Diagnosis and treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a consensus guideline.
ABSTRACT: To improve awareness and recognition of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) among non-specialists and patients. To provide guidance to healthcare professionals treating patients with CBP and CP/CPPS, in both non-specialist and specialist settings. To promote efficient referral of care between non-specialists and specialists and the involvement of the multidisciplinary team (MDT).The guideline population were men with CBP or CP/CPPS (persistent or recurrent symptoms and no other urogenital pathology for ?3 of the previous 6 months). Consensus recommendations for the guidelines were based on a search to identify literature on the diagnosis and management of CBP and CP/CPPS (published between 1999 and February 2014). A Delphi panel process was used where high-quality, published evidence was lacking.CBP and CP/CPPS can present with a wide range of clinical manifestations. The four main symptom domains are urogenital pain, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS - voiding or storage symptoms), psychological issues and sexual dysfunction. Patients should be managed according to their individual symptom pattern. Options for first-line treatment include antibiotics, ?-adrenergic antagonists (if voiding LUTS are present) and simple analgesics. Repeated use of antibiotics, such as quinolones, should be avoided if there is no obvious symptomatic benefit from infection control or cultures do not support an infectious cause. Early use of treatments targeting neuropathic pain and/or referral to specialist services should be considered for patients who do not respond to initial measures. An MDT approach (urologists, pain specialists, nurse specialists, specialist physiotherapists, general practitioners, cognitive behavioural therapists/psychologists, and sexual health specialists) is recommended. Patients should be fully informed about the possible underlying causes and treatment options, including an explanation of the chronic pain cycle.Chronic prostatitis can present with a wide variety of signs and symptoms. Identification of individual symptom patterns and a symptom-based treatment approach are recommended. Further research is required to evaluate management options for CBP and CP/CPPS.
Project description:Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common condition among men of a wide age range, with detrimental effects on quality of life. The etiology, pathogenesis, and optimal treatment of CP/CPPS remain unknown, although progress has been made in these domains in recent years. A wide variety of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies have been studied in clinical trials, but most have shown limited efficacy in symptom alleviation. CP/CPPS is increasingly viewed as a condition that involves variable degrees of neuropathic pain. Medications such as gabapentin, pregabalin, memantine, and tricyclic antidepressants are often used in other neuropathic pain conditions and, therefore, are considered potential treatments for CP/CPPS. Few studies of these agents in patients with CP/CPPS have been reported, but future clinical trials should help to determine their utility and to characterize the pathogenetic mechanisms of pain in CP/CPPS. Combining treatment trials with biomarker, genomic, and imaging studies, in addition to epidemiologic and symptom-based assessments, will maximize the ability to probe disease etiology and pathogenesis, as well as identify effective treatment.
Project description:Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a prevalent urologic disorder among men, but its etiology is still poorly understood. Our objective was to examine the relation between physical activity and incidence of CP/CPPS in a large cohort of male health professionals.We conducted a prospective cohort study among men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study followed from 1986 to 2008. The study population included 20,918 men who completed all CP/CPPS questions on the 2008 questionnaire. Leisure-time physical activity, including type and intensity of activity, was measured by questionnaire in 1986. A National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index pain score was calculated on the basis of the responses on the 2008 questionnaire. Participants with pain scores ?8 were considered CP/CPPS cases (n = 689).Higher leisure-time physical activity was associated with lower risk of CP/CPPS. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio comparing >35.0 to ?3.5 MET·h·wk of physical activity was 0.72 (95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.92; P for trend <0.001). Observed inverse associations between physical activity and CP/CPPS were similar for both moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities. Sedentary behavior, measured as time spent watching television, was not associated with risk of CP/CPPS (P for trend = 0.64).Findings from this study, the first large scale and most comprehensive study to date on this association, suggest that higher levels of leisure-time physical activity may lower risk of CP/CPPS in middle-age and older men.
Project description:To determine the effect of reported sexual, physical, or emotional abuse on the symptoms suggestive of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and to determine the effect of race/ethnicity on these patterns.The Boston Area Community Health (BACH) survey used a multi-stage stratified cluster sample to randomly sample 5,506 adults aged 30-79 from the city of Boston. BACH recruited 2,301 men (700 Black, 766 Hispanic, and 835 White). Interviewers administered questions approximating the National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index (CPSI), and symptoms suggestive of CP/CPPS were measured by the definition of perineal and/or ejaculatory pain and CPSI pain score of 4+. Questions about previous abuse were obtained from a validated self-administered questionnaire during the home visit. Logistic regression was used to determine the effect of abuse on the likelihood of a man having symptoms suggestive of CP/CPPS.The prevalence of symptoms suggestive of CP/CPPS was 6.5%. Men who reported having experienced sexual, physical, or emotional abuse had increased odds (1.7-3.3) for symptoms suggestive of CP/CPPS. Previous abuse increased both the pain and urinary scores from the CPSI.Symptoms suggestive of CP/CPPS are not uncommon in a community-based population of men. For men presenting with symptoms suggestive of CP/CPPS, clinicians may wish to consider screening for abuse.
