Abcb1 in Pigs: Molecular cloning, tissues distribution, functional analysis, and its effect on pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin.
ABSTRACT: P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the best-known ATP-dependent efflux transporters, contributing to differences in pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions. Until now, studies on pig P-gp have been scarce. In our studies, the full-length porcine P-gp cDNA was cloned and expressed in a Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line. P-gp expression was then determined in tissues and its role in the pharmacokinetics of oral enrofloxacin in pigs was studied. The coding region of pig Abcb1 gene was 3,861?bp, encoding 1,286 amino acid residues (Mw?=?141,966). Phylogenetic analysis indicated a close evolutionary relationship between porcine P-gp and those of cow and sheep. Pig P-gp was successfully stably overexpressed in MDCK cells and had efflux activity for rhodamine 123, a substrate of P-gp. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that P-gp was highly expressed in brain capillaries, small intestine, and liver. In MDCK-pAbcb1 cells, enrofloxacin was transported by P-gp with net efflux ratio of 2.48 and the efflux function was blocked by P-gp inhibitor verapamil. High expression of P-gp in the small intestine could modify the pharmacokinetics of orally administrated enrofloxacin by increasing the Cmax, AUC and Ka, which was demonstrated using verapamil, an inhibitor of P-gp.
Project description:Overcoming P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux is a strategy to improve the absorption and pharmacokinetics of its substrate drugs. Berberine inhibits P-gp and thereby increases the bioavailability of the P-gp substrate digoxin in rodents. However, the effects of berberine on P-gp in chickens are still unclear. Here, we studied the role of berberine in modulating broilers P-gp expression and function through both in situ and in vitro models. In addition, molecular docking was applied to analyze the interactions of berberine with P-gp as well as with chicken xenobiotic receptor (CXR). The results showed that the mRNA expression levels of chicken P-gp and CXR decreased in the ileum following exposure to berberine. The absorption rate constant of rhodamine 123 increased after berberine treatment, as detected using an in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion model. Efflux ratios of P-gp substrates (tilmicosin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, ampicillin, and enrofloxacin) decreased and the apparent permeability coefficients increased after co-incubation with berberine in MDCK-chAbcb1 cell models. Bidirectional assay results showed that berberine could be transported by chicken P-gp with a transport ratio of 4.20, and this was attenuated by verapamil (an inhibitor of P-gp), which resulted in a ratio of 1.13. Molecular docking revealed that berberine could form favorable interactions with the binding pockets of both CXR and P-gp, with docking scores of -7.8 and -9.5 kcal/mol, respectively. These results indicate that berberine is a substrate of chicken P-gp and down-regulates P-gp expression in chicken tissues, thereby increasing the absorption of P-gp substrates. Our findings suggest that berberine increases the bioavailability of other drugs and that drug-drug interactions should be considered when it is co-administered with other P-gp substrates with narrow therapeutic windows.
Project description:Modulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, encoded by Mdr1) by xenobiotics plays central role in pharmacokinetics of various drugs. Quercetin has a potential to modulate P-gp in rodents, however, its effects on P-gp modulation in chicken are still unclear. Herein, study reports role of quercetin in modulation of P-gp expression and subsequent effects on the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in broilers. Results show that P-gp expression was increased in a dose-dependent manner following exposure to quercetin in Caco-2 cells and tissues of chicken. Absorption rate constant and apparent permeability coefficient of rhodamine 123 were decreased, reflecting efflux function of P-gp in chicken intestine increased by quercetin. Quercetin altered pharmacokinetic of enrofloxacin by decreasing area under curve, peak concentration, and time to reach peak concentration and by increasing clearance rate. Molecular docking shows quercetin can form favorable interactions with binding pocket of chicken xenobiotic receptor (CXR). Results provide convincing evidence that quercetin induced P-gp expression in tissues by possible interaction with CXR, and consequently reducing bioavailability of orally administered enrofloxacin through restricting its intestinal absorption and liver/kidney clearance in broilers. The results can be further extended to guide reasonable use of quercetin to avoid drug-feed interaction occurred with co-administered enrofloxacin or other similar antimicrobials.