Validation of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form With Minority Caregivers.
ABSTRACT: There has been little examination of the structural validity of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) for minority populations in clinical contexts in the Unites States. This study aimed to test prespecified factor structures (one-factor, two-factor, and three-factor models) of the PSI-SF.This study used confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of 240 predominantly Black and Latino caregivers of children with behavioral difficulties.The three-factor model fit was reasonable, and the criterion validity for the subscale and total scores was good supporting continued cautious use of the PSI-SF for clinical minority populations.The PSI-SF could be integrated as part of screening and intake assessment procedures, which could allow social work practitioners to make more informed decisions about treatment planning, as well as facilitate conversations with caregivers around identifying sources of stress and developing healthy coping strategies.
Project description:The need for reliable, valid tools to measure patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is critical both for research and for evaluating treatment effects in practice. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Fatigue-Short Form v1.0-Fatigue 7a (PROMIS F-SF) has had limited psychometric evaluation in various populations.The aim of the study is to examine psychometric properties of PROMIS F-SF item responses across various populations.Data from five studies with common data elements were used in this secondary analysis. Samples from patients with fibromyalgia, sickle cell disease, cardiometabolic risk, pregnancy, and healthy controls were used. Reliability was estimated using Cronbach's alpha. Dimensionality was evaluated with confirmatory factor analysis. Concurrent validity was evaluated by examining Pearson's correlations between scores from the PROMIS F-SF, the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form, and the Brief Fatigue Inventory. Discriminant validity was evaluated by examining Pearson's correlations between scores on the PROMIS F-SF and measures of stress and depressive symptoms. Known groups validity was assessed by comparing PROMIS F-SF scores in the clinical samples to healthy controls.Reliability of PROMIS F-SF scores was adequate across samples, ranging from .72 in the pregnancy sample to .88 in healthy controls. Unidimensionality was supported in each sample. Concurrent validity was strong; across the groups, correlations with scores on the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form and Brief Fatigue Inventory ranged from .60 to .85. Correlations of the PROMIS F-SF with measures of stress and depressive mood were moderate to strong, ranging from .37 to .64. PROMIS F-SF scores were significantly higher in clinical samples compared to healthy controls.Reliability and validity of the PROMIS F-SF were acceptable. The PROMIS F-SF is a suitable measure of fatigue across the four diverse clinical populations included in the analysis.
Project description:Background:Coping with chronic illness can be overwhelming for patients and caregivers, and may be inhibited by the denial mechanism, and therefore, denial represents a critical issue for health professionals. Assessing illness denial is far from easy, and brief tools suitable for medical settings are lacking. In this paper, the development of a short form of the Illness Denial Questionnaire (IDQ) for patients and caregivers is presented. Methods:In study 1, the IDQ was administered to 118 patients and 83 caregivers to examine the internal structure of denial; then the properties of the items (DIF, fit, and difficulty) were evaluated according to the Rasch model in order to select the best items for the Illness Denial Questionnaire-Short Form (IDQ-SF). Study 2 included 202 participants (113 patients and 89 caregivers). The internal structure of the IDQ-SF was tested via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Reliability and concurrent validity were also studied using the Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire-Reduced Form (AD-R). Results:The CFA showed a two-factor structure encompassing "Denial of negative emotions" and "Resistance to change". Results of the Rasch analyses led to the selection of 4 items for each dimension. The resulting IDQ-SF (8 items) showed a two-factor structure as well as good reliability and concurrent validity with AD-R. Conclusion:The IDQ-SF represents a valid tool for quickly evaluating the core of illness denial in patients and caregivers. This brief and easily administrable questionnaire allows health professionals to outline the presence and severity of illness denial in order to set individually tailored interventions.
Project description:The Evaluation of Daily Activity Questionnaire (EDAQ) includes 138 items in 14 domains identified as important by people with RA. The aim of this study was to test the validity and reliability of the English EDAQ.A total of 502 participants completed two questionnaires 3 weeks apart. The first consisted of the EDAQ, HAQ, RA Quality of Life (RAQoL) and the Medical Outcomes Scale (MOS) 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36v2), and the second consisted of the EDAQ only. The 14 EDAQ domains were tested for: unidimensionality-using confirmatory factor analysis; fit, response dependency, invariance across groups (differential item functioning)-using Rasch analysis; internal consistency [Person Separation Index (PSI)]; concurrent validity-by correlations with the HAQ, SF-36v2 and RAQoL; and test-retest reliability (Spearman's correlations).Confirmatory factor analysis of the 14 EDAQ domains indicated unidimensionality, after adjustment for local dependency in each domain. All domains achieved a root mean square error of approximation <0.10 and satisfied Rasch model expectations for local dependency. DIF by age, gender and employment status was largely absent. The PSI was consistent with individual use (PSI = 0.94 for all 14 domains). For all domains, except Caring, concurrent validity was good: HAQ (rs = 0.72-0.91), RAQoL (rs = 0.67-0.82) and SF36v2 Physical Function scale (rs = -0.60 to -0.84) and test-retest reliability was good (rs = 0.70-0.89).Analysis supported a 14-domain, two-component structure (Self care and Mobility) of the EDAQ, where each domain, and both components, satisfied Rasch model requirements, and have robust reliability and validity.
Project description:Coping with predeath grief (PDG) is an unmet need in caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD). The Marwit-Meuser Caregiver Grief Inventory (MM-CGI) and its abbreviated MM-CGI-Short-Form (MM-CGI-SF) are among the few empirically developed scales that detect PDG, yet they have not been substantially validated outside United States. We evaluated the reliability and validity of the PDG scales in a multiethnic Asian population distinct from that of United States.Family caregivers of community-dwelling PWD (n = 300) completed self-administered questionnaires containing MM-CGI and other scales of related construct. Sixty percent of the participants repeated the questionnaires 1 week later for test-retest reliability. Internal-consistency reliability was assessed by Cronbach's ?, test-retest reliability by intraclass-correlation-coefficient, construct validity by Spearman's correlation-coefficient, and factorial validity by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Cohen's ? was used to compare the agreement between MM-CGI and a commonly-used caregiver burden scale (Zarit Burden Interview).MM-CGI and MM-CGI-SF demonstrated internal-consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, construct validity, and known-group validity. In CFA, MM-CGI showed modest model-fit (comparative-fit-index, CFI = .80; Tucker-Lewis-index, TLI = .79), whereas MM-CGI-SF showed better model-fit (CFI = .91; TLI = .90). Eighty-six percent of the caregivers reported average or high levels of PDG, with 18% reporting high PDG. High scores in the caregiver burden scale only showed modest agreement with high scores in MM-CGI (? = .47).MM-CGI and MM-CGI-SF demonstrated adequate psychometric properties and utility, beyond that of a caregiver burden scale, in detecting high PDG in a multiethnic Asian population. They open the way for PDG intervention in clinical care, as well as further exploration in caregiver research.
Project description:Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) consistently report health disparities compared to their heterosexual counterparts, yet the underlying mechanisms of these negative health outcomes remain unclear. The predominant explanatory model is the minority stress theory; however, this model was developed largely with adults, and no valid and comprehensive measure of minority stress has been developed for adolescents. The present study validated a newly developed instrument to measure minority stress among racially and ethnically diverse SMA. A sample of 346 SMA aged 14-17 was recruited and surveyed between February 2015 and July 2016. The focal measure of interest was the 64-item, 11-factor Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory (SMASI) developed in the initial phase of this study. Criterion validation measures included measures of depressive symptoms, suicidality and self-harm, youth problem behaviors, and substance use; the general Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ) was included as a measure of divergent validity. Analyses included Pearson and tetrachoric correlations to establish criterion and divergent validity and structural equation modeling to assess the explanatory utility of the SMASI relative to the ASQ. SMASI scores were significantly associated with all outcomes but only moderately associated with the ASQ (r = -0.13 to 0.51). Analyses revealed significant associations of a latent minority stress variable with both proximal and distal health outcomes beyond the variation explained by general stress. Results show that the SMASI is the first instrument to validly measure minority stress among SMA.
