Validation of Attitude and Heading Reference System and Microsoft Kinect for Continuous Measurement of Cervical Range of Motion Compared to the Optical Motion Capture System.
ABSTRACT: To compare optical motion capture system (MoCap), attitude and heading reference system (AHRS) sensor, and Microsoft Kinect for the continuous measurement of cervical range of motion (ROM).Fifteen healthy adult subjects were asked to sit in front of the Kinect camera with optical markers and AHRS sensors attached to the body in a room equipped with optical motion capture camera. Subjects were instructed to independently perform axial rotation followed by flexion/extension and lateral bending. Each movement was repeated 5 times while being measured simultaneously with 3 devices. Using the MoCap system as the gold standard, the validity of AHRS and Kinect for measurement of cervical ROM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plot with 95% limits of agreement (LoA).MoCap and ARHS showed fair agreement (95% LoA<10°), while MoCap and Kinect showed less favorable agreement (95% LoA>10°) for measuring ROM in all directions. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values between MoCap and AHRS in -40° to 40° range were excellent for flexion/extension and lateral bending (ICC>0.9). ICC values were also fair for axial rotation (ICC>0.8). ICC values between MoCap and Kinect system in -40° to 40° range were fair for all motions.Our study showed feasibility of using AHRS to measure cervical ROM during continuous motion with an acceptable range of error. AHRS and Kinect system can also be used for continuous monitoring of flexion/extension and lateral bending in ordinary range.
Project description:This study evaluated between-session reliability of opto-electronic motion capture to measure trunk posture and three-dimensional ranges of motion (ROM). Nineteen healthy participants aged 24-74?years underwent spine curvature, pelvic tilt and trunk ROM measurements on two separate occasions. Rigid four-marker clusters were attached to the skin overlying seven spinous processes, plus single markers on pelvis landmarks. Rigid body rotations of spine marker clusters were calculated to determine neutral posture and ROM in flexion, extension, total lateral bending (left-right) and total axial rotation (left-right). Segmental spine ROM values were in line with previous reports using opto-electronic motion capture. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM) were calculated as measures of between-session reliability and measurement error, respectively. Retroreflective markers showed fair to excellent between-session reliability to measure thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, and pelvic tilt (ICC?=?0.82, 0.63, and 0.54, respectively). Thoracic and lumbar segments showed highest reliabilities in total axial rotation (ICC?=?0.78) and flexion-extension (ICC?=?0.77-0.79) ROM, respectively. Pelvic segment showed highest ICC values in flexion (ICC?=?0.78) and total axial rotation (ICC?=?0.81) trials. Furthermore, it was estimated that four or fewer repeated trials would provide good reliability for key ROM outcomes, including lumbar flexion, thoracic and lumbar lateral bending, and thoracic axial rotation. This demonstration of reliability is a necessary precursor to quantifying spine kinematics in clinical studies, including assessing changes due to clinical treatment or disease progression.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Assessment of range of motion (ROM) and muscle strength is fundamental in the clinical diagnosis of hip osteoarthritis (OA) but reproducibility of these measurements has mostly involved clinicians from secondary care and has rarely reported agreement parameters. Therefore, the primary objective of the study was to determine the inter-rater reproducibility of ROM and muscle strength measurements. Furthermore, the reliability of the overall assessment of clinical hip OA was evaluated. Reporting is in accordance with proposed guidelines for the reporting of reliability and agreement studies (GRRAS). METHODS: In a university hospital, four blinded raters independently examined patients with unilateral hip OA; two hospital orthopaedists independently examined 48 (24 men) patients and two primary care chiropractors examined 61 patients (29 men). ROM was measured in degrees (deg.) with a standard two-arm goniometer and muscle strength in Newton (N) using a hand-held dynamometer. Reproducibility is reported as agreement and reliability between paired raters of the same profession. Agreement is reported as limits of agreement (LoA) and reliability is reported with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Reliability of the overall assessment of clinical OA is reported as weighted kappa. RESULTS: Between orthopaedists, agreement for ROM ranged from LoA [-28-12 deg.] for internal rotation to [-8-13 deg.] for extension. ICC ranged between 0.53 and 0.73, highest for flexion. For muscle strength between orthopaedists, LoA ranged from [-65-47N] for external rotation to [-10 -59N] for flexion. ICC ranged between 0.52 and 0.85, highest for abduction. Between chiropractors, agreement for ROM ranged from LoA [-25-30 deg.] for internal rotation to [-13-21 deg.] for flexion. ICC ranged between 0.14 and 0.79, highest for flexion. For muscle strength between chiropractors, LoA ranged between [-80-20N] for external rotation to [-146-55N] for abduction. ICC ranged between 0.38 and 0.81, highest for flexion. Weighted kappa for the overall assessment of clinical hip OA was 0.52 between orthopaedists and 0.65 between chiropractors. CONCLUSIONS: Reproducibility of goniometric and dynamometric measurements of ROM and muscle strength in patients with hip OA is poor between experienced orthopaedists and between experienced chiropractors. Orthopaedists and chiropractors can to a moderate degree differentiate between hips with or without osteoarthritis.