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>20(S)-Ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2) has shown potent inhibition on P-glycoprotein (P-gp), while most HIV protease inhibitors are both substrates and inhibitors of P-gp and CYP3A4. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential pharmacokinetic interactions between Rh2 and the HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir.<h4>Methods</h4>The effects of Rh2 on the cellular accumulation and transepithelial transport of ritonavir were studied in Caco-2 and MDCK-MDR1 cells. Male rats were administered Rh2 (25 or 60 mg/kg, po) or Rh2 (5 mg/kg, iv), followed by ritonavir (25 mg/kg, po). The P-gp inhibitors verapamil (20 mg/kg, po) or GF120918 (5 mg/kg, po) were used as positive controls. The concentrations of ritonavir in plasma, bile, urine, feces and tissue homogenates were analyzed using LC-MS.<h4>Results</h4>Rh2 (10 ?mol/L) significantly increased the accumulation and inhibited the efflux of ritonavir in Caco-2 and MDCK-MDR1 cells, as verapamil did. But Rh2 did not significantly alter ritonavir accumulation or transport in MDCK-WT cells. Intravenous Rh2 significantly increased the plasma exposure of ritonavir while reducing its excretion in the bile, and oral verapamil or GF120918 also increased plasma exposure of ritonavir but without changing its excretion in the bile. Interestingly, oral Rh2 at both doses did not significantly change the plasma profile of ritonavir. Moreover, oral Rh2 (25 mg/kg) significantly elevated the ritonavir concentration in the hepatic portal vein, and markedly increased its urinary excretion and tissue distribution, which might counteract the elevated absorption of ritonavir.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Rh2 inhibits the efflux of ritonavir through P-gp in vitro. The effects of Rh2 on ritonavir exposure in vivo depend on the administration route of Rh2: intravenous, but not oral, administration of Rh2 significantly increased the plasma exposure of ritonavir.
Project description:P-glycoprotein (P-gp) affects the transport of many drugs; including puerarin and vincristine. Our previous study demonstrated that imperatorin increased the intestinal absorption of puerarin and vincristine by inhibiting P-gp-mediated drug efflux. However; the underlying mechanism was not known. The present study investigated the mechanism by which imperatorin promotes P-gp-mediated drug transport. We used molecular docking to predict the binding force between imperatorin and P-gp and the effect of imperatorin on P-gp activity. P-gp efflux activity and P-gp ATPase activity were measured using a rhodamine 123 (Rh-123) accumulation assay and a Pgp-Glo™ assay; respectively. The fluorescent probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) was used to assess cellular membrane fluidity in MDCK-MDR1 cells. Western blotting was used to analyze the effect of imperatorin on P-gp expression; and P-gp mRNA levels were assessed by qRT-PCR. Molecular docking results demonstrated that the binding force between imperatorin and P-gp was much weaker than the force between P-gp and verapamil (a P-gp substrate). Imperatorin activated P-gp ATPase activity; which had a role in the inhibition of P-gp activity. Imperatorin promoted Rh-123 accumulation in MDCK-MDR1 cells and decreased cellular membrane fluidity. Western blotting demonstrated that imperatorin inhibited P-gp expression; and qRT-PCR revealed that imperatorin down-regulated P-gp (MDR1) gene expression. Imperatorin decreased P-gp-mediated drug efflux by inhibiting P-gp activity and the expression of P-gp mRNA and protein. Our results suggest that imperatorin could down-regulate P-gp expression to overcome multidrug resistance in tumors.
Project description:In our study, we attempted to investigate the influences of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on DL0410, a novel synthetic molecule for Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment, for intestinal absorption and blood-brain barrier permeability in vitro and related binding mechanisms in silico. Caco-2, MDCK, and MDCK-MDR1 cells were utilized for transport studies, and homology modelling of human P-gp was built for further docking study to uncover the binding mode of DL0410. The results showed that the apparent permeability (Papp) value of DL0410 was approximately 1 × 10-6 cm/s, indicating the low permeability of DL0410. With the presence of verapamil, the directional transport of DL0410 disappeared in Caco-2 and MDCK-MDR1 cells, suggesting that DL0410 should be a substrate of P-gp, which was also confirmed by P-gp ATPase assay. In addition, DL0410 could competitively inhibit the transport of Rho123, a P-gp known substrate. According to molecular docking, we also found that DL0410 could bind to the drug binding pocket (DBP), but not the nucleotide binding domain (NBD). In conclusion, DL0410 was a substrate as well as a competitive inhibitor of P-gp, and P-gp had a remarkable impact on the intestine and brain permeability of DL0410, which is of significance for drug research and development.
