Differential Effects of Long Term FTY720 Treatment on Endothelial versus Smooth Muscle Cell Signaling to S1P in Rat Mesenteric Arteries.
ABSTRACT: The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) analog FTY720 exerts pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular system and causes down-regulation of S1P receptors. Myogenic constriction is an important mechanism regulating resistance vessel function and is known to be modulated by S1P. Here we investigated myogenic constriction and vascular function of mesenteric arteries of rats chronically treated with FTY720. Wistar rats received FTY720 1mg/kg/daily for six weeks. At termination, blood pressure was recorded and small mesenteric arteries collected for vascular studies in a perfusion set up. Myogenic constriction to increased intraluminal pressure was low, but a sub-threshold dose of S1P profoundly augmented myogenic constriction in arteries of both controls and animals chronically treated with FTY720. Interestingly, endothelial denudation blocked the response to S1P in arteries of FTY720-treated animals, but not in control rats. In acute experiments, presence of FTY720 significantly augmented the contractile response to S1P, an effect that was partially abolished after the inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-)-derived prostaglandins. FTY720 down regulated S1P1 but not S1P2 in renal resistance arteries and in cultured human endothelial cells. This study therefore demonstrates the endothelium is able to compensate for the complete loss of responsiveness of the smooth muscle layer to S1P after long term FTY720 treatment through a mechanism that most likely involves enhanced production of contractile prostaglandins by the endothelium.
Project description:(1) Increased vascular resistance in chronic heart failure (CHF) has been attributed to stimulated neurohumoral systems. However, local mechanisms may also importantly contribute to set arterial tone. Our aim, therefore, was to test whether pressure-induced myogenic constriction of resistance arteries in vitro--devoid of acute effects of circulating factors--is increased in CHF and to explore underlying mechanisms. (2) At 12 weeks after coronary ligation-induced myocardial infarction or SHAM-operations in rats, we studied isolated mesenteric arteries for myogenic constriction, determined as the active constriction (% of passive diameter) in response to stepwise increase in intraluminal pressure (20 - 160 mmHg), in the absence and presence of inhibitors of potentially involved modulators of myogenic constriction. (3) We found that myogenic constriction in mesenteric arteries from CHF rats was markedly increased compared to SHAM over the whole pressure range, the difference being most pronounced at 60 mmHg (24+/-2 versus 4+/-3%, respectively, P<0.001). (4) Both removal of the endothelium as well as inhibition of NO production (L-N(G)-monomethylarginine, 100 micro M) significantly increased myogenic constriction (+16 and +25%, respectively), the increase being similar in CHF- and SHAM-arteries (P=NS). Neither endothelin type A (ET(A))-receptor blockade (BQ123, 1 micro M) nor inhibition of perivascular (sympathetic) nerve conduction (tetrodotoxin, 100 nM) affected the myogenic response in either group. (5) Interestingly, increased myogenic constriction in CHF was fully reversed after angiotensin II type I (AT(1))-receptor blockade (candesartan, 100 nM; losartan, 10 micro M), which was without effect in SHAM. In contrast, neither angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition (lisinopril, 1 micro M; captopril, 10 micro M) or AT(2)-receptor blockade (PD123319, 1 micro M), nor inhibition of superoxide production (superoxide dismutase, 50 U ml(-1)), TXA(2)-receptor blockade (SQ29,548, 1 micro M) or inhibition of cyclooxygenase-derived prostaglandins (indomethacin, 10 micro M) affected myogenic constriction. (6) Sensitivity of mesenteric arteries to angiotensin II (10 nM - 100 micro M) was increased (P<0.05) in CHF (pD(2) 7.1+/-0.4) compared to SHAM (pD(2) 6.2+/-0.3), while the sensitivity to KCl and phenylephrine was not different. (7) Our results demonstrate increased myogenic constriction in small mesenteric arteries of rats with CHF, potentially making it an important target for therapy in counteracting increased vascular resistance in CHF. Our results further suggest active and instantaneous participation of AT(1)-receptors in increased myogenic constriction in CHF, involving increased sensitivity of AT(1)-receptors rather than apparent ACE-mediated local angiotensin II production.
