Creatine Prevents the Structural and Functional Damage to Mitochondria in Myogenic, Oxidatively Stressed C2C12 Cells and Restores Their Differentiation Capacity.
ABSTRACT: Creatine (Cr) is a nutritional supplement promoting a number of health benefits. Indeed Cr has been shown to be beneficial in disease-induced muscle atrophy, improve rehabilitation, and afford mild antioxidant activity. The beneficial effects are likely to derive from pleiotropic interactions. In accord with this notion, we previously demonstrated that multiple pleiotropic effects, including preservation of mitochondrial damage, account for the capacity of Cr to prevent the differentiation arrest caused by oxidative stress in C2C12 myoblasts. Given the importance of mitochondria in supporting the myogenic process, here we further explored the protective effects of Cr on the structure, function, and networking of these organelles in C2C12 cells differentiating under oxidative stressing conditions; the effects on the energy sensor AMPK, on PGC-1?, which is involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and its downstream effector Tfam were also investigated. Our results indicate that damage to mitochondria is crucial in the differentiation imbalance caused by oxidative stress and that the Cr-prevention of these injuries is invariably associated with the recovery of the normal myogenic capacity. We also found that Cr activates AMPK and induces an upregulation of PGC-1? expression, two events which are likely to contribute to the protection of mitochondrial quality and function.
Project description:StarD7 is a phosphatidylcholine (PC)-specific lipid transfer protein essential for the maintenance of mitochondrial PC composition, morphogenesis, and respiration. Here, we studied the role of StarD7 in skeletal myoblast differentiation using mouse myoblast C2C12 cells and human primary myoblasts. Immunofluorescence and immuno-electron microscopy revealed that StarD7 was distributed in the cytosol, inner mitochondria space, and outer leaflet of the outer mitochondrial membrane in C2C12 cells. Unlike human kidney embryonic cell line HEK293 cells, the mitochondrial proteinase PARL was not involved in the processing and maturation of StarD7 in C2C12 cells. StarD7 was constantly expressed during myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of StarD7 in C2C12 cells and human primary myoblasts significantly impaired myogenic differentiation and reduced the expression of myomaker, myomerger and PGC-1?. The reduction in mitochondrial PC levels and oxygen consumption rates, decreased expression of myomaker, myomerger and PGC-1?, as well as impaired myogenic differentiation, were completely restored when the protein was reintroduced into StarD7-knockout C2C12 cells. These results suggest that StarD7 is important for skeletal myogenesis in mammals.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Doxorubicin (Dox) is a widely used anthracycline drug to treat cancer, yet numerous adverse effects influencing different organs may offset the treatment outcome, which in turn affects the patient's quality of life. Low-level lasers (LLLs) have resulted in several novel indications in addition to traditional orthopedic conditions, such as increased fatigue resistance and muscle strength. However, the mechanisms by which LLL irradiation exerts beneficial effects on muscle atrophy are still largely unknown.<h4>Results</h4>The present study aimed to test our hypothesis that LLL irradiation protects skeletal muscles against Dox-induced muscle wasting by using both animal and C2C12 myoblast cell models. We established SD rats treated with 4 consecutive Dox injections (12 mg/kg cumulative dose) and C2C12 myoblast cells incubated with 2 μM Dox to explore the protective effects of LLL irradiation. We found that LLL irradiation markedly alleviated Dox-induced muscle wasting in rats. Additionally, LLL irradiation inhibited Dox-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and oxidative stress via the activation of AMPK and upregulation of SIRT1 with its downstream signaling PGC-1α. These aforementioned beneficial effects of LLL irradiation were reversed by knockdown AMPK, SIRT1, and PGC-1α in C2C12 cells transfected with siRNA and were negated by cotreatment with mitochondrial antioxidant and P38MAPK inhibitor. Therefore, AMPK/SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway activation may represent a new mechanism by which LLL irradiation exerts protection against Dox myotoxicity through preservation of mitochondrial homeostasis and alleviation of oxidative stress and apoptosis.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our findings may provide a novel adjuvant intervention that can potentially benefit cancer patients from Dox-induced muscle wasting.
Project description:The etiology of chondrocyte mitochondrial dysfunction in osteoarthritis (OA) is not completely understood. OA chondrocytes are deficient in the metabolic biosensors active AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT-1), which modulate the mitochondrial biogenesis "master regulator" peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?). Moreover, PGC-1? critically mediates AMPK anticatabolic activity in chondrocytes. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that mitochondrial biogenesis is deficient in human OA chondrocytes and that this deficiency functionally increases chondrocyte procatabolic responses, which are reversed by activation of the AMPK/SIRT-1/PGC-1? pathway.We assessed the expression and activity (phosphorylation) of AMPK?, SIRT-1, and PGC-1? in human knee chondrocytes and human and mouse knee cartilage, and we defined and compared the content and function of mitochondria, including oxidative phosphorylation and expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors (mitochondrial transcriptional factor A [TFAM] and nuclear respiratory factors [NRFs]).Human knee OA chondrocytes had a decreased mitochondrial biogenesis capacity, which was linked to reduced AMPK? activity and decreased expression of SIRT-1, PGC-1?, TFAM, NRF-1, and NRF-2. Human knee OA and aging mouse knee cartilage had decreased expression of TFAM and ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein, a subunit of mitochondrial complex III, in situ. Chondrocyte TFAM knockdown inhibited mitochondrial biogenesis and enhanced procatabolic responses to interleukin-1?. Finally, activation of AMPK by A-769662 increased PGC-1? expression via SIRT-1 and reversed impairments in mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and intracellular ATP in human knee OA chondrocytes.Mitochondrial biogenesis is deficient in human OA chondrocytes, and this deficiency promotes chondrocyte procatabolic responses. TFAM-mediated activation of the AMPK/SIRT-1/PGC-1? pathway reverses these effects, suggesting translational potential of pharmacologic AMPK activators to limit OA progression.
Project description:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) is expressed in skeletal muscles and regulates systemic metabolism. Thus, nutraceuticals targeting skeletal muscle PGC-1? have attracted attention to modulate systemic metabolism. As auraptene contained in citrus fruits promotes lipid metabolism and improves mitochondrial respiration, it could increase mitochondrial function through PGC-1?. Therefore, we hypothesized that PGC-1? is activated by auraptene and investigated its effect using <i>Citrus hassaku</i> extract powder (CHEP) containing >80% of auraptene. C2C12 myotubes were incubated with vehicle or CHEP for 24 h; C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet or a 0.25% (<i>w</i>/<i>w</i>) CHEP-containing diet for 5 weeks. PGC-1? protein level and mitochondrial content increased following CHEP treatment in cultured myotubes and skeletal muscles. In addition, the number of oxidative fibers increased in CHEP-fed mice. These findings suggest that CHEP-mediated PGC-1? upregulation induced mitochondrial biogenesis and fiber transformation to oxidative fibers. Furthermore, as CHEP increased the expression of the protein sirtuin 3 and of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the transcriptional activity of PGC-1?, these molecules might be involved in CHEP-induced effects in skeletal muscles. Collectively, our findings indicate that CHEP mediates PGC-1? expression in skeletal muscles and may serve as a dietary supplement to prevent metabolic disorders.
Project description:Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) homeostasis plays an essential role in preventing oxidative injury in endothelial cells, an initial step in atherogenesis. Resveratrol (RSV) possesses a variety of cardioprotective activities, however, little is known regarding the effects of RSV on mtROS homeostasis in endothelial cells. Sirt3 is a mitochondrial deacetylase, which plays a key role in mitochondrial bioenergetics and is closely associated with oxidative stress. The goal of the study is to investigate whether RSV could attenuate oxidative injury in endothelial cells via mtROS homeostasis regulation through Sirt3 signaling pathway. We found that pretreatment with RSV suppressed tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative damage in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by increasing cell viability, inhibiting cell apoptosis, repressing collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and decreasing mtROS generation. Moreover, the enzymatic activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) as well as deacetylation of SOD2 were increased by RSV pretreatment, suggesting RSV notably enhanced mtROS scavenging in t-BHP-induced endothelial cells. Meanwhile, RSV remarkably reduced mtROS generation by promoting Sirt3 enrichment within the mitochondria and subsequent upregulation of forkhead box O3A (FoxO3A)-mediated mitochondria-encoded gene expression of ATP6, CO1, Cytb, ND2 and ND5, thereby leading to increased complex I activity and ATP synthesis. Furthermore, RSV activated the expressions of phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) and Sirt3, as well as estrogen-related receptor-? (ERR?)-dependent Sirt3 mRNA transcription, which were abolished in the presence of AMPK inhibitor and AMPK, PGC-1? or Sirt3 siRNA transfection, indicating the effects of RSV on mtROS homeostasis regulation were dependent on AMPK-PGC-1?-ERR?-Sirt3 signaling pathway. Our findings indicated a novel mechanism that RSV-attenuated oxidative injury in endothelial cells through the regulation of mtROS homeostasis, which, in part, was mediated through the activation of the Sirt3 signaling pathway.
