An Alternative Strategy for Pan-acetyl-lysine Antibody Generation.
ABSTRACT: Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification in cell signaling. In acetylome studies, a high-quality pan-acetyl-lysine antibody is key to successful enrichment of acetylated peptides for subsequent mass spectrometry analysis. Here we show an alternative method to generate polyclonal pan-acetyl-lysine antibodies using a synthesized random library of acetylated peptides as the antigen. Our antibodies are tested to be specific for acetyl-lysine peptides/proteins via ELISA and dot blot. When pooled, five of our antibodies show broad reactivity to acetyl-lysine peptides, complementing a commercial antibody in terms of peptide coverage. The consensus sequence of peptides bound by our antibody cocktail differs slightly from that of the commercial antibody. Lastly, our antibodies are tested in a proof-of-concept to analyze the acetylome of HEK293 cells. In total we identified 1557 acetylated peptides from 416 proteins. We thus demonstrated that our antibodies are well-qualified for acetylome studies and can complement existing commercial antibodies.
Project description:Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa, which includes a number of species of medical and veterinary importance. Inhibitors of lysine deacetylases (KDACs) exhibit potent antiparasitic activity, suggesting that interference with lysine acetylation pathways holds promise for future drug targeting. Using high resolution LC-MS/MS to identify parasite peptides enriched by immunopurification with acetyl-lysine antibody, we recently produced an acetylome of the proliferative intracellular stage of Toxoplasma. In this study, we used similar approaches to greatly expand the Toxoplasma acetylome by identifying acetylated proteins in non-replicating extracellular tachyzoites. The functional breakdown of acetylated proteins in extracellular parasites is similar to intracellular parasites, with an enrichment of proteins involved in metabolism, translation, and chromatin biology. Altogether, we have now detected over 700 acetylation sites on a wide variety of parasite proteins of diverse function in multiple subcellular compartments. We found 96 proteins uniquely acetylated in intracellular parasites, 216 uniquely acetylated in extracellular parasites, and 177 proteins acetylated in both states. Our findings suggest that dramatic changes occur at the proteomic level as tachyzoites transition from the intracellular to the extracellular environment, similar to reports documenting significant changes in gene expression during this transition. The expanded dataset also allowed a thorough analysis of the degree of protein intrinsic disorder surrounding lysine residues targeted for this post-translational modification. These analyses indicate that acetylated lysines in proteins from extracellular and intracellular tachyzoites are largely located within similar local environments, and that lysine acetylation preferentially occurs in intrinsically disordered or flexible regions.
Project description:The availability and robustness of methods to analyze phosphorylated proteins has greatly expanded our knowledge of phosphorylation based cell signaling. A key ingredient to the success of these studies is the ability to enrich phosphopeptides using antibodies or other chemical approaches. Most other post-translational modifications, such as lysine acetylation, are still poorly characterized because of the lack of availability of such enrichment methods. Recently, some groups have reported identification of acetylation sites in a global fashion by enriching acetylated peptides with a polyclonal antibody from a single source that was raised against pan-acetylated lysine. Instead of the use of this polyclonal antibody, we used a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies where each was directed against acetylated lysine in different contexts. Using high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry, we observed that the majority of acetylated lysine residues identified using the monoclonal antibody cocktail were distinct from those enriched by the polyclonal antibody used by the other groups. Our study demonstrates that immunoaffinity enrichment of acetylated peptides is somewhat limited by substrate specificity and that an optimal yield of enrichment can be achieved by employing a broader array of affinity reagents.
Project description:Introduction of antibodies specific for acetylated lysine has significantly improved the detection of endogenous acetylation sites by mass spectrometry. Here, we describe a new, commercially available mixture of anti-lysine acetylation (Kac) antibodies and show its utility for in-depth profiling of the acetylome. Specifically, seven complementary monoclones with high specificity for Kac were combined into a final anti-Kac reagent which results in at least a twofold increase in identification of Kac peptides over a commonly used Kac antibody. We outline optimal antibody usage conditions, effective offline basic reversed phase separation, and use of state-of-the-art LC-MS technology for achieving unprecedented coverage of the acetylome. The methods were applied to quantify acetylation sites in suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid-treated Jurkat cells. Over 10,000 Kac peptides from over 3000 Kac proteins were quantified from a single stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture labeled sample using 7.5 mg of peptide input per state. This constitutes the deepest coverage of acetylation sites in quantitative experiments obtained to-date. The approach was also applied to breast tumor xenograft samples using isobaric mass tag labeling of peptides (iTRAQ4, TMT6 and TMT10-plex reagents) for quantification. Greater than 6700 Kac peptides from over 2300 Kac proteins were quantified using 1 mg of tumor protein per iTRAQ 4-plex channel. The novel reagents and methods we describe here enable quantitative, global acetylome analyses with depth and sensitivity approaching that obtained for other well-studied post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiquitylation, and should have widespread application in biological and clinical studies employing mass spectrometry-based proteomics.
Project description:The elucidation of extra-nuclear lysine acetylation has been of growing interest, as the cosubstrate for acetylation, acetyl CoA, is at a key metabolic intersection. Our hypothesis was that mitochondrial and cytoplasmic protein acetylation may be part of a fasted/re-fed feedback control system for the regulation of the metabolic network in fuel switching, where acetyl CoA would be provided by fatty acid oxidation, or glycolysis, respectively. To test this, we characterized the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic acetylome in various organs that have a high metabolic rate relative to their mass, and/or switch fuels, under fasted and re-fed conditions (brain, kidney, liver, skeletal muscle, heart muscle, white and brown adipose tissues). Using immunoprecipitation, coupled with LC-MS/MS label free quantification, we show there is a dramatic variation in global quantitative profiles of acetylated proteins from different organs. In total, 733 acetylated peptides from 337 proteins were identified and quantified, out of which 31 acetylated peptides from the metabolic proteins that may play organ-specific roles were analyzed in detail. Results suggest that fasted/re-fed acetylation changes coordinated by organ-specific (de)acetylases in insulin-sensitive versus -insensitive organs may underlie fuel use and switching. Characterization of the tissue-specific acetylome should increase understanding of metabolic conditions wherein normal fuel switching is disrupted, such as in Type II diabetes.