Project description:This study describes the psychometric properties of a Hong Kong Chinese version of the short form of the Support Person's Unmet Needs Survey (SPUNS-SF) for caregivers of patients with cancer. A convenience sample of 280 patient-caregiver dyads was recruited between April and June 2018. A subsample of 70 caregivers completed the survey again, two weeks later. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) examined the instrument's factorial structure, ordinal alpha coefficients evaluated the internal consistency, and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) assessed the test-retest reliability. Convergence validity was evaluated by the correlations with sleep disturbance and caregiver burden in caregivers. The Hong Kong Chinese version of the SPUNS-SF (SPUNS-SFHKC) had a high completion rate of 96.8% (271/280) among caregivers. The original five-factor model provided an acceptable fit with the data in the CFA. The ordinal alpha coefficients were 0.866-0.945, and the two-week test-retest reliabilities were 0.524-0.678. The correlations of the five domains of the SPUNS-SFHKC with caregiver burden were 0.257-0.446, and for sleep disturbance were 0.075-0.464. The SPUNS-SFHKC has a suitable factor structure and psychometric properties for use in assessing unmet supportive needs among Chinese caregivers of patients with cancer. The applicability of the instrument for long-term use still needs to be studied.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine the moderating role of restrictive parenting on the relation of socioeconomic status (SES) to febrile illnesses (FIs) and upper respiratory illnesses (URIs) among ethnic minority and non-minority children. METHODS:Children from diverse ethnic backgrounds (Caucasian, African American, Asian, Latino, other, or multiethnic) were followed across the course of the kindergarten year. Parents reported on SES and parenting. A nurse completed 13 physical exams per child over the year to assess FIs and URIs. RESULTS:During the school year, 28% of children (n?=?199, 56% ethnic minority) exhibited one or more FIs (range, 0-6) and 90% exhibited one or more URIs (range, 0-10). No main or moderating effects of SES or restrictive parenting on FIs or URIs were found among Caucasian children; however, among ethnic minority children, the relation of SES to FIs was conditional upon restrictive parenting (??=?.66; P?=?.02), as the fewest FIs were found for lower SES minority children whose parents reported more restrictive practices. Additionally, among minority children, more restrictive parenting was marginally associated with fewer URIs (??=?-.21; P?=?.05). CONCLUSIONS:Unexpectedly, among minority children the fewest illnesses occurred among lower SES children whose parents endorsed more restrictive parenting. This may be due to unique appraisals of this rearing style among minority children in lower SES environments and its potential to influence immune functioning. Results suggest variability in the effects of parenting on offspring health and support context-specific evaluations of parenting in efforts to ameliorate early health disparities.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Social functioning is a core domain in the life of people with dementia, but there is no accepted instrument to measure it. We aimed to develop the Social Functioning in Dementia (SF-DEM) scale and test its psychometric properties for assessing social function in people with dementia.<h4>Methods</h4>We interviewed people with mild dementia and family caregivers to develop patient and caregiver-rated SF-DEM versions and refined them through interviews with health care professionals. We tested its psychometric properties in 30 dyads of people with dementia and family caregivers.<h4>Results</h4>Both SF-DEM versions had content validity and demonstrated concurrent validity against a single item rating overall social functioning (patient rated <i>r</i> = 0.42, 95% CI [0.07-0.68]; caregiver rated <i>r</i> = 0.59, 95% CI [0.29-0.78]). All participants found it acceptable. Analyses showed reliability (test-retest, inter-rater, internal consistency) and indications of responsiveness to change.<h4>Discussion</h4>SF-DEM shows promise as a valid, reliable, acceptable measure of social functioning in dementia.
Project description:To learn how minority and underserved communities would set priorities for patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR).Sixteen groups (n = 183) from minority and underserved communities in two states deliberated about PCOR priorities using the simulation exercise CHoosing All Together (CHAT). Most participants were minority, one-third reported income <$10,000, and one-fourth reported fair/poor health.Academic-community partnerships adapted CHAT for PCOR priority setting using existing research agendas and interviews with community leaders, clinicians, and key informants.Tablet-based CHAT collected demographic information, individual priorities before and after group deliberation, and groups' priorities.Individuals and groups prioritized research on Quality of Life, Patient-Doctor, Access, Special Needs, and (by total resources spent) Compare Approaches. Those with less than a high school education were less likely to prioritize New Approaches, Patient-Doctor, Quality of Life, and Families/Caregivers. Blacks were less likely to prioritize research on Causes of Disease, New Approaches, and Compare Approaches than whites. Compare Approaches, Special Needs, Access, and Families/Caregivers were significantly more likely to be selected by individuals after compared to before deliberation.Members of underserved communities, in informed deliberations, prioritized research on Quality of Life, Patient-Doctor, Special Needs, Access, and Compare Approaches.
Project description:The aim of this study was to determine the validity of energy intake (EI) estimations made using the remote food photography method (RFPM) compared to the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in minority preschool children in a free-living environment.Seven days of food intake and spot urine samples excluding first void collections for DLW analysis were obtained on thirty-nine 3- to 5-year-old Hispanic and African American children. Using an iPhone, caregivers captured before and after pictures of each child's intake, pictures were wirelessly transmitted to trained raters who estimated portion size using existing visual estimation procedures, and energy and macronutrients were calculated. Paired t tests, mean differences, and Bland-Altman limits of agreement were performed.The mean EI was 1,191?±?256 kcal/d using the RFPM and 1,412?±?220 kcal/d using the DLW method, resulting in a mean underestimate of 222 kcal/d (-15.6%; P?<?0.0001) that was consistent regardless of intake. The RFPM underestimated EI by -28.5% in 34 children and overestimated EI by 15.6% in 5 children.The RFPM underestimated total EI when compared to the DLW method among preschoolers. Further refinement of the RFPM is needed for assessing the EI of young children.