Project description:To test the reliability and validity of shoulder joint angle measurements from the Microsoft Kinect™ for virtual rehabilitation.Test-retest reliability and concurrent validity, feasibility study.Motion analysis laboratory.A convenience sample of 10 healthy adults.Shoulder joint angle was assessed in four static poses, two trials for each pose, using: (1) the Kinect; (2) a three-dimensional motion analysis system; and (3) a clinical goniometer. All poses were captured with the Kinect from the frontal view. The two poses of shoulder flexion were also captured with the Kinect from the sagittal view.Absolute and relative test-retest reliability of the Kinect for the measurement of shoulder angle was determined in each pose with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of the measure and minimal detectable change. The 95% limits of agreement (LOA) between the Kinect and the standard methods for measuring shoulder angle were computed to determine concurrent validity.While the Kinect provided to be highly reliable (ICC 0.76-0.98) for measuring shoulder angle from the frontal view, the 95% LOA between the Kinect and the two measurement standards were greater than ±5° in all poses for both views.Before the Kinect is used to measure movements for virtual rehabilitation applications, it is imperative to understand its limitations in precision and accuracy for the measurement of specific joint motions.
Project description:Clinical assessment of spinal motion in horses is part of many routine clinical exams but remains highly subjective. A prerequisite for the quantification of spinal motion is the assessment of the expected normal range of motion and variability of back kinematics. The aim of this study was to objectively quantify spinal kinematics and between -measurement, -surface and -day variation in owner-sound horses. In an observational study, twelve owner-sound horses were trotted 12 times on four different paths (hard/soft straight line, soft lunge left and right). Measurements were divided over three days, with five repetitions on day one and two, and two repetitions on day three (recheck) which occurred 28-55 days later. Optical motion capture was used to collect kinematic data. Elements of the outcome were: 1) Ranges of Motion (ROM) with confidence intervals per path and surface, 2) a variability model to calculate between-measurement variation and test the effect of time, surface and path, 3) intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) to determine repeatability. ROM was lowest on the hard straight line. Cervical lateral bending was doubled on the left compared to the right lunge. Mean variation for the flexion-extension and lateral bending of the whole back were 0.8 and 1 degrees. Pelvic motion showed a variation of 1.0 (pitch), 0.7 (yaw) and 1.3 (roll) degrees. For these five parameters, a tendency for more variation on the hard surface and reduced variation with increased repetitions was observed. More variation was seen on the recheck (p<0.001). ICC values for pelvic rotations were between 0.76 and 0.93, for the whole back flexion-extension and lateral bending between 0.51 and 0.91. Between-horse variation was substantially higher than within-horse variation. In conclusion, ROM and variation in spinal biomechanics are horse-specific and small, necessitating individual analysis and making subjective and objective clinical assessment of spinal kinematics challenging.
Project description:Physical rehabilitation aims people with physical impairments to enhance and restore their functional ability. The Microsoft Kinect v1 and v2 technologies apply depth information and machine vision techniques to generate 3D coordinates of a set of anatomical landmarks on the human body regarded as Kinect joints. Trigonometry relationship between Kinect joints can be used to extract body Range of Motion (ROM). The purpose of this study was to evaluate stability of Kinect for ROM measurement during static stretching exercises. According to the literature, the stability of Kinect in static exercises has been reported to a limited extent. 13 healthy men participated in this study and performed 5 exercises in 2 different distances from the cameras. Exercises were recorded by Kinect v1 and Kinect v2, concurrently. The stability of Kinect was also evaluated for 5 ROMs including: elbow flexion, shoulder abduction, wrist pronation, wrist flexion, and wrist ulnar deviation. Maximum and average joint displacement errors were used for stability analysis. Results showed that Kinect v2 is more stable compared to Kinect v1. Kinect v2 joints showed displacement error of more than 15 mm for wrist. For the other joints, Kinect showed an average displacement error of less than 10 mm.
Project description:Low-back pain is a common, disabling medical condition, and one of the major causes is disc degeneration. Total disc replacements are intended to treat back pain by restoring disc height and re-establishing functional motion and stability at the index level. The objective of this study was to determine the effect on range of motion (ROM) and stiffness after implantation of the ProDisc-L device in comparison to the intact state. Twelve L5-S1 lumbar spine segments were tested in flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation with axial compressive loads of 600 N and 1,200 N. Specimens were tested in the intact state and after implantation with the ProDisc-L device. ROM was not significantly different in the implanted spines when compared to their intact state in flexion/extension and axial rotation but increased in lateral bending. Increased compressive load did not affect ROM in flexion/extension or axial rotation but did result in decreased ROM in lateral bending and increased stiffness in both intact and implanted spine segments. The ProDisc-L successfully restored or maintained normal spine segment motion.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Concurrent validity and intra-rater reliability using a customized Android phone application to measure cervical-spine range-of-motion (ROM) has not been previously validated against a gold-standard three-dimensional motion analysis (3DMA) system. FINDINGS: Twenty-one healthy individuals (age:31?±?9.1?years, male:11) participated, with 16 re-examined for intra-rater reliability 1-7 days later. An Android phone was fixed on a helmet, which was then securely fastened on the participant's head. Cervical-spine ROM in flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation were performed in sitting with concurrent measurements obtained from both a 3DMA system and the phone.The phone demonstrated moderate to excellent (ICC?=?0.53-0.98, Spearman ??=?0.52-0.98) concurrent validity for ROM measurements in cervical flexion, extension, lateral-flexion and rotation. However, cervical rotation demonstrated both proportional and fixed bias. Excellent intra-rater reliability was demonstrated for cervical flexion, extension and lateral flexion (ICC?=?0.82-0.90), but poor for right- and left-rotation (ICC?=?0.05-0.33) using the phone. Possible reasons for the outcome are that flexion, extension and lateral-flexion measurements are detected by gravity-dependent accelerometers while rotation measurements are detected by the magnetometer which can be adversely affected by surrounding magnetic fields. CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrate that the tested Android phone application is valid and reliable to measure ROM of the cervical-spine in flexion, extension and lateral-flexion but not in rotation likely due to magnetic interference. The clinical implication of this study is that therapists should be mindful of the plane of measurement when using the Android phone to measure ROM of the cervical-spine.