Project description:Myocyte differentiation involves complex interactions between signal transduction pathways and transcription factors. The estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) regulate energy substrate uptake, mitochondrial respiration, and biogenesis and may target structural gene programs in striated muscle. However, ERR?'s role in regulating myocyte differentiation is not known. ERR? and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) are coordinately upregulated with metabolic and skeletal muscle-specific genes early in myogenesis. We analyzed effects of ERR? overexpression and loss of function in myogenic models. In C2C12 myocytes ERR? overexpression accelerated differentiation, whereas XCT790 treatment delayed myogenesis and resulted in myotubes with fewer mitochondria and disorganized sarcomeres. ERR?-/- primary myocytes showed delayed myogenesis, resulting in structurally immature myotubes with reduced sarcomeric assembly and mitochondrial function. However, sarcomeric and metabolic gene expression was unaffected or upregulated in ERR?-/- cells. Instead, ERR?-/- myocytes exhibited aberrant ERK activation early in myogenesis, consistent with delayed myotube formation. XCT790 treatment also increased ERK phosphorylation in C2C12, whereas ERR? overexpression decreased early ERK activation, consistent with the opposing effects of these treatments on differentiation. The transient induction of MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), which mediates ERK dephosphorylation at the onset of myogenesis, was lost in ERR?-/- myocytes and in XCT790-treated C2C12. The ERR?-PGC-1? complex activates the Dusp1 gene, which encodes MKP-1, and ERR? occupies the proximal 5' regulatory region during early differentiation in C2C12 myocytes. Finally, treatment of ERR?-/- myocytes with MEK inhibitors rescued normal ERK signaling and myogenesis. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ERR? is required for normal skeletal myocyte differentiation via modulation of MAP kinase signaling.
Project description:The worldwide prevalence of metabolic diseases, including obesity and diabetes, is increasing. Mitochondrial dysfunction is recognized as a core feature of these diseases. Emerging evidence also suggests that defects in mitochondrial biogenesis, number, morphology, fusion, and fission, contribute to the development and progression of metabolic diseases. Our previous studies revealed that balanced deep-sea water (BDSW) has potential as a treatment for diabetes and obesity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism by which BDSW regulates diabetes and obesity by studying its effects on mitochondrial metabolism. To determine whether BDSW regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and function, we investigated its effects on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, mitochondrial enzyme activity, and the expression of transcription factors and mitochondria specific genes, as well as on the phosphorylation of signaling molecules associated with mitochondria biogenesis and its function in C2C12 myotubes. BDSW increased mitochondrial biogenesis in a time and dose-dependent manner. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that BDSW enhances gene expression of PGC-1?, NRF1, and TFAM for mitochondrial transcription; MFN1/2 and DRP1 for mitochondrial fusion; OPA1 for mitochondrial fission; TOMM40 and TIMM44 for mitochondrial protein import; CPT-1? and MCAD for fatty acid oxidation; CYTC for oxidative phosphorylation. Upregulation of these genes was validated by increased mitochondria staining, CS activity, CytC oxidase activity, NAD+ to NADH ratio, and the phosphorylation of signaling molecules such as AMPK and SIRT1. Moreover, drinking BDSW remarkably improved mtDNA content in the muscles of HFD-induced obese mice. Taken together, these results suggest that the stimulatory effect of BDSW on mitochondrial biogenesis and function may provide further insights into the regulatory mechanism of BDSW-induced anti-diabetic and anti-obesity action.
