Determination of Autosomal Dominant or Recessive Methionine Adenosyltransferase I/III Deficiencies Based on Clinical and Molecular Studies.
ABSTRACT: Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) I/III deficiency can be inherited as autosomal dominant (AD) or as recessive (AR) traits in which mono- or biallelic MAT1A mutations have been identified, respectively. Although most patients have benign clinical outcomes, some with the AR form have neurological deficits. Here we describe 16 Korean patients with MAT I/III deficiency from 15 unrelated families identified by newborn screening. Ten probands had the AD MAT I/III deficiency, while six had AR MAT I/III deficiency. Plasma methionine (145.7 ?mol/L versus 733.2 ?mol/L, P < 0.05) and homocysteine levels (12.3 ?mol/L versus 18.6 ?mol/L, P < 0.05) were lower in the AD type than in AR type. In addition to the only reported AD MAT1A mutation, p.Arg264His, we identified two novel AD mutations, p.Arg249Gln and p.Gly280Arg. In the AR type, four previously reported and two novel mutations, p.Arg163Trp and p.Tyr335*, were identified. No exonic deletions were found by quantitative genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Three-dimensional structural prediction programs indicated that the AD-type mutations were located on the dimer interface or in the substrate binding site, hindering MAT I/III dimerization or substrate binding, respectively, whereas the AR mutations were distant from the interface or substrate binding site. These results indicate that the AD or AR MAT I/III deficiency is correlated with clinical findings, substrate levels and structural features of the mutant proteins, which is important for the neurological management and genetic counseling of the patients.
Project description:Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) I/III deficiency (OMIM # 250850) is caused by a mutation in MAT1A, which encodes the two hepatic MAT isozymes I and III. With the implementation of newborn screening program to discover hypermethioninemia due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency, more cases are being discovered. While the majority of patients are asymptomatic, some might have central nervous system (CNS) and extra-CNS manifestations. Although neurologic manifestations and demyelination have been correlated to MAT deficiency in many reported cases, none of the previous reports focused on extra-CNS manifestations associated with the disease. This is a retrospective chart review for a 40-month-old patient with confirmed diagnosis of MAT deficiency. He was found to have a novel homozygous disease-causing variant in MAT1A (NM_000429.2) c.1081G>T (p.Val361Phe). Interestingly, our patient had an unexplained zinc and iron deficiency in addition to mild speech delay. We reviewed the literature and summarized all the reported extra-CNS manifestations. In conclusion, MAT deficiency patients should be thoroughly investigated to check for CNS and extra-CNS manifestations associated with the disease. Keeping in consideration the challenge of assuming correlation, a scrutinized look at extra-CNS manifestations and their course with time might pave the way to understanding the pathophysiology of the disease and MAT1A function.
Project description:Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) I/III deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in MAT1A, encoding the catalytic subunit of MAT responsible for the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine, and is characterized by persistent hypermethioninemia. While historically considered a recessive disorder, a milder autosomal dominant form of MAT I/III deficiency occurs, though only the most common mutation p.Arg264His has ample evidence to prove dominant inheritance. We report a case of hypermethioninemia caused by the p.Ala259Val substitution and provide evidence of autosomal dominant inheritance by showing both maternal inheritance of the mutation and concomitant hypermethioninemia. The p.Ala259Val mutation falls in the dimer interface, and thus likely leads to dominant inheritance by a similar mechanism to that described in the previously reported dominant negative mutation, that is, by means of interference with subunits encoded by the wild-type allele.
Project description:Methionine adenosyltransferase deficiency (MAT I/III deficiency) is an inborn error of metabolism resulting in isolated hypermethioninemia, and usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, although a dominant form has been reported in several families.During the last 6 years, approximately 520,000 newborns were screened in the Portuguese Newborn Screening Laboratory by MS/MS, and 21 cases of persistent hypermethioninemia were found. One case was confirmed to be a deficiency of cystathionine ?-synthase and 20 cases were confirmed by MAT1A gene analysis to have an elevation of methionine due to MAT I/III deficiency, which indicates an incidence for this condition of 1/26,000. Twelve of the MAT I/III deficient newborns, belonging to 11 families, were identified in the northern region of Portugal and sent to the same treatment center, where they are under follow-up. Clinical, biochemical, and genetic characteristics of individuals from these 11 families are presented. Plasma methionine and homocysteine concentrations were found to be moderately increased in all newborns, and molecular analysis revealed that they all were heterozygous for R264H mutation. Normal growth, development, and neurological examination were observed in all cases, and cerebral MRI performed in six cases revealed myelination abnormalities in one case. Plasma methionine concentration for all 12 cases was always below 300 ?M, and they are all on a normal diet for their age.