Project description:Quantitative proteome and acetylome analyses were conducted by comparing the acetylation levels of the SM to those of the NM. The collected cellular proteins were extracted, digested, and labeled by different TMTs. For acetylation profiling, the pan acetyl-lysine antibody was employed to enrich the acetylated peptides, which were then submitted into mass spectrometer (MS) for LC–MS/MS analysis. For proteome profiling, the peptide fractions were submitted into MS directly.
Project description:RATIONALE:Mice lacking cyclophilin D (CypD(-/-)), a mitochondrial chaperone protein, have altered cardiac metabolism. As acetylation has been shown to regulate metabolism, we tested whether changes in protein acetylation might play a role in these metabolic changes in CypD(-/-) hearts. OBJECTIVE:Our aim was to test the hypothesis that loss of CypD alters the cardiac mitochondrial acetylome. METHODS AND RESULTS:To identify changes in lysine-acetylated proteins and to map acetylation sites after ablation of CypD, we subjected tryptic digests of isolated cardiac mitochondria from wild-type and CypD(-/-) mice to immunoprecipitation using agarose beads coupled to antiacetyl lysine antibodies followed by mass spectrometry. We used label-free analysis for the relative quantification of the 875 common peptides that were acetylated in wild-type and CypD(-/-) samples and found 11 peptides (10 proteins) decreased and 96 peptides (48 proteins) increased in CypD(-/-) samples. We found increased acetylation of proteins in fatty acid oxidation and branched-chain amino acid metabolism. To evaluate whether this increase in acetylation might play a role in the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation that was previously reported in CypD(-/-) hearts, we measured the activity of l-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, which was acetylated in the CypD(-/-) hearts. Consistent with the hypothesis, l-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity was inhibited by ?50% compared with the wild-type mitochondria. CONCLUSIONS:These results implicate a role for CypD in modulating protein acetylation. Taken together, these results suggest that ablation of CypD leads to changes in the mitochondrial acetylome, which may contribute to altered mitochondrial metabolism in CypD(-/-) mice.
Project description:Protein lysine acetylation is recognized as an important reversible post translational modification in all domains of life. While its primary roles appear to reside in metabolic processes, lysine acetylation has also been implicated in regulating pathogenesis in bacteria. Several global lysine acetylome analyses have been carried out in various bacteria, but thus far there have been no reports of lysine acetylation taking place in the important human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. In this study, we analyzed the lysine acetylproteome of the human pathogen V. cholerae V52. By applying a combination of immuno-enrichment of acetylated peptides and high resolution mass spectrometry, we identified 3,402 acetylation sites on 1,240 proteins. Of the acetylated proteins, more than half were acetylated on two or more sites. As reported for other bacteria, we observed that many of the acetylated proteins were involved in metabolic and cellular processes and there was an over-representation of acetylated proteins involved in protein synthesis. Of interest, we demonstrated that many global transcription factors such as CRP, H-NS, IHF, Lrp and RpoN as well as transcription factors AphB, TcpP, and PhoB involved in direct regulation of virulence in V. cholerae were acetylated. In conclusion, this is the first global protein lysine acetylome analysis of V. cholerae and should constitute a valuable resource for in-depth studies of the impact of lysine acetylation in pathogenesis and other cellular processes.
Project description:N?-lysine acetylation represents a highly dynamic and reversibly regulated post-translational modification widespread in almost all organisms, and plays important roles for regulation of protein function in diverse metabolic pathways. However, little is known about the role of lysine acetylation in photosynthetic eukaryotic microalgae. We integrated proteomic approaches to comprehensively characterize the lysine acetylome in the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum In total, 2324 acetylation sites from 1220 acetylated proteins were identified, representing the largest data set of the lysine acetylome in plants to date. Almost all enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis were found to be lysine acetylated. Six putative lysine acetylation sites were identified in a plastid-localized long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase. Site-directed mutagenesis and site-specific incorporation of N-acetyllysine in acyl-CoA synthetase show that acetylation at K407 and K425 increases its enzyme activity. Moreover, the nonenzymatically catalyzed overall hyperacetylation of acyl-CoA synthetase by acetyl-phosphate can be effectively deacetylated and reversed by a sirtuin-type NAD+-dependent deacetylase with subcellular localization of both the plastid and nucleus in Phaeodactylum This work indicates the regulation of acyl-CoA synthetase activity by site-specific lysine acetylation and highlights the potential regulation of fatty acid metabolism by lysine actetylation in the plastid of the diatom Phaeodactylum.
Project description:This study characterized the lysine acetylome in human gut microbiome samples. Briefly, the microbial peptides obtained from human mcirobiome cells were used for lysine acetylated peptide enrichment using anti-acetyl-lysine (Kac) antibody cocktail; the enriched Kac peptides were then identified and quantified using mass spectrometry.
Project description:Polyporus umbellatus sclerotia are medicinal tissue, but little is known about acetylome of sclerotia generated from hyphae. Acetylated peptides in P. umbellatus were enriched by anti-acetyl-lysine antibody beaded agarose and DDA data were acquired by AB Triple TOF 5600+. Raw data were analyzed by ProteinPilot software to obtained acetylated peptides and proteins, and carried out bioinformatics analysis.