Peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by lipoxygenases drives ferroptosis.
ABSTRACT: Ferroptosis is form of regulated nonapoptotic cell death that is involved in diverse disease contexts. Small molecules that inhibit glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), a phospholipid peroxidase, cause lethal accumulation of lipid peroxides and induce ferroptotic cell death. Although ferroptosis has been suggested to involve accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lipid environments, the mediators and substrates of ROS generation and the pharmacological mechanism of GPX4 inhibition that generates ROS in lipid environments are unknown. We report here the mechanism of lipid peroxidation during ferroptosis, which involves phosphorylase kinase G2 (PHKG2) regulation of iron availability to lipoxygenase enzymes, which in turn drive ferroptosis through peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) at the bis-allylic position; indeed, pretreating cells with PUFAs containing the heavy hydrogen isotope deuterium at the site of peroxidation (D-PUFA) prevented PUFA oxidation and blocked ferroptosis. We further found that ferroptosis inducers inhibit GPX4 by covalently targeting the active site selenocysteine, leading to accumulation of PUFA hydroperoxides. In summary, we found that PUFA oxidation by lipoxygenases via a PHKG2-dependent iron pool is necessary for ferroptosis and that the covalent inhibition of the catalytic selenocysteine in Gpx4 prevents elimination of PUFA hydroperoxides; these findings suggest new strategies for controlling ferroptosis in diverse contexts.
Project description:The increased incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has become a global phenomenon that could be related to adoption of a Western life-style. Westernization of dietary habits is partly characterized by enrichment with the ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) arachidonic acid (AA), which entails risk for developing IBD. Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) protects against lipid peroxidation (LPO) and cell death termed ferroptosis. We report that small intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in Crohn's disease (CD) exhibit impaired GPX4 activity and signs of LPO. PUFAs and specifically AA trigger a cytokine response of IECs which is restricted by GPX4. While GPX4 does not control AA metabolism, cytokine production is governed by similar mechanisms as ferroptosis. A PUFA-enriched Western diet triggers focal granuloma-like neutrophilic enteritis in mice that lack one allele of Gpx4 in IECs. Our study identifies dietary PUFAs as a trigger of GPX4-restricted mucosal inflammation phenocopying aspects of human CD.
Project description:Background:Metabolic reprograming, non-mutational epigenetic changes, increased cell plasticity, and multidrug tolerance are early hallmarks of therapy resistance in cancer. In this temporary, therapy-tolerant state, cancer cells are highly sensitive to ferroptosis, a form of regulated cell death that is caused by oxidative stress through excess levels of iron-dependent peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). However, mechanisms underpinning therapy-induced ferroptosis hypersensitivity remain to be elucidated. Methods:We used quantitative single-cell imaging of fluorescent metabolic probes, transcriptomics, proteomics, and lipidomics to perform a longitudinal analysis of the adaptive response to androgen receptor-targeted therapies (androgen deprivation and enzalutamide) in prostate cancer (PCa). Results:We discovered that cessation of cell proliferation and a robust reduction in bioenergetic processes were associated with multidrug tolerance and a strong accumulation of lipids. The gain in lipid biomass was fueled by enhanced lipid uptake through cargo non-selective (macropinocytosis, tunneling nanotubes) and cargo-selective mechanisms (lipid transporters), whereas de novo lipid synthesis was strongly reduced. Enzalutamide induced extensive lipid remodeling of all major phospholipid classes at the expense of storage lipids, leading to increased desaturation and acyl chain length of membrane lipids. The rise in membrane PUFA levels enhanced membrane fluidity and lipid peroxidation, causing hypersensitivity to glutathione peroxidase (GPX4) inhibition and ferroptosis. Combination treatments against AR and fatty acid desaturation, lipase activities, or growth medium supplementation with antioxidants or PUFAs altered GPX4 dependence. Conclusions:Our work provides mechanistic insight into processes of lipid metabolism that underpin the acquisition of therapy-induced GPX4 dependence and ferroptosis hypersensitivity to standard of care therapies in PCa. It demonstrates novel strategies to suppress the therapy-tolerant state that may have potential to delay and combat resistance to androgen receptor-targeted therapies, a currently unmet clinical challenge of advanced PCa. Since enhanced GPX4 dependence is an adaptive phenotype shared by several types of cancer in response to different therapies, our work might have universal implications for our understanding of metabolic events that underpin resistance to cancer therapies.