Project description:Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion provides a mechanism to export triglycerides (TG) from the liver to peripheral tissues, maintaining lipid homeostasis. In nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), VLDL secretion disturbances are unclear. Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is responsible for S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) synthesis and MAT I and III are the products of the MAT1A gene. Deficient MAT I and III activities and SAMe content in the liver have been associated with NAFLD, but whether MAT1A is required for normal VLDL assembly remains unknown. We investigated the role of MAT1A on VLDL assembly in two metabolic contexts: in 3-month-old MAT1A-knockout mice (3-KO), with no signs of liver injury, and in 8-month-old MAT1A-knockout mice (8-KO), harboring nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. In 3-KO mouse liver, there is a potent effect of MAT1A deletion on lipid handling, decreasing mobilization of TG stores, TG secretion in VLDL and phosphatidylcholine synthesis via phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. MAT1A deletion also increased VLDL-apolipoprotein B secretion, leading to small, lipid-poor VLDL particles. Administration of SAMe to 3-KO mice for 7 days recovered crucial altered processes in VLDL assembly and features of the secreted lipoproteins. The unfolded protein response was activated in 8-KO mouse liver, in which TG accumulated and the phosphatidylcholine-to-phosphatidylethanolamine ratio was reduced in the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas secretion of TG and apolipoprotein B in VLDL was increased and the VLDL physical characteristics resembled that in 3-KO mice. MAT1A deletion also altered plasma lipid homeostasis, with an increase in lipid transport in low-density lipoprotein subclasses and decrease in high-density lipoprotein subclasses.MAT1A is required for normal VLDL assembly and plasma lipid homeostasis in mice. Impaired VLDL synthesis, mainly due to SAMe deficiency, contributes to NAFLD development in MAT1A-KO mice.
Project description:Methionine adenosyltransferases MAT I and MAT III (encoded by Mat1a) catalyze S-adenosylmethionine synthesis in normal liver. Major hepatic diseases concur with reduced levels of this essential methyl donor, which are primarily due to an expression switch from Mat1a towards Mat2a. Additional changes in the association state and even in subcellular localization of these isoenzymes are also detected. All these alterations result in a reduced content of the moderate (MAT I) and high Vmax (MAT III) isoenzymes, whereas the low Vmax (MAT II) isoenzyme increases and nuclear accumulation of MAT I is observed. These changes derive in a reduced availability of cytoplasmic S-adenosylmethionine, together with an effort to meet its needs in the nucleus of damaged cells, rendering enhanced levels of certain epigenetic modifications. In this context, the putative role of protein-protein interactions in the control of S-adenosylmethionine synthesis has been scarcely studied. Using yeast two hybrid and a rat liver library we identified PDRG1 as an interaction target for MAT?1 (catalytic subunit of MAT I and MAT III), further confirmation being obtained by immunoprecipitation and pull-down assays. Nuclear MAT? interacts physically and functionally with the PDRG1 oncogene, resulting in reduced DNA methylation levels. Increased Pdrg1 expression is detected in acute liver injury and hepatoma cells, together with decreased Mat1a expression and nuclear accumulation of MAT?1. Silencing of Pdrg1 expression in hepatoma cells alters their steady-state expression profile on microarrays, downregulating genes associated with tumor progression according to GO pathway analysis. Altogether, the results unveil the role of PDRG1 in the control of the nuclear methylation status through methionine adenosyltransferase binding and its putative collaboration in the progression of hepatic diseases.
Project description:Background Methionine adenosyltransferase I/III (MATI/III) (EC 22.214.171.124), encoded by MAT1A gene, is the enzyme that converts methionine to S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). MATI/III deficiency (OMIM 250850) is an inherited metabolic disease resulting in hypermethioninemia, which is detectable by newborn screening (NBS). There are two clinical phenotypes: a benign phenotype with autosomal dominant inheritance and the other resulting in severe manifestations. The later one can lead to brain demyelination and neurological decompensation and is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. Methods Clinical, biochemical, radiological, and genetic investigation of a patient with suspected MATI/III deficiency were reviewed and/or performed. Results Our patient was a 5-day-old girl with hypermethioninemia (2 mg/dL, cut off level is 1 mg/dL) detected by NBS. Plasma concentration of methionine increased up to 20 mg/dL and she was treated by methionine-restricted diet. She developed irritability. Brain MRI showed central demyelination. Gene analysis identified compound heterozygous mutations in the MAT1A gene: c.812A>G (Y271C) and c.1066C>T (R356W). Conclusions The findings in our case indicate that myelination may be disturbed during fetal stage in patient with MATI/III deficiency.