Project description:Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) affects many adult men worldwide. The currently available therapies offer little or no proven benefit for CP/CPPS. We designed this study to assess the efficacy of acupuncture therapy for the treatment of CP/CPPS.This study is designed as a randomized, sham acupuncture-controlled trial. We will compare patients with CP/CPPS in an acupuncture group and a sham acupuncture group. Sixty-eight patients will be randomly allocated to receive acupuncture or sham acupuncture. The treatments will consist of 30-min sessions, three times weekly, for 8 weeks. The primary outcome measure is change in the weekly mean National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) total score from baseline through the 8-week treatment period. Secondary measures include the NIH-CPSI subscale scores, the total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), patients' response rate, and patient satisfaction after treatment. We will also assess changes in the NIH-CPSI total score from baseline at the 20th and 32nd week of follow-up.This is a randomized, sham-controlled trial of acupuncture treatment for CP/CPPS. The results of this trial will provide more evidence on whether acupuncture is efficacious for treating CP/CPPS.Clinical Trials.gov NCT02588274.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common condition affecting men of all ages. Acupuncture may be an effective treatment option for CP/CPPS, but evidence is limited. We propose to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in a rigorously conducted trial. METHODS:Ten hospitals will recruit 440 participants with CP/CPPS in China from October 2017 to December 2019. Participants will be randomly allocated to acupuncture or sham acupuncture with a 1:1 ratio using computerized simple random sampling. The whole study consists of 2-week baseline, 8-week treatment, and 24-week follow up. Twenty 30-mintute sessions of acupuncture or sham acupuncture treatment will be provided between week 1 and 8. The two co-primary outcomes are the proportion of responders at week 8 and week 32. Secondary outcomes include proportion of responders in the two groups at different time points; change in the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) total score; change in the NIH-CPSI subscales; change in the International Prostate Symptom Score; change in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; expectation assessments; proportions of participants in each response category of the Global Response Assessment; change in the International Index of Erectile Function 5; change in the five-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire and a visual analogue scale; and changes in peak and average urinary flow rate. DISCUSSION:This study will provide robust evidence on whether acupuncture is effective for relieving symptoms of CP/CPPS. TRIALS REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03213938. Registered on 5 July 2017.
Project description:Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) affects up to 15% of the male population and is characterized by pelvic pain. Mast cells are implicated in the murine experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) model as key to chronic pelvic pain development. The mast cell mediator tryptase-? and its cognate receptor protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) are involved in mediating pain in other visceral disease models. Prostatic secretions and urines from CP/CPPS patients were examined for the presence of mast cell degranulation products. Tryptase-? and PAR2 expression were examined in murine EAP. Pelvic pain and inflammation were assessed in the presence or absence of PAR2 expression and upon PAR2 neutralization. Tryptase-? and carboxypeptidase A3 were elevated in CP/CPPS compared to healthy volunteers. Tryptase-? was capable of inducing pelvic pain and was increased in EAP along with its receptor PAR2. PAR2 was required for the development of chronic pelvic pain in EAP. PAR2 signaling in dorsal root ganglia led to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation and calcium influx. PAR2 neutralization using antibodies attenuated chronic pelvic pain in EAP. The tryptase-PAR2 axis is an important mediator of pelvic pain in EAP and may play a role in the pathogenesis of CP/CPPS.
Project description:Chronic prostatitis (CP) significantly worsens a patient's quality of life (QOL), but its etiology is heterogeneous. Although the inflammatory process must be associated with CP symptoms, not all patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and histological prostatitis complain of CP symptoms. The relation between the severity of histological inflammation and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and erectile function is not fully understood.This study comprised 26 men with suspected prostate cancer but with no malignant lesion by pathological examination of prostate biopsy specimens. LUTS were assessed by several questionnaires including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), QOL index, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), and the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), and erectile function was assessed by the Sexual Health Inventory for Men. Prostate volume (PV) measured by transabdominal ultrasound, maximum flow rate by uroflowmetry, and serum concentration of prostate-specific antigen were also evaluated. All data collections were performed before prostate biopsy. Histological prostatitis was assessed by immunohistochemical staining with anti-CD45 antibody as the Quick score. The relation between the Quick score and several factors was assessed by Pearson correlation coefficient and a multivariate linear regression model after adjustment for PV.The Pearson correlation coefficient showed a correlation between the Quick score and several factors including PV, IPSS, QOL index, OABSS, and NIH-CPSI. A multivariate linear regression model after adjustment for PV showed only the NIH-CPSI to be associated with the Quick score. The relation between the Quick score and each domain score of the NIH-CPSI showed only the subscore of urinary symptoms to be an associated factor.We found a correlation only between histological prostatitis and LUTS, but not erectile dysfunction. Especially, the subscore of urinary symptoms (residual feeling and urinary frequency) was associated with histological prostatitis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) has been treated with several different interventions with limited success. This meta-analysis aims to review all trials reporting on therapeutic intervention for CP/CPPS using the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI). METHODS: We searched Medline, PubMed, the Cochrane Pain, Palliative & Supportive Care Trials, the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the NIDDK website between 1947 and December 31, 2011 without language or study type restrictions. All RCTs for CP/CPPS lasting at least 6 weeks, with a minimum of 10 participants per arm, and using the NIH-CPSI score, the criterion standard for CP/CPPS, as an outcome measure were included. Data was extracted from each study by two independent reviewers. Gillbraith and I-squared plots were used for heterogeneity testing and Eggers and Peters methods for publication bias. Quality was assessed using a component approach and meta-regression was used to analyze sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: Mepartricin, percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS), and triple therapy comprised of doxazosin + ibuprofen + thiocolchicoside (DIT) resulted in clinically and statistically significant reduction in NIH-CPSI total score. The same agents and aerobic exercise resulted in clinically and statistically significant NIH-CPSI pain domain score reduction. Acupuncture, DIT, and PTNS were found to produce statistically and clinically significant reductions in the NIH-CPSI voiding domain. A statistically significant placebo effect was found for all outcomes and time analysis showed that efficacy of all treatments increased over time. Alpha-blockers, antibiotics, and combinations of the two failed to show statistically or clinically significant NIH-CPSI reductions. CONCLUSION: Results from this meta-analysis reflect our current inability to effectively manage CP/CPPS. Clinicians and researchers must consider placebo effect and treatment efficacy over time and design studies creatively so we can more fully elucidate the etiology and role of therapeutic intervention in CP/CPPS.
Project description:PURPOSE:Chronic prostatitis (CP), including chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS), is the most commonly encountered manifestation of prostatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of electric stimulation hyperthermia treatment (ESHT) on CP/CPPS and to explore the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS:RWPE-2 cells with lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and a prostatitis rat model induced by 17?-estradiol and dihydrotestosterone underwent sham, electric stimulation, or ESHT treatment. Four weeks later, cells, supernatants, and rat prostates were collected for analysis using immunohistochemistry, Western blots, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS:We found that ESHT improved prostatitis in vivo and attenuated inflammation in vitro. ESHT significantly induced suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) expression and subsequently promoted HSP70. It attenuated inflammation through decreased expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor kappa B, and subsequent inflammatory cytokines. ESHT also inhibited apoptosis and released growth factor in tissue affected by prostatitis. CONCLUSIONS:ESHT improved CP/CPPS and reversed pathologic changes of prostatitis by inhibiting the SOCS3-TLR4 pathway.
Project description:Alpha-blockers and antibiotics are most commonly used to treat chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) in clinical practice. Currently, increasing evidence also suggests acupuncture as an effective strategy. This network meta-analysis intended to assess the comparative efficacy and safety of acupuncture, alpha-blockers and antibiotics for CP/CPPS. Twelve trials involving 1203 participants were included. Based on decreases in the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) score, a network meta-analysis indicated that electro-acupuncture (standard mean difference [SMD]: 4.29; 95% credible interval [CrI], 1.96-6.65), acupuncture (SMD: 3.69; 95% CrI, 0.27-7.17), alpha-blockers (SMD: 1.85; 95% CrI, 1.07-2.64), antibiotics (SMD: 2.66; 95% CrI, 1.57-3.76), and dual therapy (SMD: 3.20; 95% CrI, 1.95-4.42) are superior to placebo in decreasing this score. Additionally, electro-acupuncture (SMD: 2.44; 95% CrI, 0.08-4.83) and dual therapy (SMD: 1.35; 95% CrI, 0.07-2.62) were more effective than alpha-blockers in decreasing the total NIH-CPSI total score. Other network meta-analyses did not show significant differences between interventions other placebo. The incidence of adverse events of acupuncture was relatively rare (5.4%) compared with placebo (17.1%), alpha-blockers (24.9%), antibiotics (31%) and dual therapy (48.6%). Overall, rank tests and safety analyses indicate that electro-acupuncture/acupuncture may be recommended for the treatment of CP/CPPS.