Project description:Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) selectively and potently constricts isolated cerebral arteries, but this response has not been pharmacologically characterized.The receptor subtype(s) involved in S1P-induced cerebrovascular constriction were characterized using genetic (S1P(2) and S1P(3) receptor null mice) and pharmacological tools (phospho-FTY720, a S1P(1/3/4/5) receptor agonist; SEW2871, a S1P(1) receptor agonist, JTE-013, a S1P(2) receptor antagonist, VPC23019, a S1P(1/3) receptor antagonist). Isolated basilar or peripheral (femoral, mesenteric resistance) arteries, from either rat or mouse, were studied in a wire myograph.S1P concentration-dependently constricted basilar artery in rat, wild-type (WT) and S1P(2) null mice, but barely affected vascular tone in S1P(3) null mice. Vasoconstriction to U46619 (a thromboxane analogue) or to endothelin-1 did not differ between WT, S1P(2) and S1P(3) null mice. JTE-013 inhibited not only S1P-induced vasoconstriction, but also KCl-, U46619- and endothelin-1-induced constriction. This effect was observed in WT as well as in S1P(2) null mice. VPC23019 increased the concentration-dependent vasoconstriction to S1P in both rat and mouse basilar arteries with intact endothelium, but not in rat basilar artery without endothelium. Phospho-FTY720 concentration-dependently constricted rat basilar arteries, but not femoral or mesenteric resistance arteries, while SEW2871 did not induce any response in the same arteries.S1P constricts cerebral arteries through S1P(3) receptors. The purported S1P(2) receptor antagonist JTE-013 does not appear to be selective, at least in rodents. Enhancement of S1P-induced contraction by VPC23019 might be related to blockade of S1P(1) receptors and NO generation.
Project description:We recently identified sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) as prominent regulators of myogenic responsiveness in rodent resistance arteries. However, since rodent models frequently exhibit limitations with respect to human applicability, translation is necessary to validate the relevance of this signaling network for clinical application. We therefore investigated the significance of these regulatory elements in human mesenteric and skeletal muscle resistance arteries. Mesenteric and skeletal muscle resistance arteries were isolated from patient tissue specimens collected during colonic or cardiac bypass surgery. Pressure myography assessments confirmed endothelial integrity, as well as stable phenylephrine and myogenic responses. Both human mesenteric and skeletal muscle resistance arteries (i) express critical S1P signaling elements, (ii) constrict in response to S1P and (iii) lose myogenic responsiveness following S1P receptor antagonism (JTE013). However, while human mesenteric arteries express CFTR, human skeletal muscle resistance arteries do not express detectable levels of CFTR protein. Consequently, modulating CFTR activity enhances myogenic responsiveness only in human mesenteric resistance arteries. We conclude that human mesenteric and skeletal muscle resistance arteries are a reliable and consistent model for translational studies. We demonstrate that the core elements of an S1P-dependent signaling network translate to human mesenteric resistance arteries. Clear species and vascular bed variations are evident, reinforcing the critical need for further translational study.
Project description:Relaxin is emerging as an important vasodilator of pregnancy and is being tested for afterload reduction in acute heart failure. However, the mechanisms underlying relaxin-induced vasodilation are incompletely understood. The aims of this study were to establish a new in vitro model for relaxin-induced vasodilation and to use this approach, as well as chronically instrumented, conscious rats, to investigate the role of angiogenic growth factors in the relaxin vasodilatory pathway. Incubation of rat and mouse small renal arteries with recombinant human H2 relaxin for 3 hours in vitro attenuated myogenic constriction, which was blocked by inhibitors of gelatinases, the endothelin B receptor, and NO synthase. These findings corroborate ex vivo observations in arteries isolated from relaxin-infused nonpregnant and midterm pregnant rats, thereby validating the new experimental approach and enabling the study of human arteries. Incubation of small human subcutaneous arteries with relaxin for 3 hours in vitro also attenuated myogenic constriction through the same molecular intermediates. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor SU5416, 3 different vascular endothelial growth factor, and 2 different placental growth factor neutralizing antibodies prevented relaxin from attenuating myogenic constriction in rat and mouse small renal and human subcutaneous arteries. SU5416 administration also prevented relaxin-induced renal vasodilation and hyperfiltration in chronically instrumented, conscious rats. Small renal arteries isolated from these rats demonstrated increased matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity in the relaxin-infused group, which was not prevented by SU5416. We conclude that there is concordance of relaxin vasodilatory mechanisms in rats, mice, and humans, and angiogenic growth factors are novel and essential intermediates.
