Novel Role of Endogenous Catalase in Macrophage Polarization in Adipose Tissue.
ABSTRACT: Macrophages are important components of adipose tissue inflammation, which results in metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance. Notably, obesity induces a proinflammatory phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophages, and oxidative stress facilitates this switch. Thus, we examined the role of endogenous catalase, a key regulator of oxidative stress, in the activity of adipose tissue macrophages in obese mice. Catalase knockout (CKO) exacerbated insulin resistance, amplified oxidative stress, and accelerated macrophage infiltration into epididymal white adipose tissue in mice on normal or high-fat diet. Interestingly, catalase deficiency also enhanced classical macrophage activation (M1) and inflammation but suppressed alternative activation (M2) regardless of diet. Similarly, pharmacological inhibition of catalase activity using 3-aminotriazole induced the same phenotypic switch and inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages. Finally, the same phenotypic switch and inflammatory responses were observed in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages from CKO mice. Taken together, the data indicate that endogenous catalase regulates the polarization of adipose tissue macrophages and thereby inhibits inflammation and insulin resistance.
Project description:Oxidative functions of adipose tissue macrophages control the polarization of M1-like and M2-like phenotypes, but whether reduced macrophage oxidative function causes systemic insulin resistance in vivo is not clear. Here, we show that mice with reduced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) due to myeloid-specific deletion of CR6-interacting factor 1 (Crif1), an essential mitoribosomal factor involved in biogenesis of OxPhos subunits, have M1-like polarization of macrophages and systemic insulin resistance with adipose inflammation. Macrophage GDF15 expression is reduced in mice with impaired oxidative function, but induced upon stimulation with rosiglitazone and IL-4. GDF15 upregulates the oxidative function of macrophages, leading to M2-like polarization, and reverses insulin resistance in ob/ob mice and HFD-fed mice with myeloid-specific deletion of Crif1. Thus, reduced macrophage oxidative function controls systemic insulin resistance and adipose inflammation, which can be reversed with GDF15 and leads to improved oxidative function of macrophages.
Project description:Obesity and insulin resistance, the cardinal features of metabolic syndrome, are closely associated with a state of low-grade inflammation. In adipose tissue chronic overnutrition leads to macrophage infiltration, resulting in local inflammation that potentiates insulin resistance. For instance, transgenic expression of Mcp1 (also known as chemokine ligand 2, Ccl2) in adipose tissue increases macrophage infiltration, inflammation and insulin resistance. Conversely, disruption of Mcp1 or its receptor Ccr2 impairs migration of macrophages into adipose tissue, thereby lowering adipose tissue inflammation and improving insulin sensitivity. These findings together suggest a correlation between macrophage content in adipose tissue and insulin resistance. However, resident macrophages in tissues display tremendous heterogeneity in their activities and functions, primarily reflecting their local metabolic and immune microenvironment. While Mcp1 directs recruitment of pro-inflammatory classically activated macrophages to sites of tissue damage, resident macrophages, such as those present in the adipose tissue of lean mice, display the alternatively activated phenotype. Despite their higher capacity to repair tissue, the precise role of alternatively activated macrophages in obesity-induced insulin resistance remains unknown. Using mice with macrophage-specific deletion of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), we show here that PPARgamma is required for maturation of alternatively activated macrophages. Disruption of PPARgamma in myeloid cells impairs alternative macrophage activation, and predisposes these animals to development of diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. Furthermore, gene expression profiling revealed that downregulation of oxidative phosphorylation gene expression in skeletal muscle and liver leads to decreased insulin sensitivity in these tissues. Together, our findings suggest that resident alternatively activated macrophages have a beneficial role in regulating nutrient homeostasis and suggest that macrophage polarization towards the alternative state might be a useful strategy for treating type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Obesity is regarded as an abnormal expansion and excessive accumulation of fat mass in white adipose tissue. The involvement of oxidative stress in the development of obesity is still unclear. Although mainly present in peroxisomes, catalase scavenges intracellular H2O2 at toxic levels. Therefore, we used catalase-knockout (CKO) mice to elucidate the involvement of excessive H2O2 in the development of obesity. CKO mice with C57BL/6J background gained more weight with higher body fat mass with age than age-matched wild-type (WT) mice fed with either chow or high-fat diets. This phenomenon was attenuated by concomitant treatment with the antioxidants, melatonin or N-acetyl cysteine. Moreover, CKO mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) appeared to differentiate to adipocytes more easily than WT MEFs, showing increased H2O2 concentrations. Using 3T3-L1-derived adipocytes transfected with catalase-small interfering RNA, we confirmed that a more prominent lipogenesis occurred in catalase-deficient cells than in WT cells. Catalase-deficient adipocytes presented increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (NOX4) expression but decreased adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression. Treatment with a NOX4 inhibitor or AMPK activator rescued the propensity for obesity of CKO mice. These findings suggest that excessive H2O2 and related oxidative stress increase body fat mass via both adipogenesis and lipogenesis. Manipulating NOX4 and AMPK in white adipocytes may be a therapeutic tool against obesity augmented by oxidative stress.