Project description:Enhanced oxidative stress has been associated with muscle mitochondrial changes and metabolic disorders. Thus, it might be a good strategy to decrease oxidative stress and improve mitochondrial changes in skeletal muscle. In the present study, we investigate the role of the most biologically active metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) in oxidative stress and mitochondrial changes in tertiary butyl-hydrogen (tBHP)-treated C2C12 muscle cells. Differentiated C2C12 muscle cells were pretreated with tBHP, followed by 1,25(OH)2D for additional 24 h. An exogenous inducer of oxidative stress, tBHP significantly increased oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, intracellular damage, and cell death which were reversed by 1,25(OH)2D in C2C12 myotubes. 1.25(OH)2D improves tBHP-induced mitochondrial morphological changes such as swelling, irregular cristae, and smaller size and number, as observed by transmission electron microscope. In addition, 1,25(OH)2D treatment increases mtDNA contents as well as gene expression involved in mitochondrial biogenesis such as PGC1?, NRF1, and Tfam. Significant increments in mRNA levels related to antioxidant enzymes such as Nrf2, HMOX1, and TXNRD1, myogenic differentiation markers including myoglobin, muscle creatine kinase (MCK), and MHC? and ??, and vitamin D metabolism such as CYP24, CYP27, and vitamin D receptor (VDR) were found in 1,25(OH)2D-treated myotubes. Moreover, upon t-BHP-induced oxidative stress, significant incremental changes in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) levels, activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/sirtulin 1 (SIRT1), and SIRT1 expression were noted in 1,25(OH)2D-treated C2C12 muscle cells. Taken together, these results suggest the observed potent inhibitory effect of 1,25(OH)2D on muscle oxidative stress and mitochondrial dynamics might be at least involved in the activation of AMPK and SIRT1 activation in muscle cells.
Project description:OBJECTIVE Transcriptional peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) plays a key role in mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism and is suggested to be involved in the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial content. PGC-1? activity is regulated by posttranslational modifications, among them acetylation or phosphorylation. Accordingly, the deacetylase SIRT1 and the kinase AMPK increase PGC-1? activity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We tested whether chronic treadmill exercise or a single exercise session modifies PGC-1? activation and mitochondrial biogenesis differentially in obese ob/ob mice with dysregulated adiponectin/leptin-mediated AMPK activation compared with C57BL/6J wild-type mice. RESULTS Exercise training (12 weeks) induced adiponectin and lowered plasma insulin and glucose, suggesting improved insulin sensitivity in wild-type mice. It enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis in red gastrocnemius muscle, as indicated by increased mRNA expression of transcriptional regulators and primary mitochondrial transcripts, increased mtDNA content, and citrate synthase activity. Parallel to this, we observed AMPK activation, PGC-1? deacetylation, and SIRT1 induction in trained wild-type mice. Although none of these exercise-induced changes were detected in ob/ob mice, comparable effects on mitochondrial respiration were observed. A single exercise session resulted in comparable changes in wild-type mice. These changes remained detectable 6 h after the exercise session but had disappeared after 24 h. Treatment of C2C12 myoblasts with leptin or adiponectin resulted in increased AMPK phosphorylation and PGC-1? deacetylation. CONCLUSIONS Chronic exercise induces mitochondrial biogenesis in wild-type mice, which may require intact AMPK activation by adipocytokines and involve SIRT1-dependent PGC-1? deacetylation. Trained ob/ob mice appear to have partially adapted to reduced mitochondrial biogenesis by AMPK/SIRT1/PGC-1?-independent mechanisms without mtDNA replication.
Project description:Red ginseng has been reported to elicit various therapeutic effects relevant to cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory diseases. However, the effect of red ginseng on exercise endurance and skeletal muscle function remains unclear. Herein, we sought to investigate whether red ginseng could affect exercise endurance and examined its molecular mechanism. Mice were fed with red ginseng extract (RG) and undertook swimming exercises to determine the time to exhaustion. Animals fed with RG had significantly longer swimming endurance. RG treatment was also observed to enhance ATP production levels in myoblasts. RG increased mRNA expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis regulators, NRF-1, TFAM, and PGC-1α, which was accompanied by an elevation in mitochondrial DNA, suggesting an enhancement in mitochondrial energy-generating capacity. Importantly, RG treatment induced phosphorylation of p38 and AMPK and upregulated PGC1α expression in both myoblasts and in vivo muscle tissue. In addition, RG treatment also stimulated C2C12 myogenic differentiation. Our findings show that red ginseng improves exercise endurance, suggesting that it may have applications in supporting skeletal muscle function and exercise performance.