Project description:Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) in general use are polydisperse molecules with molecular weight (MW) distributed around an average value applied in their designation e.g., PEG 4000. Previous research has shown that PEGs can act as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors with the potential to affect the absorption and efflux of concomitantly administered drugs. However, questions related to the mechanism of cellular uptake of PEGs and the exact role played by P-gp has not been addressed. In this study, we examined the mechanism of uptake of PEGs by MDCK-mock cells, in particular, the effect of MW and interaction with P-gp by MDCK-hMDR1 and A549 cells. The results show that: (a) the uptake of PEGs by MDCK-hMDR1 cells is enhanced by P-gp inhibitors; (b) PEGs stimulate P-gp ATPase activity but to a much lesser extent than verapamil; and (c) uptake of PEGs of low MW (<2000 Da) occurs by passive diffusion whereas uptake of PEGs of high MW (>5000 Da) occurs by a combination of passive diffusion and caveolae-mediated endocytosis. These findings suggest that PEGs can engage in P-gp-based drug interactions which we believe should be taken into account when using PEGs as excipients and in PEGylated drugs and drug delivery systems.
Project description:We have reported that the P-gp substrate digoxin required basolateral and apical uptake transport in excess of that allowed by digoxin passive permeability (as measured in the presence of GF120918) to achieve the observed efflux kinetics across MDCK-MDR1-NKI (The Netherlands Cancer Institute) confluent cell monolayers. That is, GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport was kinetically required. Therefore, IC50 measurements using digoxin as a probe substrate in this cell line could be due to inhibition of P-gp, of digoxin uptake transport, or both. This kinetic analysis is now extended to include three additional cell lines: MDCK-MDR1-NIH (National Institute of Health), Caco-2 and CPT-B2 (Caco-2 cells with BCRP knockdown). These cells similarly exhibit GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport of digoxin. We demonstrate that inhibition of digoxin transport across these cell lines by GF120918, cyclosporine, ketoconazole and verapamil is greater than can be explained by inhibition of P-gp alone. We examined three hypotheses for this non-P-gp inhibition. The inhibitors can: (1) bind to a basolateral digoxin uptake transporter, thereby inhibiting digoxin's cellular uptake; (2) partition into the basolateral membrane and directly reduce membrane permeability; (3) aggregate with digoxin in the donor chamber, thereby reducing the free concentration of digoxin, with concomitant reduction in digoxin uptake. Data and simulations show that hypothesis 1 was found to be uniformly acceptable. Hypothesis 2 was found to be uniformly unlikely. Hypothesis 3 was unlikely for GF120918 and cyclosporine, but further studies are needed to completely adjudicate whether hetero-dimerization contributes to the non-P-gp inhibition for ketoconazole and verapamil. We also find that P-gp substrates with relatively low passive permeability such as digoxin, loperamide and vinblastine kinetically require basolateral uptake transport over that allowed by +GF120918 passive permeability, while highly permeable P-gp substrates such as amprenavir, quinidine, ketoconazole and verapamil do not, regardless of whether they actually use the basolateral transporter.
