Translation Regulation and RNA Granule Formation after Heat Shock of Procyclic Form Trypanosoma brucei: Many Heat-Induced mRNAs Are also Increased during Differentiation to Mammalian-Infective Forms.
ABSTRACT: African trypanosome procyclic forms multiply in the midgut of tsetse flies, and are routinely cultured at 27°C. Heat shocks of 37°C and above result in general inhibition of translation, and severe heat shock (41°C) results in sequestration of mRNA in granules. The mRNAs that are bound by the zinc-finger protein ZC3H11, including those encoding refolding chaperones, escape heat-induced translation inhibition. At 27°C, ZC3H11 mRNA is predominantly present as an untranslated cytosolic messenger ribonucleoprotein particle, but after heat shocks of 37°C-41°C, the ZC3H11 mRNA moves into the polysomal fraction. To investigate the scope and specificities of heat-shock translational regulation and granule formation, we analysed the distributions of mRNAs on polysomes at 27°C and after 1 hour at 39°C, and the mRNA content of 41°C heat shock granules. We found that mRNAs that bind to ZC3H11 remained in polysomes at 39°C and were protected from sequestration in granules at 41°C. As previously seen for starvation stress granules, the mRNAs that encode ribosomal proteins were excluded from heat-shock granules. 70 mRNAs moved towards the polysomal fraction after the 39°C heat shock, and 260 increased in relative abundance. Surprisingly, many of these mRNAs are also increased when trypanosomes migrate to the tsetse salivary glands. It therefore seems possible that in the wild, temperature changes due to diurnal variations and periodic intake of warm blood might influence the efficiency with which procyclic forms develop into mammalian-infective forms.
Project description:DZIP1 (DAZ-interacting protein 1) has been described as a component of the Hh signaling pathway with a putative regulatory role in ciliogenesis. DZIP1 interacts with DAZ RNA binding proteins in embryonic stem cells and human germ cells suggesting a role in mRNA regulation.We investigated DZIP1 function in HeLa cells and its involvement in ribonucleoprotein complexes. DZIP1 was predominantly located in granules in the cytoplasm. Under oxidative stress conditions, DZIP1 re-localized to stress granules. DZIP appears to be important for the formation of stress granules during the stress response. We used immunoprecipitation assays with antibodies against DZIP1 and microarray hybridization to identify mRNAs associated with DZIP1. The genetic networks formed by the DZIP1-associated mRNAs were involved in cell cycle and gene expression regulation. DZIP1 is involved in the Hedgehog signaling pathway. We used cyclopamine, a specific inhibitor of this pathway, to analyze the expression of DZIP1 and its associated mRNAs. The abundance of DZIP1-associated mRNAs increased with treatment; however, the silencing or overexpression of DZIP1 in HeLa cells had no effect on the accumulation of the associated mRNAs. Polysomal profile analysis by sucrose gradient centrifugation demonstrated the presence of DZIP1 in the polysomal fraction.Our results suggest that DZIP1 is part of an RNP complex that occupies various subcellular locations. The diversity of the mRNAs associated with DZIP1 suggests that this protein is a component of different RNPs associated with translating polysomes and with RNA granules.
Project description:Trypanosoma brucei is a unicellular parasite which multiplies in mammals (bloodstream form) and Tsetse flies (procyclic form). Trypanosome RNA polymerase II transcription is polycistronic, individual mRNAs being excised by trans splicing and polyadenylation. We previously made detailed measurements of mRNA half-lives in bloodstream and procyclic forms, and developed a mathematical model of gene expression for bloodstream forms. At the whole transcriptome level, many bloodstream-form mRNAs were less abundant than was predicted by the model.We refined the published mathematical model and extended it to the procyclic form. We used the model, together with known mRNA half-lives, to predict the abundances of individual mRNAs, assuming rapid, unregulated mRNA processing; then we compared the results with measured mRNA abundances. Remarkably, the abundances of most mRNAs in procyclic forms are predicted quite well by the model, being largely explained by variations in mRNA decay rates and length. In bloodstream forms substantially more mRNAs are less abundant than predicted. We list mRNAs that are likely to show particularly slow or inefficient processing, either in both forms or with developmental regulation. We also measured ribosome occupancies of all mRNAs in trypanosomes grown in the same conditions as were used to measure mRNA turnover. In procyclic forms there was a weak positive correlation between ribosome density and mRNA half-life, suggesting cross-talk between translation and mRNA decay; ribosome density was related to the proportion of the mRNA on polysomes, indicating control of translation initiation. Ribosomal protein mRNAs in procyclics appeared to be exceptionally rapidly processed but poorly translated.Levels of mRNAs in procyclic form trypanosomes are determined mainly by length and mRNA decay, with some control of precursor processing. In bloodstream forms variations in nuclear events play a larger role in transcriptome regulation, suggesting aquisition of new control mechanisms during adaptation to mammalian parasitism.