Project description:In resistance arteries, there is an emerging view that smooth muscle CaV3.2 channels restrain arterial constriction through a feedback response involving the large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (BKCa). Here, we used wild-type and CaV3.2 knockout (CaV3.2(-/-)) mice to definitively test whether CaV3.2 moderates myogenic tone in mesenteric arteries via the CaV3.2-ryanodine receptor-BKCa axis and whether this regulatory mechanism influences blood pressure regulation.Using pressurized vessel myography, CaV3.2(-/-) mesenteric arteries displayed enhanced myogenic constriction to pressure but similar K(+)-induced vasoconstriction compared with wild-type C57BL/6 arteries. Electrophysiological and myography experiments subsequently confirmed the inability of micromolar Ni(2+), a CaV3.2 blocker, to either constrict arteries or suppress T-type currents in CaV3.2(-/-) smooth muscle cells. The frequency of BKCa-induced spontaneous transient outward K(+) currents dropped in wild-type but not in knockout arterial smooth muscle cells upon the pharmacological suppression of CaV3.2 channel. Line scan analysis performed on en face arteries loaded with Fluo-4 revealed the presence of Ca(2+) sparks in all arteries, with the subsequent application of Ni(2+) only affecting wild-type arteries. Although CaV3.2 channel moderated myogenic constriction of resistance arteries, the blood pressure measurements of CaV3.2(-/-) and wild-type animals were similar.Overall, our findings establish a negative feedback mechanism of the myogenic response in which CaV3.2 channel modulates downstream ryanodine receptor-BKCa to hyperpolarize and relax arteries.
Project description:Prolonged ouabain administration to normal rats causes sustained blood pressure (BP) elevation. This ouabain-induced hypertension (OH) has been attributed, in part, to the narrowing of third-order resistance arteries (approximately 320 microm internal diameter) as a result of collagen deposition in the artery media. Here we describe the structural and functional properties of fourth-order mesenteric small arteries from control and OH rats, including the effect of low-dose ouabain on myogenic tone in these arteries. Systolic BP in OH rats was 138 +/- 3 versus 124 +/- 4 mmHg in controls (P < 0.01). Pressurized (70 mmHg) control and OH arteries, with only a single layer of myocytes, both had approximately 165-microm internal diameters and approximately 20-microm wall thicknesses. Even after fixation, despite vasoconstriction, the diameters and wall thicknesses did not differ between control and OH fourth-order arteries, whereas in third-order arteries, both parameters were significantly smaller in OH than in controls. Myogenic reactivity was significantly augmented in OH fourth-order arteries. Nevertheless, phenylephrine- (1 microM) and high K(+)-induced vasoconstrictions and acetylcholine-induced vasodilation were comparable in control and OH arteries. Vasoconstrictions induced by 5 microM phenylephrine and by 10 mM caffeine in Ca(2+)-free media indicated that releasable sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores were normal in OH arteries. Importantly, 100 nM ouabain constricted both control and OH arteries by approximately 26 microm, indicating that this response was not downregulated in OH rats. This maximal ouabain-induced constriction corresponds to a approximately 90% increase in resistance to flow in these small arteries; thus ouabain at EC(50) of approximately 0.66 nM should raise resistance by approximately 35%. We conclude that dynamic constriction in response to circulating nanomolar ouabain in small arteries likely makes a major contribution to the increased vascular tone and BP in OH rats.
Project description:The tyrosine phosphorylated protein Crk-associated substrate (CAS) has previously been shown to participate in the cellular processes regulating dynamic changes in the actin architecture and arterial constriction. In the present study, treatment of rat mesenteric arteries with phenylephrine (PE) led to the increase in CAS tyrosine phosphorylation and the association of CAS with the adapter protein CrkII. CAS phosphorylation was catalyzed by Abl in an in vitro study. To determine the role of Abl tyrosine kinase in arterial vessels, plasmids encoding Abl short hairpin RNA (shRNA) were transduced into mesenteric arteries by chemical loading plus liposomes. Abl silencing diminished increases in CAS phosphorylation on PE stimulation. Previous studies have shown that assembly of the multiprotein compound containing CrkII, neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (N-WASP) and the Arp2/3 (Actin Related Protein) complex triggers actin polymerization in smooth muscle as well as in nonmuscle cells. In this study, Abl silencing attenuated the assembly of the multiprotein compound in resistance arteries on contractile stimulation. Furthermore, the increase in F/G-actin ratios (an index of actin assembly) and constriction on contractile stimulation were reduced in Abl-deficient arterial segments compared with control arteries. However, myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation (MRLCP) elicited by contractile activation was not inhibited in Abl-deficient arteries. These results suggest that Abl may play a pivotal role in mediating CAS phosphorylation, the assembly of the multiprotein complex, actin assembly, and constriction in resistance arteries. Abl does not participate in the regulation of myosin activation in arterial vessels during contractile stimulation.