Project description:Methionine adenosyltransferase ?1 (MAT?1, encoded by MAT1A) is responsible for hepatic biosynthesis of S-adenosyl methionine, the principal methyl donor. MAT?1 also act as a transcriptional cofactor by interacting and influencing the activity of several transcription factors. Mat1a knockout (KO) mice have increased levels of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The aims of the current study were to identify binding partners of MAT?1 and elucidate how MAT?1 regulates CYP2E1 expression. We identified binding partners of MAT?1 by coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) and mass spectrometry. Interacting proteins were confirmed using co-IP using recombinant proteins, liver lysates, and mitochondria. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) samples were used to confirm relevance of our findings. We found that MAT?1 negatively regulates CYP2E1 at mRNA and protein levels, with the latter being the dominant mechanism. MAT?1 interacts with many proteins but with a predominance of mitochondrial proteins including CYP2E1. We found that MAT?1 is present in the mitochondrial matrix of hepatocytes using immunogold electron microscopy. Mat1a KO hepatocytes had reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and higher mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, both of which were normalized when MAT1A was overexpressed. In addition, KO hepatocytes were sensitized to ethanol and tumor necrosis factor ?-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Interaction of MAT?1 with CYP2E1 was direct, and this facilitated CYP2E1 methylation at R379, leading to its degradation through the proteasomal pathway. Mat1a KO livers have a reduced methylated/total CYP2E1 ratio. MAT?1's influence on mitochondrial function is largely mediated by its effect on CYP2E1 expression. Patients with ALD have reduced MAT?1 levels and a decrease in methylated/total CYP2E1 ratio. Conclusion: Our findings highlight a critical role of MAT?1 in regulating mitochondrial function by suppressing CYP2E1 expression at multiple levels.
Project description:MAT (methionine adenosyltransferase) utilizes L-methionine and ATP to form SAM (S-adenosylmethionine), the principal methyl donor in biological methylation. Mammals encode a liver-specific isoenzyme, MAT1A, that is genetically linked with an inborn metabolic disorder of hypermethioninaemia, as well as a ubiquitously expressed isoenzyme, MAT2A, whose enzymatic activity is regulated by an associated subunit MAT2B. To understand the molecular mechanism of MAT functions and interactions, we have crystallized the ligand-bound complexes of human MAT1A, MAT2A and MAT2B. The structures of MAT1A and MAT2A in binary complexes with their product SAM allow for a comparison with the Escherichia coli and rat structures. This facilitates the understanding of the different substrate or product conformations, mediated by the neighbouring gating loop, which can be accommodated by the compact active site during catalysis. The structure of MAT2B reveals an SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase) core with specificity for the NADP/H cofactor, and harbours the SDR catalytic triad (YxxxKS). Extended from the MAT2B core is a second domain with homology with an SDR sub-family that binds nucleotide-sugar substrates, although the equivalent region in MAT2B presents a more open and extended surface which may endow a different ligand/protein-binding capability. Together, the results of the present study provide a framework to assign structural features to the functional and catalytic properties of the human MAT proteins, and facilitate future studies to probe new catalytic and binding functions.
Project description:Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) deficiency, characterized by isolated persistent hypermethioninemia (IPH), is caused by mutations in the MAT1A gene encoding MAT?l, one of the major hepatic enzymes. Most of the associated hypermethioninemic conditions are inherited as autosomal recessive traits; however, dominant inheritance of hypermethioninemia is caused by an Arg264His (R264H) mutation. This mutation has been confirmed in a screening programme of newborns as the most common mutation in babies with IPH. Arg264 makes an inter-subunit salt bridge located at the dimer interface where the active site assembles. Here, it is demonstrated that the R264H mutation results in greatly reduced MAT activity, while retaining its ability to dimerize, indicating that the lower activity arises from alteration at the active site. The first crystallographic structure of the apo form of the wild-type MAT?l enzyme is provided, which shows a tetrameric assembly in which two compact dimers combine to form a catalytic tetramer. In contrast, the crystal structure of the MAT?l R264H mutant reveals a weaker dimeric assembly, suggesting that the mutation lowers the affinity for dimer-dimer interaction. The formation of a hetero-oligomer with the regulatory MAT?V1 subunit or incubation with a quinolone-based compound (SCR0911) results in the near-full recovery of the enzymatic activity of the pathogenic mutation R264H, opening a clear avenue for a therapeutic solution based on chemical interventions that help to correct the defect of the enzyme in its ability to metabolize methionine.
Project description:Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is an essential cellular enzyme which catalyses the formation of S-adenosylmethionine, the principal methyl donor and precursor for polyamines. In mammals, two different genes, MAT1A and MAT2A, encode for liver-specific and non-liver-specific MAT respectively. We previously described a switch in the MAT expression from MAT1A to MAT2A in human liver cancer, which offered the cancerous cell a growth advantage. Loss of MAT1A expression was due to lack of gene transcription. To study regulation of the MAT1A gene, we have cloned and characterized a 1.9 kb 5'-flanking region of the human MAT1A gene. One transcriptional start site, located 25 nt downstream from a consensus TATA box, was identified by primer extension and RNase protection assays. The promoter contains several consensus binding sites for CAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) and hepatocyte-enriched nuclear factor (HNF), transcriptional factors important in liver-specific gene expression. The human MAT1A promoter was able to efficiently drive luciferase expression in Chang cells, a human liver cell line, but not in HeLa cells. Sequential deletion analysis of the promoter revealed two DNA regions upstream of the translational start site, -705 to -839 bp and -1111 to -1483 bp, which are involved in positive and negative gene regulation, respectively. Specific protein binding to these regions was confirmed by electrophoretic-mobility-shift and DNase I footprinting assays. Similar to the situation with the rat MAT1A, glucocorticoid treatment also increased human MAT1A expression and promoter activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner.