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Glioma-mediated microglial activation promotes glioma proliferation and migration: roles of Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1.


ABSTRACT: Microglia play important roles in extracellular matrix remodeling, tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and suppression of adaptive immunity in glioma. Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) regulates microglial activation and migration. However, little is known about the roles of NHE1 in intratumoral microglial activation and microglia-glioma interactions. Our study revealed up-regulation of NHE1 protein expression in both glioma cells and tumor-associated Iba1(+) microglia in glioma xenografts and glioblastoma multiforme microarrays. Moreover, we observed positive correlation of NHE1 expression with Iba1 intensity in microglia/macrophages. Glioma cells, via conditioned medium or non-contact glioma-microglia co-cultures, concurrently upregulated microglial expression of NHE1 protein and other microglial activation markers (iNOS, arginase-1, TGF-?, IL-6, IL-10 and the matrix metalloproteinases MT1-MMP and MMP9). Interestingly, glioma-stimulated microglia reciprocally enhanced glioma proliferation and migration. Most importantly, inhibition of microglial NHE1 activity via small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown or the potent NHE1-specific inhibitor HOE642 significantly attenuated microglial activation and abolished microglia-stimulated glioma migration and proliferation. Taken together, our findings provide the first evidence that NHE1 function plays an important role in glioma-microglia interactions, enhancing glioma proliferation and invasion by stimulating microglial release of soluble factors. NHE1 upregulation is a novel marker of the glioma-associated microglial activation phenotype. Inhibition of NHE1 represents a novel glioma therapeutic strategy by targeting tumor-induced microglial activation.

SUBMITTER: Zhu W 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC5008247 | BioStudies | 2016-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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