Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Ketene Heterodimer ?-Lactones: Scope and Limitations.
ABSTRACT: In this article we describe extensive studies of the catalytic asymmetric heterodimerization of ketenes to give ketene heterodimer ?-lactones. The optimal catalytic system was determined to be a cinchona alkaloid derivative (TMS-quinine or Me-quinidine). The desired ketene heterodimer ?-lactones were obtained in good to excellent yields (up to 90%), with excellent levels of enantioselectivity (?90% ee for 33 Z and E isomer examples), good to excellent (Z)-olefin isomer selectivity (?90:10 for 20 examples), and excellent regioselectivity (only one regioisomer formed). Full details of catalyst development studies, catalyst loading investigations, substrate scope exploration, protocol innovations (including double in situ ketene generation for 7 examples), and an application to a cinnabaramide A intermediate are described. The addition of lithium perchlorate (1-2 equiv) as an additive to the alkaloid catalyst system was found to favor formation of the E isomer of the ketene heterodimer. Ten examples were formed with moderate to excellent (E)-olefin isomer selectivity (74:25 to 97:3) and with excellent enantioselectivity (84-98% ee).
Project description:A highly diastereoselective approach to dipropionate derivatives through Pd/C-catalyzed hydrogenation of enantioenriched E-ketene heterodimers is described. Catalytic hydrogenation of the E-isomer of ketene heterodimer ?-lactones (12 examples) provides access to syn,anti-?-lactones (dipropionate derivatives) bearing up to three stereogenic centers (dr up to 49:1), and with excellent transfer of chirality (ee up to >99%).
Project description:A diastereoselective approach to deoxypropionate derivatives through Pd/C-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of enantioenriched ketene heterodimers is described. Catalytic hydrogenolysis of the Z-isomer of ketene heterodimers facilitates access to anti-deoxypropionate derivatives (10 examples with dr 7:1 to >20:1). Transfer of chirality from the Z-ketene heterodimer to an acid product was good to excellent in most cases (78-99% ee for 12 examples).
Project description:A chiral Koga amine-controlled asymmetric synthesis of cis-?-lactones through a formal [3 + 2] cycloaddition of enediolates with ?,?-unsaturated sulfoxonium salts is described. The desired structural motif was formed in moderate to good yields (50-71% for 13 examples), with good to very good diastereoselectivity (dr 5:1 to 10:1 for 20 examples), favoring the cis-isomer, and good to excellent enantioselectivity (70-91% ee for 13 examples).
Project description:A reusable and highly enantioselective catalyst for the intramolecular cyclopropanation of various diazo ester and Weinreb amide derivatives was developed. The reactions catalyzed by a water-soluble Ru(II)-Amm-Pheox catalyst proceeded smoothly at room temperature, affording the corresponding bicyclic cyclopropane ring-fused lactones and lactams in high yields (up to 99%) with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee). After screening of various catalysts, the Ru(II)-Amm-Pheox complex having an ammonium group proved to be crucial for the intramolecular cyclopropanation reaction in a water/ether biphasic medium. The water-soluble catalyst could be reused at least six times with little loss in yield and enantioselectivity.
Project description:The first examples of asymmetric oxidative coupling of simple phenols and 2-hydroxycarbazoles are outlined. Generation of a more vanadium catalyst by ligand design and by addition of an exogenous Brønsted or Lewis acid was found to be key to coupling the more oxidatively resistant phenols. The resultant vanadium complex is both more Lewis acidic and more strongly oxidizing. Good to excellent levels of enantioselectivity could be obtained, and simple trituration readily provided the products with ?95% ee.
Project description:We report a protocol for the highly efficient iridium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of racemic ?-substituted lactones via dynamic kinetic resolution. Using Ir-SpiroPAP (R)-1d as a catalyst, a wide range of chiral diols were prepared in a high yield (80-95%) with a high enantioselectivity (up to 95% ee) under mild reaction conditions. This protocol was used for enantioselective syntheses of (-)-preclamol and a chiral 2,5-disubstituted tetrahydropyran.
Project description:Asymmetric hydrogenation of ?,?-unsaturated acids catalyzed by noble metals has been well established, whereas, the asymmetric hydrogenation with earth-abundant-metal was rarely reported. Here, we describe a cobalt-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of ?,?-unsaturated carboxylic acids. By using chiral cobalt catalyst bearing electron-donating diphosphine ligand, high activity (up to 1860 TON) and excellent enantioselectivity (up to >99% ee) are observed. Furthermore, the cobalt-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation is successfully applied to a broad spectrum of ?,?-unsaturated carboxylic acids, such as various ?-aryl and ?-alkyl cinnamic acid derivatives, ?-oxy-functionalized ?,?-unsaturated acids, ?-substituted acrylic acids and heterocyclic ?,?-unsaturated acids (30 examples). The synthetic utility of the protocol is highlighted by the synthesis of key intermediates for chiral drugs (6 cases). Preliminary mechanistic studies reveal that the carboxy group may be involved in the control of the reactivity and enantioselectivity through an interaction with the metal centre.
Project description:Here, we report the first Ir-N,P complex catalyzed tandem Peterson olefination and asymmetric hydrogenation of β-hydroxy silanes. This reaction resulted in the formation of chiral alkanes in high isolated yields (up to 99%) and excellent enantioselectivity (up to 99% ee) under mild conditions. Modification of the reaction conditions provides a choice to transform either an olefin or the β-hydroxy silane in a chemoselective manner. Additionally, based on this method, an expedient enantioselective synthesis of (S)-(+)-α-curcumene, from a simple ketone, was accomplished in two steps with 75% overall yield and 95% ee.
Project description:We report the enantioselective functionalization of allylic C-H bonds in terminal alkenes by a strategy involving the installation of a temporary functional group at the terminal carbon atom by C-H bond functionalization, followed by the catalytic diversification of this intermediate with a broad scope of reagents. The method consists of a one-pot sequence of palladium-catalyzed allylic C-H bond oxidation under neutral conditions to form linear allyl benzoates, followed by iridium-catalyzed allylic substitution. This overall transformation forms a variety of chiral products containing a new C-N, C-O, C-S, or C-C bond at the allylic position in good yield with a high branched-to-linear selectivity and excellent enantioselectivity (ee ?97%). The broad scope of the overall process results from separating the oxidation and functionalization steps; by doing so, the scope of nucleophile encompasses those sensitive to direct oxidative functionalization. The high enantioselectivity of the overall process is achieved by developing an allylic oxidation that occurs without acid to form the linear isomer with high selectivity. These allylic functionalization processes are amenable to an iterative sequence leading to (1,n)-functionalized products with catalyst-controlled diastereo- and enantioselectivity. The utility of the method in the synthesis of biologically active molecules has been demonstrated.
Project description:Using rational design, an engineered myoglobin-based catalyst capable of catalyzing the cyclopropanation of aryl-substituted olefins with catalytic proficiency (up to 46,800 turnovers) and excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivity (98-99.9%) was developed. This transformation could be carried out in the presence of up to 20?g?L(-1) olefin substrate with no loss in diastereo- and/or enantioselectivity. Mutagenesis and mechanistic studies support a cyclopropanation mechanism mediated by an electrophilic, heme-bound carbene species and a model is provided to rationalize the stereopreference of the protein catalyst. This work shows that myoglobin constitutes a promising and robust scaffold for the development of biocatalysts with carbene-transfer reactivity.