Project description:A longitudinal study using biplane radiography to measure in vivo intervertebral range of motion (ROM) during dynamic flexion/extension, and rotation.To longitudinally compare intervertebral maximal ROM and midrange motion in asymptomatic control subjects and single-level arthrodesis patients.In vitro studies consistently report that adjacent segment maximal ROM increases superior and inferior to cervical arthrodesis. Previous in vivo results have been conflicting, indicating that maximal ROM may or may not increase superior and/or inferior to the arthrodesis. There are no previous reports of midrange motion in arthrodesis patients and similar-aged controls.Eight single-level (C5/C6) anterior arthrodesis patients (tested 7?±?1 months and 28?±?6 months postsurgery) and six asymptomatic control subjects (tested twice, 58?±?6 months apart) performed dynamic full ROM flexion/extension and axial rotation whereas biplane radiographs were collected at 30?images per second. A previously validated tracking process determined three-dimensional vertebral position from each pair of radiographs with submillimeter accuracy. The intervertebral maximal ROM and midrange motion in flexion/extension, rotation, lateral bending, and anterior-posterior translation were compared between test dates and between groups.Adjacent segment maximal ROM did not increase over time during flexion/extension, or rotation movements. Adjacent segment maximal rotational ROM was not significantly greater in arthrodesis patients than in corresponding motion segments of similar-aged controls. C4/C5 adjacent segment rotation during the midrange of head motion and maximal anterior-posterior translation were significantly greater in arthrodesis patients than in the corresponding motion segment in controls on the second test date.C5/C6 arthrodesis appears to significantly affect midrange, but not end-range, adjacent segment motions. The effects of arthrodesis on adjacent segment motion may be best evaluated by longitudinal studies that compare maximal and midrange adjacent segment motion to corresponding motion segments of similar-aged controls to determine if the adjacent segment motion is truly excessive.3.
Project description:Basic knowledge about the thoracic spinal flexibility is limited and to the authors' knowledge, no in vitro studies have examined the flexibility of every thoracic spinal segment under standardized experimental conditions using pure moments. In our in vitro study, 68 human thoracic functional spinal units including the costovertebral joints (at least n = 6 functional spinal units per segment from T1-T2 to T11-T12) were loaded with pure moments of ±7.5 Nm in flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation in a custom-built spine tester to analyze range of motion (ROM) and neutral zone (NZ). ROM and NZ showed symmetric motion behavior in all loading planes. In each loading direction, the segment T1-T2 exhibited the highest ROM. In flexion/extension, the whole thoracic region, with exception of T1-T2 (14°), had an average ROM between 6° and 8°. In lateral bending, the upper thoracic region (T1-T7) was, with an average ROM between 10° and 12°, more flexible than the lower thoracic region (T7-T12) with an average ROM between 8° and 9°. In axial rotation, the thoracic region offered the highest overall flexibility with an average ROM between 10° and 12° in the upper and middle thoracic spine (T1-T10) and between 7° and 8° in the lower thoracic spine (T10-T12), while a trend of continuous decrease of ROM could be observed in the lower thoracic region (T7-T12). Comparing these ROM values with those in literature, they agree that ROM is lowest in flexion/extension and highest in axial rotation, as well as decreasing in the lower segments in axial rotation. Differences were found in flexion/extension and lateral bending in the lower segments, where, in contrast to the literature, no increase of the ROM from superior to inferior segments was found. The data of this in vitro study could be used for the validation of numerical models and the design of further in vitro studies of the thoracic spine without the rib cage, the verification of animal models, as well as the interpretation of already published human in vitro data.
Project description:PURPOSE: To relate the progress of vertebral segmental stability after interbody fusion surgery with radiological assessment of spinal fusion. METHODS: Twenty goats received double-level interbody fusion and were followed for a period of 3, 6 and 12 months. After killing, interbody fusion was assessed radiographically by two independent observers. Subsequently, the lumbar spines were subjected to four-point bending and rotational deformation, assessed with an optoelectronic 3D movement registration system. In addition, four caprine lumbar spines were analysed in both the native situation and after the insertion of a cage device, as to mimic the direct post-surgical situation. The range of motion (ROM) in flexion/extension, lateral bending and axial rotation was analysed ex vivo using a multi-segment testing system. RESULTS: Significant reduction in ROM in the operated segments was already achieved with moderate bone ingrowth in flexion/extension (71 % reduction in ROM) and with only limited bone ingrowth in lateral bending (71 % reduction in ROM) compared to the post-surgical situation. The presence of a sentinel sign always resulted in a stable vertebral segment in both flexion/extension and lateral bending. For axial rotation, the ROM was already limited in both native and cage inserted situations, resulting in non-significant differences for all radiographic scores. DISCUSSION: In vivo vertebral segment stability, defined as a significant reduction in ROM, is achieved in an early stage of spinal fusion, well before a radiological bony fusion between the vertebrae can be observed. Therefore, plain radiography underestimates vertebral segment stability.