Oral Vaccination with Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium-Delivered TsPmy DNA Vaccine Elicits Protective Immunity against Trichinella spiralis in BALB/c Mice.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Our previous studies showed that Trichinella spiralis paramyosin (TsPmy) is an immunomodulatory protein that inhibits complement C1q and C8/C9 to evade host complement attack. Vaccination with recombinant TsPmy protein induced protective immunity against T. spiralis larval challenge. Due to the difficulty in producing TsPmy as a soluble recombinant protein, we prepared a DNA vaccine as an alternative approach in order to elicit a robust immunity against Trichinella infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS:The full-length TsPmy coding DNA was cloned into the eukaryotic expression plasmid pVAX1, and the recombinant pVAX1/TsPmy was transformed into attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain SL7207. Oral vaccination of mice with this attenuated Salmonella-delivered TsPmy DNA vaccine elicited a significant mucosal sIgA response in the intestine and a systemic IgG antibody response with IgG2a as the predominant subclass. Cytokine analysis also showed a significant increase in the Th1 (IFN-?, IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4, 5, 6, 10) responses in lymphocytes from the spleen and MLNs of immunized mice upon stimulation with TsPmy protein. The expression of the homing receptors CCR9/CCR10 on antibody secreting B cells may be related to the translocation of IgA-secreted B cells to local intestinal mucosa. The mice immunized with Salmonella-delivered TsPmy DNA vaccine produced a significant 44.8% reduction in adult worm and a 46.6% reduction in muscle larvae after challenge with T. spiralis larvae. CONCLUSION:Our results demonstrated that oral vaccination with TsPmy DNA delivered by live attenuated S. typhimurium elicited a significant local IgA response and a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response that elicited a significant protection against T. spiralis infection in mice.
Project description:Trichinellosis is a worldwide important food-borne zoonosis caused mainly by ingesting raw or undercooked pork infected with Trichinella spiralis larvae. The development of vaccine is needed for preventing swine from Trichinella infection to ensure pork safety. Previous studies showed that T. spiralis serine protease 1.2 (TsSP1.2) is a vaccine candidate against Trichinella infection. In this study, the complete TsSP1.2 cDNA sequences were cloned into pcDNA3.1, and the rTsSP1.2 DNA was transformed into attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain ?cyaSL1344. Oral vaccination of mice with Salmonella-delivered rTsSP1.2 DNA vaccine induced an obvious intestinal mucosal IgA response and a systemic Th1/Th2 immune response; the vaccinated mice showed a 33.45% reduction of intestinal adult worms and 71.84% reduction of muscle larvae after T. spiralis larval challenge. The protection might be due to the rTsSP1.2-induced production of specific anti-TsSP1.2 sIgA, IgG, IgG1/IgG2a, and secretion of IFN-?, IL-4 and IL-10, which protected intestinal mucosa from the parasite invasion, inhibited worm development and reduced female fecundity. The results indicate that the attenuated Salmonella-delivered rTsSP1.2 DNA vaccine offers a prospective strategy for the prevention and control of animal Trichinella infection.
Project description:Trichinellosis is one of the most serious foodborne parasitic zoonosis with worldwide distribution, and it is necessary to develop a vaccine to interrupt transmission from animals to humans. Trichinella spiralis adult-specific DNase II-1 (TsDNase II) were identified by immunoproteomics in surface or excretory/secretory proteins of adult worms (AW) and intestinal infective larvae (IIL). The aim of this study was to investigate the systemic, mucosal responses and immune protection elicited by oral vaccination with TsDNase II DNA vaccine delivered by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain⊿cyaSL1344. Oral vaccination with TsDNase II DNA vaccine triggered an obvious mucosal sIgA response and a systemic IgG response in mice, and IgG1 was predominant. Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4, 10) cytokines were distinctly increased in the spleen and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells of vaccinated mice. An indirect immunofluorescent test revealed that native TsDNase II is present at the cuticle of this nematode after the 2nd molting, further confirming that TsDNase II is adult-specific and expressed at AW and pre-adult stages. Oral immunization of mice with TsDNase II exhibited a 53.85% reduction in AW and a 59.26% reduction in ML after larval challenge. The in vitro NBL production of adult females from TsDNase II-vaccinated mice was also reduced in comparison with pcDNA3.1 or the PBS control group (P < 0.01). Our results show that oral immunization of mice with TsDNase II produced an intestinal and systematic concurrent Th1/Th2 immune response, and a significant immune protection against challenge.
Project description:A flavivirus, named duck tembusu virus (DTMUV), emerged in China in 2010. This virus has caused great economic losses in the poultry industry in China and may pose a threat to public health. As a safe, efficient and convenient vaccine development strategy, DNA-based vaccines have become a popular approach for both human and veterinary applications. Attenuated bacteria have been widely used as vehicles to deliver heterologous antigens to the immune system. Thus, an efficient and low-cost oral delivery DNA vaccine SL7207 (pVAX1-SME) based on envelope proteins (prM and E) of DTMUV and attenuated Salmonella typhimurium aroA- strain SL7207 was developed and evaluated in this study. The prM and E antigen proteins were successfully expressed from the vaccine SL7207 (pVAX1-SME) both in vitro and in vivo. High titers of the specific antibody against the DTMUV-E protein and the neutralizing antibody against the DTMUV virus were both detected after vaccination with SL7207 (pVAX1-SME). Ducks orally vaccinated with the SL7207 (pVAX-SME) vaccine were efficiently protected from lethal DTMUV infection in this study. Taken together, we demonstrated that prM and E proteins of DTMUV possess strong immunogenicity against the DTMUV infection. Moreover, an oral delivery of the DNA vaccine SL7207 (pVAX1-SME) utilizing Salmonella SL7207 was an efficient way to protect the ducks against DTMUV infection and provides an economic and fast vaccine delivery strategy for a large-scale clinical use.
Project description:TsPmy is a paramyosin expressed by parasitic Trichinella spiralis and confers a protective immunity when its recombinant protein or DNA was used as an immunogen. To improve its immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy, we conducted a heterologous prime-boost strategy by orally delivering one dose of TsPmy DNA carried by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (SL7207), followed by two doses of recombinant TsPmy intramuscularly. This strategy effectively induced intestinal mucosal sIgA response and an enhanced and balanced Th1/Th2 immune responses that improve protection against T. spiralis larval challenge, with 55.4% muscle larvae reduction and 41.8% adult worm reduction compared to PBS control. The muscle larvae reduction induced by heterologous prime-boost regimen was significant higher than that induced by the homologous DNA or protein prime-boost regimens, which could act as a practical prophylactic approach to prevent T. spiralis infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Trichinella spiralis is a major zoonotic tissue-dwelling nematode, which is a public health concern and a serious hazard to animal food safety. It is necessary to exploit an anti-Trichinella vaccine to interrupt the transmission of Trichinella infection among animals and from animals to humans. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the novel T. spiralis cathepsin B (TsCB) and to evaluate the immune protection elicited by immunization with recombinant TsCB (rTsCB). METHODS:The complete cDNA sequences of the TsCB gene were cloned, expressed and purified. The antigenicity of rTsCB was investigated by western blot analysis and ELISA. Transcription and expression of TsCB at various T. spiralis life-cycle stages were analyzed by RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescent assay (IIFA). The mice were subcutaneously immunized with rTsCB, and serum level of TsCB-specific IgG (IgG1 and IgG2a) and IgE antibodies were assayed by ELISA. Immune protection elicited by vaccination with rTsCB was investigated. RESULTS:The TsCB was transcribed and expressed in four T. spiralis life-cycle stages (adult worm, AW; newborn larvae, NBL; muscle larvae, ML; and intestinal infective L1 larvae), it was primarily located in the cuticle and stichosome of the parasitic nematode. Vaccination of mice with rTsCB produced a prominent antibody response (high level of specific IgG and IgE) and immune protection, as demonstrated by a 52.81% AW burden reduction of intestines at six days post-infection (dpi) and a 50.90% ML burden reduction of muscles at 35 dpi after oral larva challenge. The TsCB-specific antibody response elicited by immunization with rTsCB also impeded intestinal worm growth and decreased the female fecundity. CONCLUSIONS:TsCB might be considered as a novel potential molecular target to develop vaccines against T. spiralis infection.
Project description:Canine influenza virus (CIV) has the potential risk to spread in different areas and dog types. Thus, there is a growing need to develop an effective vaccine to control CIV disease. Here, we developed three vaccine candidates: 1) a recombinant pVAX1 vector expressing H3N2 CIV hemagglutinin (pVAX1-HA); 2) a live attenuated canine adenovirus type 2 expressing H3N2 CIV hemagglutinin (rCAV2-HA); and 3) an inactivated H3N2 CIV (A/canine/Guangdong/01/2006 (H3N2)). Mice received an initial intramuscular immunization that followed two booster injections at 2 and 4 weeks post-vaccination (wpv). The splenic lymphocytes were collected to assess the immune responses at 6 wpv. The protective efficacy was evaluated by challenging H3N2 CIV after vaccination (at 6 wpv). Our results demonstrated that all three vaccine candidates elicited cytokine and antibody responses in mice. The rCAV2-HA vaccine and the inactivated vaccine generated efficient protective efficacy in mice, whereas limited protection was provided by the pVAX1-HA DNA vaccine. Therefore, both the rCAV2-HA live recombinant virus and the inactivated CIV could be used as potential novel vaccines against H3N2CIV. This study provides guidance for choosing the most appropriate vaccine for the prevention and control of CIV disease.
Project description:Trichinella spiralis is a parasitic helminth that can infect almost all mammals, including humans. Trichinella spiralis infection elicits a typical type 2 immune responses, while suppresses type 1 immune responses, which is in favour of their parasitism. DNA vaccines have been shown to be capable of eliciting balanced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses as well as humoral immune responses in small-animal models, which will be advantage to induce protective immune response against helminth infection. In this study, serine protease (Ts-NBLsp) was encoded by a cDNA fragment of new-born T. spiralis larvae, and was inserted after CMV promoter to construct a DNA vaccine [pcDNA3·1(+)-Ts-NBLsp]. Ts-NBLsp expression was demonstrated by immunofluorescence. Sera samples were obtained from vaccinated mice, and they showed strong anti-Ts-NBLsp-specific IgG response. Mice immunized with the pcDNA3·1(+)-Ts-NBLsp DNA vaccine showed a 77·93% reduction in muscle larvae (ML) following challenge with T. spiralis ML. Our results demonstrate that the vaccination with pcDNA3·1(+)-Ts-NBLsp plasmid promoted the balance of type 1 and 2 immune responses and produced a significant protection against T. spiralis infection in mice.
Project description:Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) is a widespread multigene family of detoxification enzymes. The vaccination of mice with recombinant GST of 24 kDa from Trichinella spiralis elicited a low immune protection against challenge infection. The objective of this study was to characterize the T. spiralis putative GST gene (TspGST) encoding a 30.8 kDa protein and to evaluate its potential as a candidate antigen for anti-Trichinella vaccine.The full-length cDNA sequence of TspGST from T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML) was expressed in E. coli. The enzymatic activity and antigenicity of the rTspGST were identified by spectrophotometry, Western blot, and ELISA. The expression of TspGST at T. spiralis various stages was investigated by RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescent test (IIFT). Serum level of total IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a antibodies against rTspGST were measured by ELISA. The immune protection produced by vaccination with rTspGST against T. spiralis was evaluated.The sequencing results showed that the cDNA of TspGST was 840 bp, and encoded a protein of 279 amino acids, which had a molecular size of 30.8 kDa and a pI of 5.21. Its amino acid sequence shares 37% similarity with TsGST. The rTspGST protein had enzymatic activity of GST. On Western blot and ELISA analysis, the native TspGST protein with 30.8 kDa in crude antigens derived from adult worms (AW), newborn larvae (NBL), infective intestinal larvae (IIL) and ML was recognized by anti-rTspGST sera, but the ML ES antigens could be not recognized by anti-rTspGST sera. Expression of TspGST was found in all of T. spiralis various stages (AW, NBL, ML, and IIL). An immunolocalization analysis identified TspGST in different stages (mainly in cuticles) of the nematode. The mice vaccinated with the rTspGST elicited Th2-predominant immune responses, showed a 34.38% reduction of adult worms and a 43.70% reduction of muscle larvae.Immunization with rTspGST produced a partial immune protection, and the rTspGST could be regarded as a potential candidate target for an anti-Trichinella vaccine.
Project description:In our previous work, a Trichinella spiralis putative serine protease (TsSP) was identified from ES products of T. spiralis intestinal infective larvae (IIL) and adult worms (AW) by immunoproteomics: it was highly expressed in IIL compared with muscle larvae (ML). In this study, the TsSP biological characteristics in larval invasion and growth were identified and its potential as a vaccine target against Trichinella infection were investigated. Expression of TsSP at various developmental phases (newborn larvae, ML, IIL, and AW) was detected by qPCR, immunofluorescent test and Western blotting. The rTsSP could specifically bind to the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) membrane and enter into the cytoplasm. Anti-rTsSP serum suppressed the larval invasion of enterocytes in a dose-dependent mode, and killed newborn and ML of T. spiralis, decreased larval infectivity and development in the host by an ADCC-mediated mechanism. Immunization of mice with rTsSP produced a Th2 predominant immune response, and resulted in a 52.70% reduction of adult worms at 5 days post-infection (dpi) and a 52.10% reduction of muscle larvae at 42 dpi. The results revealed there was an interaction between TsSP and the host's IEC; TsSP might be a pivotal protein for the invading, growing and parasiting of this nematode in the host. Vaccination of mice with rTsSP elicited immune protection, and TsSP is a potential target molecule for vaccines against enteral Trichinella infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Giardia lamblia is one of the most common infectious protozoans in human that may cause diarrhea in travelers. Searching for antigens that induced effectively protective immunity has become a key point in the development of vaccine against giardiasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Mice vaccinated with G. lamblia trophozozite-specific α1-giardin DNA vaccine delivered orally by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SL7027 elicited 74.2% trophozoite reduction, but only 28% reduction in cyst shedding compared with PBS buffer control. Oral vaccination with Salmonella-delivered cyst-specific CWP2 DNA produced 89% reduction in cysts shedding in feces of vaccinated mice. Significantly, the mice vaccinated with Salmonella-delivered bivalent α1-giardin and CWP2 DNA vaccines produced significant reduction in both trophozoite (79%) and cyst (93%) in feces of vaccinated mice. This parasite reduction is associated with the strong local mucosal IgA secretion and the IgG2a-dominant systemic immune responses in vaccinated mice. CONCLUSIONS:The results demonstrate that bivalent vaccines targeting α1-giardin and CWP2 can protect mice against the colonization of Giardia trophozoite and block the transformation of cyst in host at the same time, and can be used to prevent Giardia infection and block the transmission of giardiasis.