Project description:In most organisms, the heat-shock response involves increased heat-shock gene transcription. In Kinetoplastid protists, however, virtually all control of gene expression is post-transcriptional. Correspondingly, Trypanosoma brucei heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) synthesis after heat shock depends on regulation of HSP70 mRNA turnover. We here show that the T. brucei CCCH zinc finger protein ZC3H11 is a post-transcriptional regulator of trypanosome chaperone mRNAs. ZC3H11 is essential in bloodstream-form trypanosomes and for recovery of insect-form trypanosomes from heat shock. ZC3H11 binds to mRNAs encoding heat-shock protein homologues, with clear specificity for the subset of trypanosome chaperones that is required for protein refolding. In procyclic forms, ZC3H11 was required for stabilisation of target chaperone-encoding mRNAs after heat shock, and the HSP70 mRNA was also decreased upon ZC3H11 depletion in bloodstream forms. Many mRNAs bound to ZC3H11 have a consensus AUU repeat motif in the 3'-untranslated region. ZC3H11 bound preferentially to AUU repeats in vitro, and ZC3H11 regulation of HSP70 mRNA in bloodstream forms depended on its AUU repeat region. Tethering of ZC3H11 to a reporter mRNA increased reporter expression, showing that it is capable of actively stabilizing an mRNA. These results show that expression of trypanosome heat-shock genes is controlled by a specific RNA-protein interaction. They also show that heat-shock-induced chaperone expression in procyclic trypanosome enhances parasite survival at elevated temperatures.
Project description:The gene expression of Trypanosoma brucei has been examined extensively in the blood of mammalian hosts and in forms found in the midgut of its arthropod vector, the tsetse fly. However, trypanosomes also undergo development within the mammalian bloodstream as they progress from morphologically 'slender forms' to transmissible 'stumpy forms' through morphological intermediates. This transition is temporally progressive within the first wave of parasitaemia such that gene expression can be monitored in relatively pure slender and stumpy populations as well as during the progression between these extremes. The development also represents the progression of cells from translationally active forms adapted for proliferation in the host to translationally quiescent forms, adapted for transmission. We have used metabolic labelling to quantitate translational activity in slender forms, stumpy forms and in forms undergoing early differentiation to procyclic forms in vitro. Thereafter we have examined the cohort of total mRNAs that are enriched throughout development in the mammalian bloodstream (slender, intermediate and stumpy forms), irrespective of strain, revealing those that exhibit consistent developmental regulation rather than sample specific changes. Transcripts that cosediment with polysomes in stumpy forms and slender forms have also been enriched to identify transcripts that escape translational repression prior to transmission. Combined, the expression and polysomal association of transcripts as trypanosomes undergo development in the mammalian bloodstream have been defined, providing a resource for trypanosome researchers. This facilitates the identification of those that undergo developmental regulation in the bloodstream and therefore those likely to have a role in the survival and capacity for transmission of stumpy forms.
