor and is rescued by deletion of Tnfr1. However, Tnfr1<sup>-/-</sup> Ripk1<sup>K376R/K376R</sup> mice display systemic inflammation and die within 2 weeks. Significantly, this lethal inflammation is rescued by deletion of Ripk3. Taken together, these findings reveal a critical role of Lys376-mediated ubiquitination of RIPK1 in suppressing RIPK1 kinase activity-dependent lethal pathways during embryogenesis and RIPK3-dependent inflammation postnatally.
Project description:RIPK1 is an essential downstream component of many pattern recognition and death receptors. RIPK1 can promote the activation of caspase-8 induced apoptosis and RIPK3-MLKL-mediated necroptosis, however, during development RIPK1 limits both forms of cell death. Accordingly, Ripk1-/- mice present with systemic cell death and consequent multi-organ inflammation, which is driven through the activation of both FADD-caspase-8 and RIPK3-MLKL signaling pathways causing perinatal lethality. TRADD is a death domain (DD) containing molecule that mediates signaling downstream of TNFR1 and the TLRs. Following the disassembly of the upstream receptor complexes either RIPK1 or TRADD can form a complex with FADD-caspase-8-cFLIP, via DD-DD interactions with FADD, facilitating the activation of caspase-8. We show that genetic deletion of Ripk1 licenses TRADD to complex with FADD-caspase-8 and activates caspase-8 during development. Deletion of Tradd provided no survival advantage to Ripk1-/- animals and yet was sufficient to reduce the systemic cell death and inflammation, rescue the intestinal and thymic histopathologies, reduce cleaved caspases in most tissues and rescue the anemia observed in Ripk1-/- neonates. Furthermore, deletion of Ripk3 is sufficient to rescue the neonatal lethality of Ripk1-/-Tradd-/- animals and delays but does not completely prevent early mortality. Although Ripk3 deletion provides a significant survival advantage, Ripk1-/-Tradd-/-Ripk3-/- animals die between 22 and 49 days, are runty compared to littermate controls and present with splenomegaly. These findings reveal a new mechanism by which RIPK1 limits apoptosis through blocking TRADD recruitment to FADD and preventing aberrant activation of caspase-8.
Project description:Receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK)1 has an essential role in the signaling pathways triggered by death receptors through activation of NF-?B and regulation of caspase-dependent apoptosis and RIPK3/mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL)-mediated necroptosis. We examined the effect of RIPK1 antisense knockdown on immune-mediated liver injury in C57BL/6 mice caused by ?-galactosylceramide (?GalCer), a specific activator for invariant NKT cells. We found that knockdown of RIPK1 markedly exacerbated ?GalCer-mediated liver injury and induced lethality. This was associated with increased hepatic inflammation and massive apoptotic death of hepatocytes, as indicated by TUNEL staining and caspase-3 activation. Pretreatment with zVAD.fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, or neutralizing Abs against TNF, almost completely protected against the exacerbated liver injury and lethality. Primary hepatocytes isolated from RIPK1-knockdown mice were sensitized to TNF-induced cell death that was completely inhibited by adding zVAD.fmk. The exacerbated liver injury was not due to impaired hepatic NF-?B activation in terms of I?B? phosphorylation and degradation in in vivo and in vitro studies. Lack of RIPK1 kinase activity by pretreatment with necrostatin-1, a RIPK1 kinase inhibitor, or in the RIPK1 kinase-dead knock-in (RIPK1D138N) mice did not exacerbate ?GalCer-mediated liver injury. Furthermore, RIPK3-knockout and MLKL-knockout mice behaved similarly as wild-type control mice in response to ?GalCer, with or without knockdown of RIPK1, excluding a switch to RIPK3/MLKL-mediated necroptosis. Our findings reveal a critical kinase-independent platform role for RIPK1 in protecting against TNF/caspase-dependent apoptosis of hepatocytes in immune-mediated liver injury.
Project description:Necroptosis is an inflammatory form of programmed cell death requiring receptor-interacting protein kinase 1, 3 (RIPK1, RIPK3) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL). The kinase of RIPK3 phosphorylates MLKL causing MLKL to form a pore-like structure, allowing intracellular contents to release and cell death to occur. Alternatively, RIPK1 and RIPK3 have been shown to regulate cytokine production directly influencing inflammatory immune infiltrates. Recent data suggest that necroptosis may contribute to the malignant transformation of tumor cells in vivo and we asked whether necroptosis may have a role in the tumor microenvironment altering the ability of the tumor to grow or metastasize. To determine if necroptosis in the tumor microenvironment could promote inflammation alone or by initiating necroptosis and thereby influencing growth or metastasis of tumors, we utilized a syngeneic tumor model of metastasis. Loss of RIPK3 in the tumor microenvironment reduced the number of tumor nodules in the lung by 46%. Loss of the kinase activity in RIPK1, a member of the necrosome also reduced tumor nodules in the lung by 38%. However, the loss of kinase activity in RIPK3 or the loss of MLKL only marginally altered the ability of tumor cells to form in the lung. Using bone marrow chimeras, the decrease in tumor nodules in the Ripk3<sup>-/-</sup> appeared to be due to the stromal compartment rather than the hematopoietic compartment. Transmigration assays showed decreased ability of tumor cells to transmigrate through the vascular endothelial layer, which correlated with decreased permeability in the Ripk3<sup>-/-</sup> mice after tumor injection. In response to permeability factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, RIPK3 null endothelial cells showed decreased p38/HSP27 activation. Taken together, our results suggest an alternative function for RIPK1/RIPK3 in vascular permeability leading to decreased number of metastasis.