Project description:Bile acids (BAs) regulate cardiovascular function via diverse mechanisms. Although in both health and disease serum glycine-conjugated BAs are more abundant than taurine-conjugated BAs, their effects on myogenic tone (MT), a key determinant of systemic vascular resistance (SVR), have not been examined.Fourth-order mesenteric arteries (170-250 µm) isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats were pressurized at 70 mmHg and allowed to develop spontaneous constriction, i.e., MT. Deoxycholylglycine (DCG; 0.1-100 µM), a glycine-conjugated major secondary BA, induced reversible, concentration-dependent reduction of MT that was similar in endothelium-intact and -denuded arteries. DCG reduced the myogenic response to stepwise increase in pressure (20 to 100 mmHg). Neither atropine nor the combination of L-NAME (a NOS inhibitor) plus indomethacin altered DCG-mediated reduction of MT. K(+) channel blockade with glibenclamide (K(ATP)), 4-aminopyradine (K(V)), BaCl(2) (K(IR)) or tetraethylammonium (TEA, K(Ca)) were also ineffective. In Fluo-2-loaded arteries, DCG markedly reduced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSM) Ca(2+) fluorescence (?50%). In arteries incubated with DCG, physiological salt solution (PSS) with high Ca(2+) (4 mM) restored myogenic response. DCG reduced vascular tone and VSM cytoplasmic Ca(2+) responses (?50%) of phenylephrine (PE)- and Ang II-treated arteries, but did not affect KCl-induced vasoconstriction.In rat mesenteric resistance arteries DCG reduces pressure- and agonist-induced vasoconstriction and VSM cytoplasmic Ca(2+) responses, independent of muscarinic receptor, NO or K(+) channel activation. We conclude that BAs alter vasomotor responses, an effect favoring reduced SVR. These findings are likely pertinent to vascular dysfunction in cirrhosis and other conditions associated with elevated serum BAs.
Project description:Pre-menopausal females have a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease compared with age-matched males, implying differences in the mechanisms and pathways regulating vasoactivity. In small arteries, myogenic tone (constriction in response to raised intraluminal pressure) is a major determinant of vascular resistance. Endothelium-derived dilators, particularly NO, tonically moderate myogenic tone and, because the endothelium is an important target for female sex hormones, we investigated whether NO-mediated moderation of myogenic tone differed between the sexes.Pressure-diameter or relaxation concentration-response curves to the NO donor spermine-NO or soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulation (BAY41-2272) were constructed before and following drug intervention in murine mesenteric resistance arteries. Hypotensive responses to activators of the NO-sGC pathway were determined. Quantitative PCR and Western blotting were used for expression analysis.NO synthase inhibition enhanced myogenic tone of arteries of both sexes while block of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) enhanced responses in arteries of females only. Spermine-NO concentration-dependently relaxed mesenteric arteries isolated from either sex. However, while inhibition of sGC activity attenuated responses of arteries from male mice only, endothelial denudation attenuated responses of arteries from females only. BAY41-2272 and spermine-NO-induced vasodilatation and hypotension were greater in males than in females.NO moderated myogenic tone in arteries of male mice by a sGC-dependent pathway while EDHF was the predominant endothelial regulator in arteries of females. This is a potentially important sexual dimorphism in NO-mediated reactivity and further implicates EDHF as the predominant endothelial vasodilator in female resistance arteries.
Project description:We examined the effects of dietary soy on the contributions of endothelium-derived hyperpolarising factor (EDHF), nitric oxide (NO), and oxidative stress to vascular tone in isolated aortic rings and small mesenteric and pulmonary arteries in vitro. Male Wistar rats were either continuously fed a soy-deficient diet (SD) or switched from a soy-deficient diet to a soy-rich one for 6 months (SW). Contractile responses were generally smaller in arteries from SW rats. In mesenteric arteries, this difference was blunted by L-NAME, but not by charybdotoxin and apamin. Preconstricted SW mesenteric arteries were more sensitive to acetylcholine (ACh) than SD ones. This difference was unaffected by L-NAME but was abolished by charybdotoxin and apamin. Exogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase induced powerful relaxations in aortic rings, which were smaller in those from SW rats. In mesenteric and pulmonary arteries, however, they partially inhibited ACh-mediated relaxation, and enhanced PGF(2alpha)-mediated contraction, respectively. Our results suggest that feeding aging male rats a soy-rich diet results in improved agonist-mediated EDHF production and a generalized reduction in contractile force, which is partly due to elevated basal NO. Our data also suggest a prorelaxant role for endogenous H(2)O(2) in small arteries, which is modulated by a soy diet.