Project description:Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) undergo a phenotypic switch from alternatively activated antiinflammatory M2 macrophages in lean individuals to classically activated proinflammatory M1 macrophages in obese subjects. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. In this study we aim to determine whether DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) regulates macrophage polarization and inflammation. We found that the expression of DNMT3b was significantly induced in macrophages exposed to the saturated fatty acid stearate, was higher in ATMs isolated from obese mice, but was significantly lower in alternatively activated M2 vs classically activated M1 ATMs, suggesting a role for DNMT3b in regulation of macrophage polarization and inflammation in obesity. DNMT3b knockdown promoted macrophage polarization to alternatively activated M2 phenotype and suppressed macrophage inflammation, whereas overexpressing DNMT3b did the opposite. Importantly, in a macrophage-adipocyte coculture system, we found that DNMT3b knockdown significantly improved adipocyte insulin signaling. The promoter of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)?1, a key transcriptional factor that regulates macrophage polarization, is enriched with CpG sites. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that DNMT3b bound to the methylation region at PPAR?1 promoter, which was further enhanced by stearate. Moreover, pyrosequencing analysis revealed that stearate increased DNA methylation at PPAR?1, which was prevented by DNMT3b deficiency. Therefore, our data demonstrate that DNMT3b plays an important role in regulating macrophage polarization through epigenetic mechanisms. In obesity, elevated saturated fatty acids enhance DNMT3b expression, leading to DNA methylation at the PPAR?1 promoter, which may contribute to deregulated adipose tissue macrophage polarization, inflammation, and insulin resistance.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most prevalent liver disease in parallel with worldwide epidemic of obesity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to the development and progression of NAFLD. Peroxisomes play an important role in fatty acid oxidation and ROS homeostasis, and catalase is an antioxidant exclusively expressed in peroxisome. The present study examined the role of endogenous catalase in early stage of NAFLD. 8-week-old male catalase knock-out (CKO) and age-matched C57BL/6J wild type (WT) mice were fed either a normal diet (ND: 18% of total calories from fat) or a high fat diet (HFD: 60% of total calories from fat) for 2 weeks. CKO mice gained body weight faster than WT mice at early period of HFD feeding. Plasma triglyceride and ALT, fasting plasma insulin, as well as liver lipid accumulation, inflammation (F4/80 staining), and oxidative stress (8-oxo-dG staining and nitrotyrosine level) were significantly increased in CKO but not in WT mice at 2 weeks of HFD feeding. While phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) and PGC1? mRNA expression were decreased in both CKO and WT mice at HFD feeding, GSK3? phosphorylation and Cox4-il mRNA expression in the liver were decreased only in CKO-HF mice. Taken together, the present data demonstrated that endogenous catalase exerted beneficial effects in protecting liver injury including lipid accumulation and inflammation through maintaining liver redox balance from the early stage of HFD-induced metabolic stress.
Project description:Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex (mTORC)1 activity is increased in adipose tissue of obese insulin-resistant mice, but its role in the regulation of tissue inflammation is unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of adipocyte mTORC1 deficiency on adipose tissue inflammation and glucose homeostasis. For this, mice with adipocyte raptor deletion and controls fed a chow or a high-fat diet were evaluated for body mass, adiposity, glucose homeostasis, and adipose tissue inflammation. Despite reducing adiposity, adipocyte mTORC1 deficiency promoted hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, and adipose tissue inflammation (increased infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils, and B lymphocytes; crown-like structure density; TNF-?, interleukin (IL)-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 expression; IL-1? protein content; lipid peroxidation; and de novo ceramide synthesis). The anti-oxidant, N-acetylcysteine, partially attenuated, whereas treatment with de novo ceramide synthesis inhibitor, myriocin, completely blocked adipose tissue inflammation and nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3)-inflammasome activation, but not hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance induced by adipocyte raptor deletion. Rosiglitazone treatment, however, completely abrogated insulin resistance induced by adipocyte raptor deletion. In conclusion, adipocyte mTORC1 deficiency induces adipose tissue inflammation and NLRP3-inflammasome activation by promoting oxidative stress and de novo ceramide synthesis. Such adipose tissue inflammation, however, is not an underlying cause of the insulin resistance displayed by these mice.
