Glioma-mediated microglial activation promotes glioma proliferation and migration: roles of Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1.
ABSTRACT: Microglia play important roles in extracellular matrix remodeling, tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and suppression of adaptive immunity in glioma. Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) regulates microglial activation and migration. However, little is known about the roles of NHE1 in intratumoral microglial activation and microglia-glioma interactions. Our study revealed up-regulation of NHE1 protein expression in both glioma cells and tumor-associated Iba1(+) microglia in glioma xenografts and glioblastoma multiforme microarrays. Moreover, we observed positive correlation of NHE1 expression with Iba1 intensity in microglia/macrophages. Glioma cells, via conditioned medium or non-contact glioma-microglia co-cultures, concurrently upregulated microglial expression of NHE1 protein and other microglial activation markers (iNOS, arginase-1, TGF-?, IL-6, IL-10 and the matrix metalloproteinases MT1-MMP and MMP9). Interestingly, glioma-stimulated microglia reciprocally enhanced glioma proliferation and migration. Most importantly, inhibition of microglial NHE1 activity via small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown or the potent NHE1-specific inhibitor HOE642 significantly attenuated microglial activation and abolished microglia-stimulated glioma migration and proliferation. Taken together, our findings provide the first evidence that NHE1 function plays an important role in glioma-microglia interactions, enhancing glioma proliferation and invasion by stimulating microglial release of soluble factors. NHE1 upregulation is a novel marker of the glioma-associated microglial activation phenotype. Inhibition of NHE1 represents a novel glioma therapeutic strategy by targeting tumor-induced microglial activation.
Project description:Glioma tumors constitute a significant portion of microglial cells, which are known to support tumor progression. The present study demonstrates that transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) signaling pathway in microglia in a glioma environment is involved in tumor progression and pathogenesis. It has been shown that the TGF? level is elevated in higher grades of gliomas and its signaling pathway regulates tumor progression through phosphorylation of SMAD2 and SMAD3, which form a complex with SMAD4 to regulate target gene transcription. In an in vitro cell line-based model increased protein levels of pSMAD2/3, total SMAD2/3 and SMAD4 were observed in murine BV2 microglia cultured in glioma conditioned medium (GCM), indicative of the activated TGF? signaling pathway in microglia associated with glioma environment. Immunofluorescence labeling further revealed the expression of SMAD4 in microglial and non-microglial cells of human glioblastomas tissue in vivo. Functional analysis through shRNA-mediated stable knockdown of SMAD4 in microglia revealed the downregulation of the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), which has been shown to be involved in tumor progression and cell migration. Further, knockdown of SMAD4 in microglia decreased the migration of microglial cells towards GCM, indicating that SMAD4 promotes microglial migration in glioma environment. In addition, SMAD4 has been shown to be post-transcriptionally regulated by microRNA-146a, which was downregulated in microglia treated with GCM. Overexpression of miR-146a resulted in decreased expression of SMAD4 together with tumor supportive gene MMP9 in microglia, and subsequently suppressed microglial migration towards GCM, possibly through regulation of SMAD4. On the other hand, the cell viability assay revealed decreased viability of glioma cells when they were treated with conditioned medium derived from SMAD4 knockdown microglia or miR-146a overexpressed microglia as compared to glioma cells treated with the medium from control microglial cells. Taken together, the present study suggests that microglial SMAD4 which is epigenetically regulated by miR-146a promotes microglial migration in gliomas and glioma cell viability.
Project description:The weak immunogenicity of gliomas presents a barrier for effective immunotherapy. Na/H exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) maintains alkaline intracellular pH (pHi) of glioma cells and acidic microenvironment. In addition, NHE1 is expressed in tumor-associated microglia and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and involved in protumoral communications between glioma and TAMs. Therefore, we hypothesize that NHE1 plays a role in developing tumor resistance and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of pharmacological inhibition of NHE1 on combinatorial therapies. Here we show that temozolomide (TMZ) treatment stimulates NHE1 protein expression in two intracranial syngeneic mouse glioma models (SB28, GL26). Pharmacological inhibition of NHE1 potentiated the cytotoxic effects of TMZ, leading to reduced tumor growth and increased median survival of mice. Blockade of NHE1 stimulated proinflammatory activation of TAM and increased cytotoxic T cell infiltration into tumors. Combining TMZ, anti-PD-1 antibody treatment with NHE1 blockade significantly prolonged the median survival in the mouse glioma model. These results demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of NHE1 protein presents a new strategy for potentiating TMZ-induced cytotoxicity and increasing tumor immunogenicity for immunotherapy to improve glioma therapy.