Project description:Drug absorption across viable porcine intestines was investigated using an Ussing chamber system. The apparent permeability coefficients, Papp,pig, were compared to the permeability coefficients determined in humans in vivo, Peff,human. Eleven drugs from the different Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) categories absorbed by passive diffusion with published Peff,human values were used to test the system. The initial experiments measured Papp,pig for each drug after application in a Krebs⁻Bicarbonate Ringer (KBR) buffer and in biorelevant media FaSSIF V2 and FeSSIF V2, mimicking fasted and fed states. Strong sigmoidal correlations were observed between Peff,human and Papp,pig. Differences in the segmental Papp,pig of antipyrine, cimetidine and metoprolol confirmed the discrimination between drug uptake in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum (and colon); the results were in good agreement with human data in vivo. The presence of the P-gp inhibitor verapamil significantly increased Papp,pig across the ileum of the P-gp substrates cimetidine and ranitidine (p < 0.05). Clotrimazole, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, significantly increased Papp,pig of the CYP3A4 substrates midazolam, verapamil and tamoxifen and significantly decreased the formation of their main metabolites. In conclusion, the results showed that this is a robust technique to predict passive drug permeability under fasted and fed states, to identify regional differences in drug permeability and to demonstrate the activity of P-gp and CYP3A4.
Project description:Phytochemical-mediated alterations in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity may result in herb-drug interactions by altering drug pharmacokinetics. Shengmai-san, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine composed by Panax Ginseng, Ophiopogon Japonicus, and Schisandra Chinensis, is routinely being used for treating various coronary heart diseases. In our previous studies, Schisandra Lignans Extract (SLE) was proved as a strong P-gp inhibitor, and herein, the compatibility of Shengmai-san was studied by investigating the influence of SLE on the pharmacokinetics of the ginsenosides from the perspective of P-gp.Pharmacokinetic experiments were firstly performed based on in vitro uptake, efflux and transport experiments in Caco-2, LLC-PK1 wild-type and MDR1-overexpressing L-MDR1 cells. During the whole experiment, digoxin, a classical P-gp substrate, was used as a positive control drug to verify the cells used are the valid models. Meanwhile, the effects of SLE on the pharmacokinetics of ginsenosides were further investigated in rats after single-dose and multi-dose of SLE.The efflux ratios of ginsenoside Rb2, Rc, Rg2, Rg3, Rd and Rb1 were found more than 3.5 in L-MDR1 cells and can be decreased significantly by verapamil (a classical P-gp inhibitor). Contrarily, the efflux ratios of other ginsenosides (Rh1, F1, Re, and Rg1) were lower than 2.0 and not affected by verapamil. Then, the effects of SLE on the uptake and transport of ginsenosides were investigated, and SLE was found can significantly enhance the uptake and inhibit the efflux ratio of ginsenoside Rb2, Rc, Rg2, Rg3, Rd and Rb1 in Caco-2 and L-MDR1 cells. Besides, In vivo experiments showed that single-dose and multi-dose of SLE at 500 mg/kg could increase the area under the plasma concentration time curve of Rb2, Rc and Rd significantly without affecting terminal elimination half-time. In conclusion, SLE could enhance the exposure of ginsenosides Rb2, Rc, Rg2, Rg3, Rd and Rb1 significantly.
Project description:Recent controversial publications, citing studies purporting to show that P-gp mediates the transport of propranolol, proposed that passive biological membrane transport is negligible. Based on the BDDCS, the extensively metabolized-highly permeable-highly soluble BDDCS class 1 drug, propranolol, shows a high passive permeability at concentrations unrestricted by solubility that can overwhelm any potential transporter effects. Here we reinvestigate the effects of passive diffusion and carrier-mediated transport on S-propranolol.Bidirectional permeability and inhibition of efflux transport studies were carried out in MDCK, MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cell lines at different concentrations. Transcellular permeability studies were conducted at different apical pHs in the rat jejunum Ussing chamber model and PAMPA system.S-propranolol exhibited efflux ratios lower than 1 in MDCK, MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cells. No significant differences of Papp, B->A in the presence and absence of the efflux inhibitor GG918 were observed. However, an efflux ratio of 3.63 was found at apical pH 6.5 with significant decrease in Papp, A->B and increase in Papp, B->A compared to apical pH 7.4 in Caco-2 cell lines. The pH dependent permeability was confirmed in the Ussing chamber model. S-propranolol flux was unchanged during inhibition by verapamil and rifampin. Furthermore, pH dependent permeability was also observed in the PAMPA system.S-propranolol does not exhibit active transport as proposed previously. The "false" positive efflux ratio can be explained by the pH partition theory. As expected, passive diffusion, but not active transport, plays the primary role in the permeability of the BDDCS class 1 drug propranolol.