Project description:Ferroptosis is a form of cell death primed by iron and lipid hydroperoxides and prevented by GPx4. Ferrostatin-1 (fer-1) inhibits ferroptosis much more efficiently than phenolic antioxidants. Previous studies on the antioxidant efficiency of fer-1 adopted kinetic tests where a diazo compound generates the hydroperoxyl radical scavenged by the antioxidant. However, this reaction, accounting for a chain breaking effect, is only minimally useful for the description of the inhibition of ferrous iron and lipid hydroperoxide dependent peroxidation. Scavenging lipid hydroperoxyl radicals, indeed, generates lipid hydroperoxides from which ferrous iron initiates a new peroxidative chain reaction. We show that when fer-1 inhibits peroxidation, initiated by iron and traces of lipid hydroperoxides in liposomes, the pattern of oxidized species produced from traces of pre-existing hydroperoxides is practically identical to that observed following exhaustive peroxidation in the absence of the antioxidant. This supported the notion that the anti-ferroptotic activity of fer-1 is actually due to the scavenging of initiating alkoxyl radicals produced, together with other rearrangement products, by ferrous iron from lipid hydroperoxides. Notably, fer-1 is not consumed while inhibiting iron dependent lipid peroxidation. The emerging concept is that it is ferrous iron itself that reduces fer-1 radical. This was supported by electroanalytical evidence that fer-1 forms a complex with iron and further confirmed in cells by fluorescence of calcein, indicating a decrease of labile iron in the presence of fer-1. The notion of such as pseudo-catalytic cycle of the ferrostatin-iron complex was also investigated by means of quantum mechanics calculations, which confirmed the reduction of an alkoxyl radical model by fer-1 and the reduction of fer-1 radical by ferrous iron. In summary, GPx4 and fer-1 in the presence of ferrous iron, produces, by distinct mechanism, the most relevant anti-ferroptotic effect, i.e the disappearance of initiating lipid hydroperoxides.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Peroxidation of PUFAs by a variety of endogenous and xenobiotic electrophiles is a recognized pathophysiological process that can lead to adverse health effects. Although secondary products generated from peroxidized PUFAs have been relatively well studied, the role of primary lipid hydroperoxides in mediating early intracellular oxidative events is not well understood. METHODS:Live cell imaging was used to monitor changes in glutathione (GSH) oxidation in HAEC expressing the fluorogenic sensor roGFP during exposure to 9-hydroperoxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic acid (9-HpODE), a biologically important long chain lipid hydroperoxide, and its secondary product 9-hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic acid (9-HODE). The role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was examined by direct measurement and through catalase interventions. shRNA-mediated knockdown of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) was utilized to determine its involvement in the relay through which 9-HpODE initiates the oxidation of GSH. RESULTS:Exposure to 9-HpODE caused a dose-dependent increase in GSH oxidation in HAEC that was independent of intracellular or extracellular H2O2 production and was exacerbated by NADPH depletion. GPx4 was involved in the initiation of GSH oxidation in HAEC by 9-HpODE, but not that induced by exposure to H2O2 or the low molecular weight alkyl tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH). CONCLUSIONS:Long chain lipid hydroperoxides can directly alter cytosolic EGSH independent of secondary lipid oxidation products or H2O2 production. NADPH has a protective role against 9-HpODE induced EGSH changes. GPx4 is involved specifically in the reduction of long-chain lipid hydroperoxides, leading to GSH oxidation. SIGNIFICANCE:These results reveal a previously unrecognized consequence of lipid peroxidation, which may provide insight into disease states involving lipid peroxidation in their pathogenesis.
Project description:Ferroptosis, a form of regulated cell death caused by lipid peroxidation, was recently identified as a natural tumor suppression mechanism. Here, we show that ionizing radiation (IR) induces ferroptosis in cancer cells. Mechanistically, IR induces not only reactive oxygen species (ROS) but also the expression of ACSL4, a lipid metabolism enzyme required for ferroptosis, resulting in elevated lipid peroxidation and ferroptosis. ACSL4 ablation largely abolishes IR-induced ferroptosis and promotes radioresistance. IR also induces the expression of ferroptosis inhibitors, including SLC7A11 and GPX4, as an adaptive response. IR- or KEAP1 deficiency-induced SLC7A11 expression promotes radioresistance through inhibiting ferroptosis. Inactivating SLC7A11 or GPX4 with ferroptosis inducers (FINs) sensitizes radioresistant cancer cells and xenograft tumors to IR. Furthermore, radiotherapy induces ferroptosis in cancer patients, and increased ferroptosis correlates with better response and longer survival to radiotherapy in cancer patients. Our study reveals a previously unrecognized link between IR and ferroptosis and indicates that further exploration of the combination of radiotherapy and FINs in cancer treatment is warranted.
Project description:Ferroptosis is a form of regulated cell death that is caused by the iron-dependent peroxidation of lipids1,2. The glutathione-dependent lipid hydroperoxidase glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) prevents ferroptosis by converting lipid hydroperoxides into non-toxic lipid alcohols3,4. Ferroptosis has previously been implicated in the cell death that underlies several degenerative conditions2, and induction of ferroptosis by the inhibition of GPX4 has emerged as a therapeutic strategy to trigger cancer cell death5. However, sensitivity to GPX4 inhibitors varies greatly across cancer cell lines6, which suggests that additional factors govern resistance to ferroptosis. Here, using a synthetic lethal CRISPR-Cas9 screen, we identify ferroptosis suppressor protein 1 (FSP1) (previously known as apoptosis-inducing factor mitochondrial 2 (AIFM2)) as a potent ferroptosis-resistance factor. Our data indicate that myristoylation recruits FSP1 to the plasma membrane where it functions as an oxidoreductase that reduces coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) (also known as ubiquinone-10), which acts as a lipophilic radical-trapping antioxidant that halts the propagation of lipid peroxides. We further find that FSP1 expression positively correlates with ferroptosis resistance across hundreds of cancer cell lines, and that FSP1 mediates resistance to ferroptosis in lung cancer cells in culture and in mouse tumour xenografts. Thus, our data identify FSP1 as a key component of a non-mitochondrial CoQ antioxidant system that acts in parallel to the canonical glutathione-based GPX4 pathway. These findings define a ferroptosis suppression pathway and indicate that pharmacological inhibition of FSP1 may provide an effective strategy to sensitize cancer cells to ferroptosis-inducing chemotherapeutic agents.
Project description:The selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) is an essential mammalian glutathione peroxidase, which protects cells against detrimental lipid peroxidation and governs a novel form of regulated necrotic cell death, called ferroptosis. To study the relevance of Gpx4 and of another vitally important selenoprotein, cytosolic thioredoxin reductase (Txnrd1), for liver function, mice with conditional deletion of Gpx4 in hepatocytes were studied, along with those lacking Txnrd1 and selenocysteine (Sec) tRNA (Trsp) in hepatocytes. Unlike Txnrd1- and Trsp-deficient mice, Gpx4<sup>-/-</sup> mice died shortly after birth and presented extensive hepatocyte degeneration. Similar to Txnrd1-deficient livers, Gpx4<sup>-/-</sup> livers manifested upregulation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived)-like 2 (Nrf2) response genes. Remarkably, Gpx4<sup>-/-</sup> pups born from mothers fed a vitamin E-enriched diet survived, yet this protection was reversible as subsequent vitamin E deprivation caused death of Gpx4-deficient mice ~4 weeks thereafter. Abrogation of selenoprotein expression in Gpx4<sup>-/-</sup> mice did not result in viable mice, indicating that the combined deficiency aggravated the loss of Gpx4 in liver. By contrast, combined Trsp/Txnrd1-deficient mice were born, but had significantly shorter lifespans than either single knockout, suggesting that Txnrd1 plays an important role in supporting liver function of mice lacking Trsp. In sum our study demonstrates that the ferroptosis regulator Gpx4 is critical for hepatocyte survival and proper liver function, and that vitamin E can compensate for its loss by protecting cells against deleterious lipid peroxidation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) has been shown to exert anticancer activity through iron-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which is similar to ferroptosis, a novel form of cell death. However, whether DHA causes ferroptosis in glioma cells and the potential regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS:Effects of DHA on the proliferation, cell death, ROS and lipid ROS generation as well as reduced gluthione consumption were assessed in glioma cells with or without ferroptosis inhibitor. The biological mechanisms by which glioma cells attenuate the pro-ferroptotic effects of DHA were assessed using molecular methods. RESULTS:DHA induced ferroptosis in glioma cells, as characterized by iron-dependent cell death accompanied with ROS generation and lipid peroxidation. However, DHA treatment simultaneously activated a feedback pathway of ferroptosis by increasing the expression of heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 5 (HSPA5). Mechanistically, DHA caused endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in glioma cells, which resulted in the induction of HSPA5 expression by protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK)-upregulated activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Subsequent HSPA5 upregulation increased the expression and activity of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), which neutralized DHA-induced lipid peroxidation and thus protected glioma cells from ferroptosis. Inhibition of the PERK-ATF4-HSPA5-GPX4 pathway using siRNA or small molecules increased DHA sensitivity of glioma cells by increasing ferroptosis both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, these data suggested that ferroptosis might be a novel anticancer mechanism of DHA in glioma and HSPA5 may serve as a negative regulator of DHA-induced ferroptosis. Therefore, inhibiting the negative feedback pathway would be a promising therapeutic strategy to strengthen the anti-glioma activity of DHA.
Project description:Inducers of ferroptosis such as the glutathione depleting agent Erastin and the GPX4 inhibitor Rsl-3 are being actively explored as potential therapeutics in various cancers, but the factors that determine their sensitivity are poorly understood. Here, we show that expression levels of both subunits of the cystine/glutamate antiporter xCT determine the expression of GPX4 in breast cancer, and that upregulation of the xCT/selenocysteine biosynthesis/GPX4 production axis paradoxically renders the cancer cells more sensitive to certain types of ferroptotic stimuli. We find that GPX4 is strongly upregulated in a subset of breast cancer tissues compared to matched normal samples, and that this is tightly correlated with the increased expression of the xCT subunits SLC7A11 and SLC3A2. Erastin depletes levels of the antioxidant selenoproteins GPX4 and GPX1 in breast cancer cells by inhibiting xCT-dependent extracellular reduction which is required for selenium uptake and selenocysteine biosynthesis. Unexpectedly, while breast cancer cells are resistant compared to nontransformed cells against oxidative stress inducing drugs, at the same time they are hypersensitive to lipid peroxidation and ferroptosis induced by Erastin or Rsl-3, indicating that they are 'addicted' to the xCT/GPX4 axis. Our findings provide a strategic basis for targeting the anti-ferroptotic machinery of breast cancer cells depending on their xCT status, which can be further explored.
Project description:Ferroptosis is a form of regulated necrosis associated with the iron-dependent accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides that may play a key role in the pathogenesis of degenerative diseases in which lipid peroxidation has been implicated. High-throughput screening efforts have identified ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) and liproxstatin-1 (Lip-1) as potent inhibitors of ferroptosis - an activity that has been ascribed to their ability to slow the accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides. Herein we demonstrate that this activity likely derives from their reactivity as radical-trapping antioxidants (RTAs) rather than their potency as inhibitors of lipoxygenases. Although inhibited autoxidations of styrene revealed that Fer-1 and Lip-1 react roughly 10-fold more slowly with peroxyl radicals than reactions of ?-tocopherol (?-TOH), they were significantly more reactive than ?-TOH in phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers - consistent with the greater potency of Fer-1 and Lip-1 relative to ?-TOH as inhibitors of ferroptosis. None of Fer-1, Lip-1, and ?-TOH inhibited human 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) overexpressed in HEK-293 cells when assayed at concentrations where they inhibited ferroptosis. These results stand in stark contrast to those obtained with a known 15-LOX-1 inhibitor (PD146176), which was able to inhibit the enzyme at concentrations where it was effective in inhibiting ferroptosis. Given the likelihood that Fer-1 and Lip-1 subvert ferroptosis by inhibiting lipid peroxidation as RTAs, we evaluated the antiferroptotic potential of 1,8-tetrahydronaphthyridinols (hereafter THNs): rationally designed radical-trapping antioxidants of unparalleled reactivity. We show for the first time that the inherent reactivity of the THNs translates to cell culture, where lipophilic THNs were similarly effective to Fer-1 and Lip-1 at subverting ferroptosis induced by either pharmacological or genetic inhibition of the hydroperoxide-detoxifying enzyme Gpx4 in mouse fibroblasts, and glutamate-induced death of mouse hippocampal cells. These results demonstrate that potent RTAs subvert ferroptosis and suggest that lipid peroxidation (autoxidation) may play a central role in the process.