Project description:Trypanosomes rely on post-transcriptional mechanisms and mRNA-binding proteins for control of gene expression. Trypanosoma brucei ZC3H30 is an mRNA-binding protein that is expressed in both the bloodstream form (which grows in mammals) and the procyclic form (which grows in the tsetse fly midgut). Attachment of ZC3H30 to an mRNA causes degradation of that mRNA. Cells lacking ZC3H30 showed no growth defect under normal culture conditions; but they were more susceptible than wild-type cells to heat shock, starvation, and treatment with DTT, arsenite or ethanol. Transcriptomes of procyclic-form trypanosomes lacking ZC3H30 were indistinguishable from those of cells in which ZC3H30 had been re-expressed, but un-stressed bloodstream forms lacking ZC3H30 had about 2-fold more HSP70 mRNA. Results from pull-downs suggested that ZC3H30 mRNA binding may not be very specific. ZC3H30 was found in stress-induced granules and co-purified with another stress granule protein, Tb927.8.3820; but RNAi targeting Tb927.8.3820 did not affect either ZC3H30 granule association or stress resistance. The conservation of the ZC3H30 gene in both monogenetic and digenetic kinetoplastids, combined with the increased stress susceptibility of cells lacking it, suggests that ZC3H30 confers a selective advantage in the wild, where the parasites are subject to temperature fluctuations and immune attack in both the insect and mammalian hosts.
Project description:Cellular responses to environmental changes occur on different levels. We investigated the translational response of yeast cells after mild hyperosmotic shock by isolating mRNA associated with multiple ribosomes (polysomes) followed by array analysis. Globally, recruitment of preexisting mRNAs to ribosomes (translational response) is faster than the transcriptional response. Specific functional groups of mRNAs are recruited to ribosomes without any corresponding increase in total mRNA. Among mRNAs under strong translational up-regulation upon shock, transcripts encoding membrane-bound proteins including hexose transporters were enriched. Similarly, numerous mRNAs encoding cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins run counter to the overall trend of down-regulation and are instead translationally mobilized late in the response. Surprisingly, certain transcriptionally induced mRNAs were excluded from ribosomal association after shock. Importantly, we verify, using constructs with intact 5' and 3' untranslated regions, that the observed changes in polysomal mRNA are reflected in protein levels, including cases with only translational up-regulation. Interestingly, the translational regulation of the most highly osmostress-regulated mRNAs was more strongly dependent on the stress-activated protein kinases Hog1 and Rck2 than the transcriptional regulation. Our results show the importance of translational control for fine tuning of the adaptive responses.
Project description:TbRRM1 of Trypanosoma brucei is a nucleoprotein that was previously identified in a search for splicing factors in T. brucei. We show that TbRRM1 associates with mRNAs and with the auxiliary splicing factor polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 2, but not with components of the core spliceosome. TbRRM1 also interacts with several retrotransposon hot spot (RHS) proteins and histones. RNA immunoprecipitation of a tagged form of TbRRM1 from procyclic (insect) form trypanosomes identified ca. 1,500 transcripts that were enriched and 3,000 transcripts that were underrepresented compared to cellular mRNA. Enriched transcripts encoded RNA-binding proteins, including TbRRM1 itself, several RHS transcripts, mRNAs with long coding regions, and a high proportion of stage-regulated mRNAs that are more highly expressed in bloodstream forms. Transcripts encoding ribosomal proteins, other factors involved in translation, and procyclic-specific transcripts were underrepresented. Knockdown of TbRRM1 by RNA interference caused widespread changes in mRNA abundance, but these changes did not correlate with the binding of the protein to transcripts, and most splice sites were unchanged, negating a general role for TbRRM1 in splice site selection. When changes in mRNA abundance were mapped across the genome, regions with many downregulated mRNAs were identified. Two regions were analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation, both of which exhibited increases in nucleosome occupancy upon TbRRM1 depletion. In addition, subjecting cells to heat shock resulted in translocation of TbRRM1 to the cytoplasm and compaction of chromatin, consistent with a second role for TbRRM1 in modulating chromatin structure.Trypanosoma brucei, the parasite that causes human sleeping sickness, is transmitted by tsetse flies. The parasite progresses through different life cycle stages in its two hosts, altering its pattern of gene expression in the process. In trypanosomes, protein-coding genes are organized as polycistronic units that are processed into monocistronic mRNAs. Since genes in the same unit can be regulated independently of each other, it is believed that gene regulation is essentially posttranscriptional. In this study, we investigated the role of a nuclear RNA-binding protein, TbRRM1, in the insect stage of the parasite. We found that TbRRM1 binds nuclear mRNAs and also affects chromatin status. Reduction of nuclear TbRRM1 by RNA interference or heat shock resulted in chromatin compaction. We propose that TbRRM1 regulates RNA polymerase II-driven gene expression both cotranscriptionally, by facilitating transcription and efficient splicing, and posttranscriptionally, via its interaction with nuclear mRNAs.