Project description:Among caspase family members, Caspase-8 is unique, with associated critical activities to induce and suppress death receptor-mediated apoptosis and necroptosis, respectively. Caspase-8 inhibits necroptosis by suppressing the function of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1 or RIP1) and RIPK3 to activate mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL). Disruption of Caspase-8 expression causes embryonic lethality in mice, which is rescued by depletion of either Ripk3 or Mlkl, indicating that the embryonic lethality is caused by activation of necroptosis. Here, we show that knockdown of Caspase-8 expression in embryoid bodies derived from ES cells markedly enhances retinoic acid (RA)-induced cell differentiation and necroptosis, both of which are dependent on Ripk1 and Ripk3; however, the enhancement of RA-induced cell differentiation is independent of Mlkl and necrosome formation. RA treatment obviously enhanced the expression of RA-specific target genes having the retinoic acid response element (RARE) in their promoter regions to induce cell differentiation, and induced marked expression of RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL to stimulate necroptosis. Caspase-8 knockdown induced RIPK1 and RIPK3 to translocate into the nucleus and to form a complex with RA receptor (RAR), and RAR interacting with RIPK1 and RIPK3 showed much stronger binding activity to RARE than RAR without RIPK1 or RIPK3. In Caspase-8-deficient as well as Caspase-8- and Mlkl-deficient mouse embryos, the expression of RA-specific target genes was obviously enhanced. Thus, Caspase-8, RIPK1, and RIPK3 regulate RA-induced cell differentiation and necroptosis both in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:RIPK1 is a key regulator of innate immune signalling pathways. To ensure an optimal inflammatory response, RIPK1 is regulated post-translationally by well-characterized ubiquitylation and phosphorylation events, as well as by caspase-8-mediated cleavage1-7. The physiological relevance of this cleavage event remains unclear, although it is thought to inhibit activation of RIPK3 and necroptosis8. Here we show that the heterozygous missense mutations D324N, D324H and D324Y prevent caspase cleavage of RIPK1 in humans and result in an early-onset periodic fever syndrome and severe intermittent lymphadenopathy-a condition we term 'cleavage-resistant RIPK1-induced autoinflammatory syndrome'. To define the mechanism for this disease, we generated a cleavage-resistant Ripk1D325A mutant mouse strain. Whereas Ripk1-/- mice died postnatally from systemic inflammation, Ripk1D325A/D325A mice died during embryogenesis. Embryonic lethality was completely prevented by the combined loss of Casp8 and Ripk3, but not by loss of Ripk3 or Mlkl alone. Loss of RIPK1 kinase activity also prevented Ripk1D325A/D325A embryonic lethality, although the mice died before weaning from multi-organ inflammation in a RIPK3-dependent manner. Consistently, Ripk1D325A/D325A and Ripk1D325A/+ cells were hypersensitive to RIPK3-dependent TNF-induced apoptosis and necroptosis. Heterozygous Ripk1D325A/+ mice were viable and grossly normal, but were hyper-responsive to inflammatory stimuli in vivo. Our results demonstrate the importance of caspase-mediated RIPK1 cleavage during embryonic development and show that caspase cleavage of RIPK1 not only inhibits necroptosis but also maintains inflammatory homeostasis throughout life.
Project description:Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation can generate short-term, functional anucleate cytoplasts and trigger loss of cell viability. We demonstrated that the necroptotic cell death effector mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) translocated from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane and stimulated downstream NADPH oxidase-independent ROS production, loss of cytoplasmic granules, breakdown of the nuclear membrane, chromatin decondensation, histone hypercitrullination, and extrusion of bacteriostatic NETs. This process was coordinated by receptor-interacting protein kinase-1 (RIPK1), which activated the caspase-8-dependent apoptotic or RIPK3/MLKL-dependent necroptotic death of mouse and human neutrophils. Genetic deficiency of RIPK3 and MLKL prevented NET formation but did not prevent cell death, which was because of residual caspase-8-dependent activity. Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) was activated downstream of RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL and was required for maximal histone hypercitrullination and NET extrusion. This work defines a distinct signaling network that activates PAD4-dependent NET release for the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection.