Performance comparison of two commercial human whole-exome capture systems on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung adenocarcinoma samples.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has become a valuable tool for molecular landscape characterization of cancer genomes, leading to a better understanding of tumor onset and progression, and opening new avenues in translational oncology. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is the method of choice for storage of clinical samples, however low quality of FFPE genomic DNA (gDNA) can limit its use for downstream applications. METHODS:To investigate the FFPE specimen suitability for NGS analysis and to establish the performance of two solution-based exome capture technologies, we compared the whole-exome sequencing (WES) data of gDNA extracted from 5 fresh frozen (FF) and 5 matched FFPE lung adenocarcinoma tissues using: SeqCap EZ Human Exome v.3.0 (Roche NimbleGen) and SureSelect XT Human All Exon v.5 (Agilent Technologies). RESULTS:Sequencing metrics on Illumina HiSeq were optimal for both exome systems and comparable among FFPE and FF samples, with a slight increase of PCR duplicates in FFPE, mainly in Roche NimbleGen libraries. Comparison of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) between FFPE-FF pairs reached overlapping values >90 % in both systems. Both WES showed high concordance with target re-sequencing data by Ion PGM™ in 22 lung-cancer genes, regardless the source of samples. Exon coverage of 623 cancer-related genes revealed high coverage efficiency of both kits, proposing WES as a valid alternative to target re-sequencing. CONCLUSIONS:High-quality and reliable data can be successfully obtained from WES of FFPE samples starting from a relatively low amount of input gDNA, suggesting the inclusion of NGS-based tests into clinical contest. In conclusion, our analysis suggests that the WES approach could be extended to a translational research context as well as to the clinic (e.g. to study rare malignancies), where the simultaneous analysis of the whole coding region of the genome may help in the detection of cancer-linked variants.
Project description:Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are an invaluable resource for clinical research. However, nucleic acids extracted from FFPE tissues are fragmented and chemically modified making them challenging to use in molecular studies. We analysed 23 fresh-frozen (FF), 35 FFPE and 38 paired FF/FFPE specimens, representing six different human tissue types (bladder, prostate and colon carcinoma; liver and colon normal tissue; reactive tonsil) in order to examine the potential use of FFPE samples in next-generation sequencing (NGS) based retrospective and prospective clinical studies. Two methods for DNA and three methods for RNA extraction from FFPE tissues were compared and were found to affect nucleic acid quantity and quality. DNA and RNA from selected FFPE and paired FF/FFPE specimens were used for exome and transcriptome analysis. Preparations of DNA Exome-Seq libraries was more challenging (29.5% success) than that of RNA-Seq libraries, presumably because of modifications to FFPE tissue-derived DNA. Libraries could still be prepared from RNA isolated from two-decade old FFPE tissues. Data were analysed using the CLC Bio Genomics Workbench and revealed systematic differences between FF and FFPE tissue-derived nucleic acid libraries. In spite of this, pairwise analysis of DNA Exome-Seq data showed concordance for 70-80% of variants in FF and FFPE samples stored for fewer than three years. RNA-Seq data showed high correlation of expression profiles in FF/FFPE pairs (Pearson Correlations of 0.90 +/- 0.05), irrespective of storage time (up to 244 months) and tissue type. A common set of 1,494 genes was identified with expression profiles that were significantly different between paired FF and FFPE samples irrespective of tissue type. Our results are promising and suggest that NGS can be used to study FFPE specimens in both prospective and retrospective archive-based studies in which FF specimens are not available.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIM:Next generation sequencing (NGS) has quickly the tool of choice for genome and exome data generation. The multitude of sequencing platforms as well as the variabilities within each platform need to be assessed. In this paper we used two platforms (ION TORRENT AND ILLUMINA) to assess single nucleotides variants in colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens. METHODS:CRC specimens (n = 13) collected from 6 CRC (cancer and matched normal) patients were used to establish the mutational profile using ION TORRENT AND ILLUMINA sequencing platforms. We analyzed a set of samples from Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded and FF (FF) samples on both platforms to assess the effect of sample nature (FFPE vs. FF) on sequencing outcome and to evaluate the similarity/differences of SNVs across the two platforms. In addition, duplicates of FF samples were sequenced on each platform to assess variability within platform. RESULTS:The comparison of FF replicates to each other gave a concordance of 77% (± 15.3%) in Ion Torrent and 70% (± 3.7%) in Illumina. FFPE vs. FF replicates gave a concordance of 40% (± 32%) in Ion Torrent and 49% (± 19%) in Illumina. For the cross platform concordance were FFPE compared to FF (Average of 75% (± 9.8%) for FFPE samples and 67% (± 32%) for FF and 70% (± 26.8%) overall average). CONCLUSION:Our data show a significant variability within and across platforms. Also the number of detected variants depend on the nature of the specimen; FF vs. FFPE. Validation of NGS discovered mutations is a must to rule-out false positive mutants. This validation might either be performed through a second NGS platform or through Sanger sequencing.
Project description:This experiment contains the RNA-Seq samples only. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are an invaluable resource for clinical research. However, nucleic acids extracted from FFPE tissues are fragmented and chemically modified making them challenging to use in molecular studies. We analysed 23 fresh-frozen (FF), 35 FFPE and 38 paired FF/FFPE specimens, representing six different human tissue types (bladder, prostate and colon carcinoma; liver and colon normal tissue; reactive tonsil) in order to examine the potential use of FFPE samples in next-generation sequencing (NGS) based retrospective and prospective clinical studies. Two methods for DNA and three methods for RNA extraction from FFPE tissues were compared and were found to affect nucleic acid quantity and quality. DNA and RNA from selected FFPE and paired FF/FFPE specimens were used for exome and transcriptome analysis. Preparations of DNA Exome-Seq libraries was more challenging (29.5 % success) than that of RNA-Seq libraries, presumably because of modifications to FFPE tissue-derived DNA. Libraries could still be prepared from RNA isolated from two-decade old FFPE tissues. Data were analysed using the CLC Bio Genomics Workbench and revealed systematic differences between FF and FFPE tissue-derived nucleic acid libraries. In spite of this, pairwise analysis of DNA Exome-Seq data showed concordance for 70-80 % of variants in FF and FFPE samples stored for fewer than three years. RNA-Seq data showed high correlation of expression profiles in FF/FFPE pairs (Pearson Correlations of 0.90 +/- 0.05), irrespective of storage time (up to 244 months) and tissue type. A common set of 1,494 genes was identified with expression profiles that were significantly different between paired FF and FFPE samples irrespective of tissue type. Our results are promising and suggest that NGS can be used to study FFPE specimens in both prospective and retrospective archive-based studies in which FF specimens are not available.
Project description:The availability of fresh frozen (FF) tissue is a barrier for implementing RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in the clinic. The majority of clinical samples are stored as formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Exome capture platforms have been developed for RNA-seq from FFPE samples. However, these methods have not been systematically compared. We performed transcriptomic analysis of 32 FFPE tumor samples from 11 patients using three exome capture-based methods: Agilent SureSelect V6, TWIST NGS Exome, and IDT XGen Exome Research Panel. We compared these methods to the TruSeq RNA-seq of fresh frozen (FF-TruSeq) tumor samples from the same patients. We assessed the recovery of clinically relevant biological features. The Spearman's correlation coefficients between the global expression profiles of the three capture-based methods from FFPE and matched FF-TruSeq were high (rho = 0.72-0.9, p < 0.05). A significant correlation between the expression of key immune genes between individual capture-based methods and FF-TruSeq (rho = 0.76-0.88, p < 0.05) was observed. All exome capture-based methods reliably detected outlier expression of actionable gene transcripts, including ERBB2, MET, NTRK1, and PPARG. In urothelial cancer samples, the Agilent assay was associated with the highest molecular subtype concordance with FF-TruSeq (Cohen's k = 0.7, p < 0.01). The Agilent and IDT assays detected all the clinically relevant fusions that were initially identified in FF-TruSeq. All FFPE exome capture-based methods had comparable performance and concordance with FF-TruSeq. Our findings will enable the implementation of RNA-seq in the clinic to guide precision oncology approaches.
Project description:Archival tissues represent a rich resource for clinical genomic studies, particularly when coupled with comprehensive medical records. Use of these in next generation sequencing (NGS) is a priority. Nine formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) DNA extraction methods were evaluated using twelve FFPE samples of varying tissue types. Quality assessment included total yield, percent dsDNA, fragment analysis and multiplex PCR. After assessment, three tissue types from four FFPE DNA methods were selected for NGS downstream evaluation, targeted and whole exome sequencing. In addition, two low input library protocols were evaluated for WES. Analysis revealed average coverage across the target regions for WES was ~20-30X for all four FFPE DNA extraction methods. For the targeted panels, the highest molecular tag coverage was obtained with the Kingfisher FFPE extraction method. The genotype concordance was 99% for the commonly called variant positions between all four extraction methods with the targeted PCR NGS panel and 96% with WES. Assessing quality of extracted DNA aids in selecting the optimal NGS approach, and the choice of both DNA extraction and library preparation approaches can impact the performance of archival tissue in NGS.
Project description:Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a cost-effective technology capable of screening several genes simultaneously; however, its application in a clinical context requires an established workflow to acquire reliable sequencing results. Here, we report an optimized NGS workflow analyzing 22 lung cancer-related genes to sequence critical samples such as DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks and circulating free DNA (cfDNA). Snap frozen and matched FFPE gDNA from 12 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, whose gDNA fragmentation status was previously evaluated using a multiplex PCR-based quality control, were successfully sequenced with Ion Torrent PGM™. The robust bioinformatic pipeline allowed us to correctly call both Single Nucleotide Variants (SNVs) and indels with a detection limit of 5%, achieving 100% specificity and 96% sensitivity. This workflow was also validated in 13 FFPE NSCLC biopsies. Furthermore, a specific protocol for low input gDNA capable of producing good sequencing data with high coverage, high uniformity, and a low error rate was also optimized. In conclusion, we demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining gDNA from FFPE samples suitable for NGS by performing appropriate quality controls. The optimized workflow, capable of screening low input gDNA, highlights NGS as a potential tool in the detection, disease monitoring, and treatment of NSCLC.
Project description:Whole exome sequencing (WXS) is widely used to identify causative genetic mutations of diseases. However, not only have several commercial human exome capture platforms been developed, but substantial updates have been released in the past few years. We report a performance comparison for the latest release of four commercial platforms, Roche/NimbleGen's SeqCap EZ Human Exome Library v3.0, Illumina's Nextera Rapid Capture Exome (v1.2), Agilent's SureSelect XT Human All Exon v5 and Agilent's SureSelect QXT, using the same DNA samples. Agilent XT showed the highest target enrichment efficiency and the best SNV and short indel detection sensitivity in coding regions with the least amount of sequencing. Agilent QXT had slightly inferior target enrichment than Agilent XT. Illumina, with additional sequencing, detected SNVs and short indels at the same quality as Agilent XT, and showed the best performance in coverage of medically interesting mutations. NimbleGen detected more SNVs and indels in untranslated regions than the others. We also found that the platforms, which enzymatically fragment the genomic DNA (gDNA), detected more homozygous SNVs than those using sonicated gDNA. We believe that our analysis will help investigators when selecting a suitable exome capture platform for their particular research.
Project description:Next-generation sequencing (NGS) studies are becoming routinely used for the detection of novel and clinically actionable DNA variants at a pangenomic scale. Such analyses are now used in the clinical practice to enable precision medicine. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are still one of the most abundant source of cancer clinical specimen, unfortunately this method of preparation is known to degrade DNA and therefore compromise subsequent analysis. Some studies have reported that variant detection can be performed on FFPE samples sequenced with NGS techniques, but few or none have done an in-depth coverage analysis and compared the influence of different state-of-the-art FFPE DNA extraction kits on the quality of the variant calling. Here, we generated 42 human whole-exome sequencing data sets from fresh-frozen (FF) and FFPE samples. These samples include normal and tumor tissues from two different organs (liver and colon), that we extracted with three different FFPE extraction kits (QIAamp DNA FFPE Tissue kit and GeneRead DNA FFPE kit from Qiagen, Maxwell™ RSC DNA FFPE Kit from Promega). We determined the rate of concordance of called variants between matched FF and FFPE samples on all common variants (representing at least 86% of the total number of variants for SNVs). The concordance rate is very high between all matched FF / FFPE pairs, with equivalent values for the three kits we analyzed. On the other hand, when looking at the difference between the total number of variants in FF and FFPE, we find a significant variation for the three different FFPE DNA extraction kits. Coverage analysis shows that FFPE samples have less good indicators than FF samples, yet the coverage quality remains above accepted thresholds. We detect limited but statistically significant variations in coverage indicator values between the three FFPE extraction kits. Globally, the GeneRead and QIAamp kits have better variant calling and coverage indicators than the Maxwell kit on the samples used in this study, although this kit performs better on some indicators and has advantages in terms of practical usage. Taken together, our results confirm the potential of FFPE samples analysis for clinical genomic studies, but also indicate that the choice of a FFPE DNA extraction kit should be done with careful testing and analysis beforehand in order to maximize the accuracy of the results.
Project description:Whole exome sequencing (WES) is increasingly used in research and diagnostics. WES users expect coverage of the entire coding region of known genes as well as sufficient read depth for the covered regions. It is, however, unknown which recent WES platform is most suitable to meet these expectations. We present insights into the performance of the most recent standard exome enrichment platforms from Agilent, NimbleGen and Illumina applied to six different DNA samples by two sequencing vendors per platform. Our results suggest that both Agilent and NimbleGen overall perform better than Illumina and that the high enrichment performance of Agilent is stable among samples and between vendors, whereas NimbleGen is only able to achieve vendor- and sample-specific best exome coverage. Moreover, the recent Agilent platform overall captures more coding exons with sufficient read depth than NimbleGen and Illumina. Due to considerable gaps in effective exome coverage, however, the three platforms cannot capture all known coding exons alone or in combination, requiring improvement. Our data emphasize the importance of evaluation of updated platform versions and suggest that enrichment-free whole genome sequencing can overcome the limitations of WES in sufficiently covering coding exons, especially GC-rich regions, and in characterizing structural variants.
Project description:Targeted Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) offers a way to implement testing of multiple genetic aberrations in diagnostic pathology practice, which is necessary for personalized cancer treatment. However, no standards regarding input material have been defined. This study therefore aimed to determine the effect of the type of input material (e.g. formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) versus fresh frozen (FF) tissue) on NGS derived results. Moreover, this study aimed to explore a standardized analysis pipeline to support consistent clinical decision-making.We used the Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform in combination with the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 to sequence frequently mutated regions in 50 cancer related genes, and validated the NGS detected variants in 250 FFPE samples using standard diagnostic assays. Next, 386 tumour samples were sequenced to explore the effect of input material on variant detection variables. For variant calling, Ion Torrent analysis software was supplemented with additional variant annotation and filtering.Both FFPE and FF tissue could be sequenced reliably with a sensitivity of 99.1%. Validation showed a 98.5% concordance between NGS and conventional sequencing techniques, where NGS provided both the advantage of low input DNA concentration and the detection of low-frequency variants. The reliability of mutation analysis could be further improved with manual inspection of sequence data.Targeted NGS can be reliably implemented in cancer diagnostics using both FFPE and FF tissue when using appropriate analysis settings, even with low input DNA.