Project description:Macrophages in adipose tissue are associated with obesity-induced low-grade inflammation, which contributed to insulin resistance and the related metabolic diseases. Previous studies demonstrated the beneficial effects of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) on metabolic disorders and inflammation. Here we investigated the effects of CYP2J2-EETs-sEH metabolic pathway on insulin resistance in mice and the potential mechanisms. High fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity caused metabolic dysfunction with more weight gain, elevated glucose and lipids levels, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, while increase in EETs level by rAAV-mediated CYP2J2 overexpression, administration of sEH inhibit TUPS or EETs infusion significantly attenuated these metabolic disorders. EETs inhibited macrophages recruitment to adipose tissue and their switch to classically activated macrophage (M1) phenotype, while preserved the alternatively activated macrophage (M2) phenotype, which was accompanied by substantially reduced adipose tissue and systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. In vitro studies further clarified the effects of EETs on macrophage infiltration and polarization, and microarray assays showed that cAMP-EPAC signaling pathway was involved in these processes. Collectively, these results described key beneficial immune-regulatory properties and metabolic regulation of CYP2J2-EETs-sEH metabolic pathway, and indicated therapeutic potential of EETs in obesity-induced insulin resistance and related inflammatory diseases through modulating macrophage polarization targeting cAMP-EPAC signaling pathway.
Project description:Proinflammatory cytokines play important roles in insulin resistance. Here we report that mice with a T-cell-specific conditional knockout of HGK (T-HGK cKO) develop systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. This condition is ameliorated by either IL-6 or IL-17 neutralization. HGK directly phosphorylates TRAF2, leading to its lysosomal degradation and subsequent inhibition of IL-6 production. IL-6-overproducing HGK-deficient T cells accumulate in adipose tissue and further differentiate into IL-6/IL-17 double-positive cells. Moreover, CCL20 neutralization or CCR6 deficiency reduces the Th17 population or insulin resistance in T-HGK cKO mice. In addition, leptin receptor deficiency in T cells inhibits Th17 differentiation and improves the insulin sensitivity in T-HGK cKO mice, which suggests that leptin cooperates with IL-6 to promote Th17 differentiation. Thus, HGK deficiency induces TRAF2/IL-6 upregulation, leading to IL-6/leptin-induced Th17 differentiation in adipose tissue and subsequent insulin resistance. These findings provide insight into the reciprocal regulation between the immune system and the metabolism.
Project description:Acute and chronic tissue injury results in the generation of a myriad of environmental cues that macrophages respond to by changing their phenotype and function. This phenotypic regulation is critical for controlling tissue inflammation and resolution. Here, we have identified the adaptor protein disabled homolog 2 (DAB2) as a regulator of phenotypic switching in macrophages. Dab2 expression was upregulated in M2 macrophages and suppressed in M1 macrophages isolated from both mice and humans, and genetic deletion of Dab2 predisposed macrophages to adopt a proinflammatory M1 phenotype. In mice with myeloid cell-specific deletion of Dab2 (Dab2fl/fl Lysm-Cre), treatment with sublethal doses of LPS resulted in increased proinflammatory gene expression and macrophage activation. Moreover, chronic high-fat feeding exacerbated adipose tissue inflammation, M1 polarization of adipose tissue macrophages, and the development of insulin resistance in DAB2-deficient animals compared with controls. Mutational analyses revealed that DAB2 interacts with TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and attenuates I?B kinase ?-dependent (IKK?-dependent) phosphorylation of Ser536 in the transactivation domain of NF-?B p65. Together, these findings reveal that DAB2 is critical for controlling inflammatory signaling during phenotypic polarization of macrophages and suggest that manipulation of DAB2 expression and function may hold therapeutic potential for the treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders.
Project description:Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In adipose tissue, obesity-mediated insulin resistance correlates with the accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages and inflammation. However, the causal relationship of these events is unclear. Here, we report that obesity-induced insulin resistance in mice precedes macrophage accumulation and inflammation in adipose tissue. Using a mouse model that combines genetically induced, adipose-specific insulin resistance (mTORC2-knockout) and diet-induced obesity, we found that insulin resistance causes local accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages. Mechanistically, insulin resistance in adipocytes results in production of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1), which recruits monocytes and activates proinflammatory macrophages. Finally, insulin resistance (high homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) correlated with reduced insulin/mTORC2 signaling and elevated MCP1 production in visceral adipose tissue from obese human subjects. Our findings suggest that insulin resistance in adipose tissue leads to inflammation rather than vice versa.