Effectiveness of multidisciplinary intervention on blood pressure control in primary health care: a randomized clinical trial.
ABSTRACT: Hypertension is a public health problem and a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary program based on group and individual care versus group-only care, to promote blood pressure control in hypertensive patients in primary health care.Randomized controlled clinical trial. The study was conducted within the primary health care, in two units of the Family Health Strategy, covering 11,000 individuals, in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Two hundred and 56 patients, older than 40 years old and with uncontrolled hypertension, systolic blood pressure (BP) ?140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ?90 mmHg or ?130 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ?80 mmHg for individuals with diabetes. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to a health care program aiming for blood pressure control, with the multidisciplinary program group or with the multidisciplinary program plus personalized care group. Primary outcome measures were reduction in systolic BP from baseline to 6 months. Secondary measures included proportion of patients with systolic or diastolic BP controlled. Student t test, Pearson's chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed-ranks test and generalized estimating equation (GEE) model were used in the analysis.The baseline characteristics of participants were similar between groups. After 6 months of follow-up, systolic BP decreased markedly in both groups (? - 11.8 mmHg [SD, 20.2] in the multidisciplinary program group and ? - 12.9 mmHg [SD, 19.2] in the personalized care group; p?
Project description:BACKGROUND:The agreement between invasive and non-invasive blood pressure (BP) readings in the first days of life of preterm infants is contentiously debated. OBJECTIVE:To compare mean, systolic and diastolic invasive (IBP) and non-invasive BP (NBP) readings obtained during routine care in the first four weeks of life of extremely preterm infants. METHODS:We extracted pairs of IBP and NBP readings obtained from preterm infants born below 28 weeks of gestation from the local database. After exclusion of erroneous measurements, we investigated the repeated measures correlation and analyzed the agreement (bias) and precision adjusted for multiple measurements per individual. RESULTS:Among 335 pairs of IBP and NBP readings obtained from 128 patients, we found correlation coefficients >0.65 for mean, systolic and diastolic BP values. The bias for mean BP readings was -0.4 mmHg (SD 6.1), for systolic BP readings 6.2 mmHg (SD 8.1), and for diastolic BP readings -4.3 mmHg (SD 6.5). Overestimation of systolic IBP and underestimation of diastolic IBP by the non-invasive measurement were found both in the group with gestational age from 23 to 25.9 weeks and in the group with gestational age from 26 to 27.9 weeks. Systolic NBP readings tended to exceed invasive readings in the range <50 mmHg (bias 9.9 mmHg) whereas diastolic NBP readings were lower than invasive values particularly in the range >30 mmHg (bias -5.5 mmHg). CONCLUSION:The disagreement between invasive and non-invasive BP readings in infants extends to the first four weeks of life. Biases differ for mean, systolic and diastolic BP values. Our observation implies that they may depend on the range of the blood pressure. Awareness of these biases and preemptive concomitant use of IBP and NPB readings may contribute to reducing over- or under-treatment.
Project description:The association of individual BP components with changes in eGFR in patients with late-stage CKD is unknown. The objectives of our study were to examine the associations of systolic BP, diastolic BP, and pulse pressure with continuous temporal changes in eGFR and an eGFR decline ?30% in late-stage CKD.We performed a retrospective cohort study (2010-2015) of patients with CKD in a multidisciplinary CKD clinic with an eGFR?30. The associations of repeat measures of BP (systolic BP, diastolic BP, and pulse pressure) with eGFR were examined using general linear mixed models. The associations of BP components and eGFR decline ?30% were examined with time-varying Cox models.In total, 1203 patients were followed for a median of 548 days (interquartile range, 292-913), with an average of 6.7 visits and BP measures per patient. Mean baseline systolic BP, diastolic BP, pulse pressure, and eGFR were 139.2 mmHg, 73.2 mmHg, 64.9 mmHg, and 16.8 ml/min, respectively. Systolic BP and diastolic BP measures over time were statistically significantly associated with changes in eGFR (P<0.001), whereas pulse pressure was not. Patients with extremes of systolic BP (<105 or >170) and high diastolic BP (>90) measures were at a higher risk of GFR decline ?30% (systolic BP <105: hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.98 to 2.34; systolic BP >170: hazard ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 2.49; referent systolic BP =121-130; diastolic BP =81-90: hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.86; diastolic BP >90: hazard ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.77; referent diastolic BP =61-70). The findings were consistent after multiple sensitivity analyses. Pulse pressure was not significantly associated with risk of eGFR decline.In patients referred to a multidisciplinary care clinic with late-stage CKD, only extremes of systolic BP and elevations of diastolic BP were associated with eGFR decline.
Project description:Inadequate blood pressure (BP) control is a frequent challenge in general practice. The objective of this study was to determine whether a color-coded BP booklet using a traffic light scheme (red, >180 mmHg systolic BP and/or >110 mmHg diastolic BP; yellow, >140-180 mmHg systolic BP or >90-110 mmHg diastolic BP; green, ≤140 mmHg systolic BP and ≤90 mmHg diastolic BP) improves BP control and adherence with home BP measurement.In this two-group, randomized controlled trial, general practitioners recruited adult patients with a BP >140 mmHg systolic and/or >90 mmHg diastolic. Patients in the control group received a standard BP booklet and the intervention group used a color-coded booklet for daily home BP measurement. The main outcomes were changes in BP, BP control (treatment goal <140/90 mmHg), and adherence with home BP measurement after 6 months.One hundred and twenty-one of 137 included patients qualified for analysis. After 6 months, a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic BP was achieved in both groups, with no significant difference between the groups (16.1/7.9 mmHg in the intervention group versus 13.1/8.6 mmHg in the control group, P=0.3/0.7). BP control (treatment target <140/90 mmHg) was achieved significantly more often in the intervention group (43% versus 25%; P=0.037; number needed to treat of 5). Adherence with home BP measurement overall was high, with a trend in favor of the intervention group (98.6% versus 96.2%; P=0.1).Color-coded BP self-monitoring significantly improved BP control (number needed to treat of 5, meaning that every fifth patient utilizing color-coded self-monitoring achieved better BP control after 6 months), but no significant between-group difference was observed in BP change. A markedly higher percentage of patients achieved BP values in the normal range. This simple, inexpensive approach of color-coded BP self-monitoring is user-friendly and applicable in primary care, and should be implemented in the care of patients with arterial hypertension.
Project description:An effective lifestyle strategy to reduce cardiovascular diseases risk (CVD) factors is needed. We examined the effects of a whole-food plant-based (WFPB) lifestyle program on dietary intake and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in 151 adults (mean 39.6 (SD 12.5) years). Adherence was categorised into short-, medium- and long-term (years: (0.5-<2), (2-<5) and (5-10)), for both genders separately. Dietary intakes were assessed, fasting blood lipids and blood pressure (BP) were measured, and % participants reaching guideline recommended targets for LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and BP in the primary CVD prevention was assessed. There were no statistically significant differences in intakes of energy and most nutrients among participants (both genders), that were short-, medium- and long term in our program. Diet was mainly composed of unprocessed vegetables/fruits, whole grains, legumes, potatoes, and nuts/seeds. LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic BP were within targets for: 93%, 97%, 88% and 95% participants, respectively. In females (vs. males), total- and HDL-cholesterol were higher (mean): 3.8 (SD 0.7) vs. 3.4 (SD 0.9), p = 0.002 and 1.5 (SD 0.3) vs. 1.1 (SD 0.2) mmol/L, p < 0.001), systolic BP was lower (113 (SD 11) vs. 120 (SD 10) mmHg, p = 0.001), while there was no difference in diastolic BP (71 (SD 9) vs. 72 (SD 8) mmHg, p = 0.143). More females vs. males reached target triglycerides (99% vs. 91%, p = 0.021) and systolic BP (92% vs. 79%, p = 0.046), while similar females and males reached target LDL-cholesterol (94% vs. 91%, p = 0.500) and diastolic BP (93% vs. 100%, p = 0.107). Participation in our WFPB lifestyle program is associated with favourable dietary intakes, safety markers, and CV risk factor profiles.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Metabolic disorders are established precursors to cardiovascular diseases, yet they can be readily prevented with sustained lifestyle modifications. OBJECTIVE:We assessed the effectiveness of a smartphone-based weight management app on metabolic parameters in adults at high-risk, yet without physician diagnosis nor pharmacological treatment for metabolic syndrome, in a community setting. METHODS:In this 3-arm parallel-group, single-blind, randomized controlled trial, we recruited participants aged 30 to 59 years with at least 2 conditions defined by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program expert panel (abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high fasting glucose level). Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) by block randomization to either the nonuser group (control), the app-based diet and exercise self-logging group (app only), or the app-based self-logging and personalized coaching from professional dieticians and exercise coordinators group (app with personalized coaching). Assessments were performed at baseline, week 6, week 12, and week 24. The primary outcome was change in systolic blood pressure (between baseline and follow-up assessments). Secondary outcomes were changes in diastolic blood pressure, body weight, body fat mass, waist circumference, homeostatic model of assessment of insulin resistance, triglyceride level, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level between baseline and follow-up assessments. Analysis was performed using intention-to-treat. RESULTS:Between October 28, 2017 and May 28, 2018, 160 participants participated in the baseline screening examination. Participants (129/160, 80.6%) who satisfied the eligibility criteria were assigned to control (n=41), app only (n=45), or app with personalized coaching (n=43) group. In each group, systolic blood pressure showed decreasing trends from baseline (control: mean -10.95, SD 2.09 mmHg; app only: mean -7.29, SD 1.83 mmHg; app with personalized coaching: mean -7.19, SD 1.66 mmHg), yet without significant difference among the groups (app only: P=.19; app with personalized coaching: P=.16). Instead, those in the app with personalized coaching group had greater body weight reductions (control: mean -0.12, SD 0.30 kg; app only: mean -0.35, SD 0.36 kg, P=.67; app with personalized coaching: mean -0.96, SD 0.37 kg; P=.08), specifically by body fat mass reduction (control: mean -0.13, SD 0.34 kg; app only: mean -0.64, SD 0.38 kg, P=.22; app with personalized coaching: mean -0.79, SD 0.38 kg; P=.08). CONCLUSIONS:Simultaneous diet and exercise self-logging and persistent lifestyle modification coaching were ineffective in lowering systolic blood pressure but effective in losing weight and reducing body fat mass. These results warrant future implementation studies of similar models of care on a broader scale in the context of primary prevention. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03300271; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03300271.
Project description:Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for hypertension.We assessed 8155 participants in a community-based program to investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status and blood pressure (BP) and the influence of vitamin D supplementation on hypertension. Participants were provided vitamin D supplements to reach a target serum 25(OH)D > 100 nmol/L. A nested case-control study was conducted to examine the effect of achieving physiological vitamin D status in those who were hypertensive and not taking BP-lowering medication, and hypertensive participants that initiated BP-lowering medication after program entry.At baseline, 592 participants (7.3%) were hypertensive; of those, 71% were no longer hypertensive at follow-up (12 ± 3 months later). There was a significant negative association between BP and serum 25(OH)D level (systolic BP: coefficient = -0.07, p < 0.001; diastolic BP: coefficient = -0.1, p < 0.001). Reduced mean systolic (-18 vs. -14 mmHg) and diastolic (-12 vs. -12 mmHg) BP, pulse pressure (-5 vs. -1 mmHg) and mean arterial pressure (-14 vs. -13 mmHg) were not significantly different between hypertensive participants who did and did not take BP-lowering medication.Improved serum 25(OH)D concentrations in hypertensive individuals who were vitamin D insufficient were associated with improved control of systolic and diastolic BP.
Project description:International guidelines highlight the importance of blood pressure (BP) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, BP measurement in AF is complicated by beat-to-beat fluctuation. Automated BP measurement devices are not validated for patients with AF and no consensus exists on how to measure BP in AF manually. Beat-to-beat BP measurement using the volume-clamp method (VCM) could represent a non-invasive method to accurately assess BP, but has not been validated in AF. 31 admitted patients with sustained AF and 10 control patients with sinus rhythm underwent simultaneous intra-arterial and non-invasive BP measurement using a VCM monitor (Nexfin<sup>®</sup>, BMEYE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). Patients with compromised peripheral perfusion, high doses of vasopressor drugs or peripheral edema were excluded. Differences in systolic, diastolic and mean BP of 5 (standard deviation; SD 8) mmHg (accuracy and precision) between both methods were considered acceptable. Additionally, the magnitude of beat-to-beat fluctuations in systolic BP of both methods was compared. In AF, the differences between noninvasive and invasive BP were -4 (SD 12), +1 (SD 7) and 0 (SD 8) mmHg for systolic, diastolic and mean BP respectively. Absolute differences in beat-to-beat BP fluctuations were 1.5 (IQR 0.8-3.8) mmHg. Accuracy of VCM in AF was similar to sinus rhythm. In conclusion, in patients with AF, accurate and precise measurement of non-invasive beat-to-beat BP measurement using the VCM is possible, the one exception being the precision of systolic BP. Beat-to-beat variability can be accurately reproduced.
Project description:Increased visit-to-visit variability of BP is associated with cardiovascular disease risk. We examined the association of visit-to-visit variability of BP with renal outcomes among 21,245 participants in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial.We measured mean BP and visit-to-visit variability of BP, defined as SD, across five to seven visits occurring 6-28 months after participants were randomized to chlorthalidone, amlodipine, or lisinopril. The composite outcome included incident ESRD after assessment of SD of systolic BP or ?50% decline in eGFR between 24 months and 48 or 72 months after randomization. We repeated the analyses using average real variability and peak value of systolic BP and for visit-to-visit variability of diastolic BP.Over a mean follow-up of 3.5 years, 297 outcomes occurred. After multivariable adjustment, including baseline eGFR and mean systolic BP, the hazard ratios for the composite end point were 1.29 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.75 to 2.22), 1.76 (95% CI, 1.06 to 2.91), 1.46 (95% CI, 0.88 to 2.45), and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.25 to 3.36) for the second through fifth (SD of systolic BP =6.63-8.82, 8.83-11.14, 11.15-14.56, and >14.56 mmHg, respectively) versus the first (SD of systolic BP <6.63 mmHg) quintile of SD of systolic BP, respectively (P trend =0.004). The association was similar when ESRD and a 50% decline in eGFR were analyzed separately, for other measures of visit-to-visit variability of systolic BP, and for visit-to-visit variability of diastolic BP.Higher visit-to-visit variability of BP is associated with higher risk of renal outcomes independent of mean BP.
Project description:A cuffless blood pressure (BP) device (TestBP) using pulse transit time is in clinical use, but leads to higher BP values compared to a cuff-based 24 h-BP reference device (RefBP). We evaluated the impact of a recent software update on BP results and TestBP's ability to differentiate between normo- and hypertension. 71 individuals had TestBP (Somnotouch-NIBP) and RefBP measurements simultaneously performed on either arm. TestBP results with software version V1.5 were compared to V1.4 and RefBP. Mean 24 h (±?SD) BP for the RefBP, TestBP-V1.4 and TestBP-V1.5 were systolic 134.0 (±?17.3), 140.8 (±?20) and 139.1 (±?20) mmHg, and diastolic 79.3 (±?11.7), 85.8 (±?14.1) and 83.5 (±?13.0) mmHg, respectively (p-values?<?0.001). TestBP-V1.5 area under the curve (95% confidence interval) versus RefBP for hypertension detection was 0.92 (0.86; 0.99), 0.94 (0.88; 0.99) and 0.77 (0.66; 0.88) for systolic and 0.92 (0.86; 0.99), 0.92 (0.85; 0.99) and 0.84 (0.74; 0.94) for diastolic 24 h, awake and asleep BP respectively. TestBP-V1.5 detected elevated systolic/diastolic mean 24 h-BP with a 95%/90% sensitivity and 65%/70% specificity. Highest Youden's Index was systolic 133 (sensitivity 95%/specificity 80%) and diastolic 87 mmHg (sensitivity 81%/specificity 98%). The update improved the agreement to RefBP. TestBP was excellent for detecting 24 h and awake hypertensive BP values but not for asleep BP values.
Project description:Strategies are needed to improve adherence to the blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level recommendations after stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA). We investigated whether nurse-led, telephone-based follow-up that included medication titration was more efficient than usual care in improving BP and LDL-C levels 36 months after discharge following stroke or TIA.All patients admitted for stroke or TIA at Östersund hospital that could participate in the telephone-based follow-up were considered eligible. Participants were randomized to either nurse-led, telephone-based follow-up (intervention) or usual care (control). BP and LDL-C were measured one month after discharge and yearly thereafter. Intervention group patients who did not meet the target values received additional follow-up, including lifestyle counselling and medication titration, to reach their treatment goals (BP?<?140/90 mmHg, LDL-C?<?2.5 mmol/L). The primary outcome was the systolic BP level 36 months after discharge.Out of 871 randomized patients, 660 completed the 36-month follow-up. The mean systolic and diastolic BP values in the intervention group were 128.1 mmHg (95% CI 125.8-130.5) and 75.3 mmHg (95% CI 73.8-76.9), respectively. This was 6.1 mmHg (95% CI 3.6-8.6, p?<?0.001) and 3.4 mmHg (95% CI 1.8-5.1, p?<?0.001) lower than in the control group. The mean LDL-C level was 2.2 mmol/L in the intervention group, which was 0.3 mmol/L (95% CI 0.2-0.5, p?<?0.001) lower than in controls. A larger proportion of the intervention group reached the treatment goal for BP (systolic: 79.4% vs. 55.3%, p?<?0.001; diastolic: 90.3% vs. 77.9%, p?<?0.001) as well as for LDL-C (69.3% vs. 48.9%, p?<?0.001).Compared with usual care, a nurse-led telephone-based intervention that included medication titration after stroke or TIA improved BP and LDL-C levels and increased the proportion of patients that reached the treatment target 36 months after discharge.ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN23868518 (retrospectively registered, June 19, 2012).