Project description:Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive and fatal brain cancers due to the highly invasive nature of glioma cells. Microglia infiltrate most glioma tumors and, therefore, make up an important component of the glioma microenvironment. In the tumor environment, microglia release factors that lead to the degradation of the extracellular matrix and stimulate signaling pathways to promote glioma cell invasion. In the present study, we demonstrated that microglia can promote glioma migration through a mechanism independent of extracellular matrix degradation. Using western blot analysis, we found upregulation of proline rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) protein phosphorylated at Tyr579/580 in glioma cells treated with microglia conditioned medium. This upregulation occurred in rodent C6 and GL261 as well as in human glioma cell lines with varying levels of invasiveness (U-87MG, A172, and HS683). siRNA knock-down of Pyk2 protein and pharmacological blockade by the Pyk2/focal-adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor PF-562,271 reversed the stimulatory effect of microglia on glioma migration in all cell lines. A lower concentration of PF-562,271 that selectively inhibits FAK, but not Pyk2, did not have any effect on glioma cell migration. Moreover, with the use of the CD11b-HSVTK microglia ablation mouse model we demonstrated that elimination of microglia in the implanted tumors (GL261 glioma cells were used for brain implantation) by the local in-tumor administration of Ganciclovir, significantly reduced the phosphorylation of Pyk2 at Tyr579/580 in implanted tumor cells. Taken together, these data indicate that microglial cells activate glioma cell migration/dispersal through the pro-migratory Pyk2 signaling pathway in glioma cells.
Project description:The role of microglia, the brain-resident macrophages, in glioma biology is still a matter of debate. Clinical observations and in vitro studies in the mouse model indicate that microglia and macrophages that infiltrate the brain tumor tissue in high numbers play a tumor-supportive role. Here, we provide evidence that human microglia isolated from brain tumors indeed support tumor cell growth, migration, and invasion. However, after stimulation with the Toll-like receptor 3 agonist poly (I:C), microglia secrete factors that exerted toxic and suppressive effects on different glioblastoma cell lines, as assessed in cytotoxicity, migration, and tumor cell spheroid invasion assays. Remarkably, these effects were tumor-specific because the microglial factors impaired neither growth nor viability of astrocytes and neurons. Culture supernatants of tumor cells inhibited the poly (I:C) induction of this microglial M1-like, oncotoxic profile. Microglia stimulation before coculture with tumor cells circumvented the tumor-mediated suppression, as demonstrated by the ability to kill and phagocytose glioma cells. Our results show, for the first time to our knowledge, that human microglia exert tumor-supporting functions that are overridden by tumor-suppressing activities gained after poly (I:C) stimulation.
Project description:Whereas carcinogenesis requires the acquisition of driver mutations in progenitor cells, tumor growth and progression are heavily influenced by the local microenvironment. Previous studies from our laboratory have used Neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1) genetically engineered mice to characterize the role of stromal cells and signals to optic glioma formation and growth. Previously, we have shown that Nf1+/- microglia in the tumor microenvironment are critical cellular determinants of optic glioma proliferation. To define the role of microglia in tumor formation and maintenance further, we used CD11b-TK mice, in which resident brain microglia (CD11b+, CD68+, Iba1+, CD45low cells) can be ablated at specific times after ganciclovir administration. Ganciclovir-mediated microglia reduction reduced Nf1 optic glioma proliferation during both tumor maintenance and tumor development. We identified the developmental window during which microglia are increased in the Nf1+/- optic nerve and demonstrated that this accumulation reflected delayed microglia dispersion. The increase in microglia in the Nf1+/- optic nerve was associated with reduced expression of the chemokine receptor, CX3CR1, such that reduced Cx3cr1 expression in Cx3cr1-GFP heterozygous knockout mice led to a similar increase in optic nerve microglia. These results establish a critical role for microglia in the development and maintenance of Nf1 optic glioma.
Project description:Accumulation and infiltration of microglia/brain macrophages around and into glioma tissue promote tumor invasion and expansion. One tumor-promoting mechanism of microglia/brain macrophages is upregulation of membrane type 1 matrix metalloprotease (MT1-MMP), which promotes the degradation of extracellular matrix. MT1-MMP upregulation is induced by soluble factors released by glioma cells activating microglial Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2).Versican identified by proteomics was silenced in glioma cells by short interference RNA and short hairpin RNA approaches and studied in vitro and after injection into mouse brains or organotypic brain slices.The splice variants V0/V1 of the endogenous TLR2 ligand versican are highly expressed in mouse and human glioma tissue. Versican-silenced gliomas induced less MT1-MMP expression in microglia both in vitro and in vivo, which resulted in smaller tumors and longer survival rates as compared with controls. Recombinant versican V1 induced significantly higher levels of MT1-MMP in wild-type microglia compared with untreated and treated TLR2 knockout microglial cells. Using glioma-injected organotypic brain slices, we found that the impact of versican signaling on glioma growth depended on the presence of microglia. Moreover, we found that TLR2 expression is upregulated in glioma-associated microglia but not in astrocytes. Additionally, an established TLR2 neutralizing antibody reduced glioma-induced microglial MT1-MMP expression as well as glioma growth ex vivo.Our results show that versican released from glioma promotes tumor expansion through glioma-associated microglial/macrophage TLR2 signaling and subsequent expression of MT1-MMP. This signaling cascade might be a novel target for glioma therapies.