Project description:mRNA translation into proteins is highly regulated, but the role of mRNA isoforms, noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), and genetic variants remains poorly understood. mRNA levels on polysomes have been shown to correlate well with expressed protein levels, pointing to polysomal loading as a critical factor. To study regulation and genetic factors of protein translation we measured levels and allelic ratios of mRNAs and ncRNAs (including microRNAs) in lymphoblast cell lines (LCL) and in polysomal fractions. We first used targeted assays to measure polysomal loading of mRNA alleles, confirming reported genetic effects on translation of OPRM1 and NAT1, and detecting no effect of rs1045642 (3435C>T) in ABCB1 (MDR1) on polysomal loading while supporting previous results showing increased mRNA turnover of the 3435T allele. Use of high-throughput sequencing of complete transcript profiles (RNA-Seq) in three LCLs revealed significant differences in polysomal loading of individual RNA classes and isoforms. Correlated polysomal distribution between protein-coding and non-coding RNAs suggests interactions between them. Allele-selective polysome recruitment revealed strong genetic influence for multiple RNAs, attributable either to differential expression of RNA isoforms or to differential loading onto polysomes, the latter defining a direct genetic effect on translation. Genes identified by different allelic RNA ratios between cytosol and polysomes were enriched with published expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) affecting RNA functions, and associations with clinical phenotypes. Polysomal RNA-Seq combined with allelic ratio analysis provides a powerful approach to study polysomal RNA recruitment and regulatory variants affecting protein translation.
Project description:In trypanosomes there is an almost total reliance on post-transcriptional mechanisms to alter gene expression; here, heat shock was used to investigate the response to an environmental signal. Heat shock rapidly and reversibly induced a decrease in polysome abundance, and the consequent changes in mRNA metabolism were studied. Both heat shock and polysome dissociation were necessary for (1) a reduction in mRNA levels that was more rapid than normal turnover, (2) an increased number of P-body-like granules that contained DHH1, SCD6 and XRNA, (3) the formation of stress granules that remained largely separate from the P-body-like granules and localise to the periphery of the cell and, (4) an increase in the size of a novel focus located at the posterior pole of the cell that contain XRNA, but neither DHH1 nor SCD6. The response differed from mammalian cells in that neither the decrease in polysomes nor stress-granule formation required phosphorylation of eIF2alpha at the position homologous to that of serine 51 in mammalian eIF2alpha and in the occurrence of a novel XRNA-focus.
Project description:We report here the results of experiments designed to identify RNA-binding proteins that might be associated with Trypanosoma brucei polysomes. After some preliminary mass spectrometry of polysomal fractions, we investigated the distributions of selected tagged proteins using sucrose gradients and immunofluorescence. As expected, the polysomal fractions contained nearly all annotated ribosomal proteins, the translation-associated protein folding complex, and many translation factors, but also many other abundant proteins. Results suggested that cap-binding proteins EIF4E3 and EIF4E4 were associated with both free and membrane-bound polysomes. The EIF4E binding partners EIF4G4 and EIF4G3 were present but the other EIF4E and EIF4G paralogues were not detected. The dominant EIF4E in the polysomal fraction is EIF4E4 and very few polysomal mRNAs are associated with EIF4G. Thirteen potential mRNA-binding proteins were detected in the polysomes, including the known polysome-associated protein RBP42. The locations of two of the other proteins were tested after epitope tagging: RBP29 was in the nucleus and ZC3H29 was in the cytoplasm. Quantitative analyses showed that specific association of an RNA-binding protein with the polysome fraction in sucrose gradients will not be detected if the protein is in more than 25-fold molar excess over its target binding sites.