Project description:Gliomas are highly aggressive and accompanied by numerous microglia/macrophages (MG/MP) in and about the tumor. Little is known about what MG/MP do in this setting, or whether modulating MG/MP activation might affect glioma progression. Here, we used a glioma-microglia in culture system to establish the effects the tumor and microglia have on each other. We assessed glioma progression in vivo after MG/MP ablation or in the setting of exaggerated MG/MP activation. We show that glioma cells activate microglia but inhibit their phagocytic activities. Local ablation of MG/MP in vivo decreased tumor size and improved survival curves. Conversely, pharmacological activation of MG/MP increased glioma size through stimulating tumor proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. In agreement with recent reports, expression of the chemokine CCL21 is enhanced after MG/MP activation and correlates with tumor growth. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that inhibition of MG/MP activation may constitute a new and effective contribution towards suppressing glioma proliferation.
Project description:High-grade gliomas are malignant aggressive primary brain tumors with limited therapeutic options, and dismal prognosis for patients. Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, are recruited and reprogrammed into tumor-supporting cells by glioma cells, which in turn positively influence tumor expansion and infiltration into surrounding brain tissues. Here, we report that glioma-induced microglia conversion is coupled to an increase of histone H4 lysine 16 (H4K16) acetylation level in microglia, through increased nuclear localization of the deacetylase SIRT1, which in turn results in deacetylation of the H4K16 acetyltransferase hMOF and its recruitment to the chromatin at promoter regions of microglial target genes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that manipulation of the microglial H4K16 acetylation level, taking advantage of the intrinsic H4K16 deacetylase or acetyltransferase activities of SIRT1 and hMOF, respectively, modulated the tumor-supporting function of microglia. This study provides evidence that post-translational modifications of histones and the histone-modifying enzymes controlling them, such as H4K16 acetylation regulated by hMOF and SIRT1, are part of the microglial pro-tumoral activation pathway initiated by glioma cancer cells and represent potentially novel therapeutic targets.
Project description:Peripheral macrophages and resident microglia constitute the dominant glioma-infiltrating cells. The tumor induces an immunosuppressive and tumor-supportive phenotype in these glioma-associated microglia/brain macrophages (GAMs). A subpopulation of glioma cells acts as glioma stem cells (GSCs). We explored the interaction between GSCs and GAMs. Using CD133 as a marker of stemness, we enriched for or deprived the mouse glioma cell line GL261 of GSCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Over the same period of time, 100 CD133(+?)GSCs had the capacity to form a tumor of comparable size to the ones formed by 10,000 CD133(-) GL261 cells. In IL-6(-/-) mice, only tumors formed by CD133(+?)cells were smaller compared with wild type. After stimulation of primary cultured microglia with medium from CD133-enriched GL261 glioma cells, we observed an selective upregulation in microglial IL-6 secretion dependent on Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Our results show that GSCs, but not the bulk glioma cells, initiate microglial IL-6 secretion via TLR4 signaling and that IL-6 regulates glioma growth by supporting GSCs. Using human glioma tissue, we could confirm the finding that GAMs are the major source of IL-6 in the tumor context.
Project description:Na+ /H+ exchanger (NHE1) activation is required for multiple microglial functions. We investigated effects of selective deletion of microglial Nhe1 in Cx3cr1-CreER ;Nhe1f/f mice on neuroinflammation and tissue repair after ischemic stroke. Infarct volume was similar in corn oil or tamoxifen (Tam)-treated mice at 48 hr and 14 days post-stroke. However, the Tam-treated mice showed significantly higher survival rate and faster neurological function recovery during day 1-14 post-stroke. Deletion of microglial Nhe1 prevented the elevation of CD11b+ /CD45low-med microglia in the ischemic hemisphere at day 3 post-stroke, but stimulated expression of Ym1, CD68, TGF-?, IL-10, decreased expression of CD86 and IL-1?, and reduced GFAP+ reactive astrocytes. Moreover, at day 14 post-stroke, enhanced white matter myelination was detected in the microglial Nhe1 deleted mice. In comparison, neuronal Nhe1-null mice (the CamKII-Cre+/- ;Nhe1f/f mice) showed a significant reduction in both acute and subacute infarct volume, along with increased survival rate and moderate neurological function recovery. However, these neuronal Nhe1-null mice did not exhibit reduced activation of CD11b+ /CD45low-med microglia or CD11b+ /CD45hi macrophages in the ischemic brains, and they exhibited no reductions in white matter lesions. Taken together, this study demonstrated that deletion of microglial and neuronal Nhe1 had differential effects on ischemic brain damage. Microglial NHE1 is involved in pro-inflammatory responses during post-stroke brain tissue repair. In contrast, neuronal NHE1 activation is directly associated with the acute ischemic neuronal injury but not inflammation. Our study reveals that NHE1 protein is a potential therapeutic target critical for differential regulation of ischemic neuronal injury, demyelination and tissue repair.