Reproducibility and Validity of the 6-Minute Walk Test Using the Gait Real-Time Analysis Interactive Lab in Patients with COPD and Healthy Elderly.
ABSTRACT: The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) in a regular hallway is commonly used to assess functional exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, treadmill walking might provide additional advantages over overground walking, especially if virtual reality and self-paced treadmill walking are combined. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the reproducibility and validity of the 6MWT using the Gait Real-time Analysis Interactive Lab (GRAIL) in patients with COPD and healthy elderly.Sixty-one patients with COPD and 48 healthy elderly performed two 6MWTs on the GRAIL. Patients performed two overground 6MWTs and healthy elderly performed one overground test. Differences between consecutive 6MWTs and the test conditions (GRAIL vs. overground) were analysed. Patients walked further in the second overground test (24.8 m, 95% CI 15.2-34.4 m, p<0.001) and in the second GRAIL test (26.8 m, 95% CI 13.9-39.6 m). Healthy elderly improved their second GRAIL test (49.6 m, 95% CI 37.0-62.3 m). The GRAIL 6MWT was reproducible (intra-class coefficients = 0.65-0.80). The best GRAIL 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) in patients was shorter than the best overground 6MWD (-27.3 ± 49.1 m, p<0.001). Healthy elderly walked further on the GRAIL than in the overground condition (23.6 ± 41.4 m, p<0.001). Validity of the GRAIL 6MWT was assessed and intra-class coefficient values ranging from 0.74-0.77 were found.The GRAIL is a promising system to assess the 6MWD in patients with COPD and healthy elderly. The GRAIL 6MWD seems to be more comparable to the 6MWDs assessed overground than previous studies on treadmills have reported. Furthermore, good construct validity and reproducibility were established in assessing the 6MWD using the GRAIL in patients with COPD and healthy elderly.
Project description:Overground gait assessment is limited by the analysis of multiple strides or both spatiotemporal gait characteristics, while fixed speed treadmill walking restricts natural gait speed variations. The Gait Real-time Analysis Interactive Lab (GRAIL)-based 6-minute walk test (6MWT) enables 3D motion analysis and self-paced treadmill walking, and could provide insight in gait alterations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study is to compare spatiotemporal gait characteristics between patients with COPD and healthy elderly during the GRAIL-based 6MWT.Eighty COPD patients (60% male; 62±7 years; FEV1:56±19% predicted) and 38 healthy elderly (63% male; 62±6 years; FEV1:119±17% predicted) performed two GRAIL-based 6MWTs. Mean differences and coefficient of variation of spatiotemporal gait characteristics were calculated using the trial with the largest walk distance. Sub-analyses were conducted to account for walking speed differences between groups, and muscle strength and COPD severity within the patient group.COPD patients showed increased temporal gait characteristics, decreased stride and step lengths, and increased gait variability compared to healthy elderly (p<0.01). Stride length variability remained increased in COPD after correction for walking speed (MD:0.98%, CI:0.36-1.61, p = 0.003). Reduced quadriceps strength did not translate into altered gait characteristics, while COPD severity is associated with stride time (left MD:-0.02s, CI:-0.04-0.01, p = 0.003; right MD:-0.02s, CI:-0.04-0.01, p = 0.003).COPD patients performed the GRAIL-based 6MWT differently compared to healthy elderly. Further research should use other variability measures to investigate gait characteristics in COPD, to assess subtle alterations in gait and to enable development of rehabilitation strategies to improve gait, and possibly balance and fall risk in COPD. Other lower limb muscle groups should be considered when investigating gait alterations in COPD.COPD patients have different gait characteristics compared to healthy elderly. Independent of walking speed, COPD patients demonstrate increased stride length variability during the GRAIL-based 6MWT compared to healthy elderly.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>To date, detailed analyses of walking patterns using accelerometers during the 6-min walk test (6MWT) have not been performed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, it remains unclear whether and to what extent COPD patients have an altered walking pattern during the 6MWT compared to healthy elderly subjects.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>79 COPD patients and 24 healthy elderly subjects performed the 6MWT wearing an accelerometer attached to the trunk. The accelerometer features (walking intensity, cadence, and walking variability) and subject characteristics were assessed and compared between groups. Moreover, associations were sought with 6-min walk distance (6MWD) using multiple ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models. COPD patients walked with a significantly lower walking intensity, lower cadence and increased walking variability compared to healthy subjects. Walking intensity and height were the only two significant determinants of 6MWD in healthy subjects, explaining 85% of the variance in 6MWD. In COPD patients also age, cadence, walking variability measures and their interactions were included were significant determinants of 6MWD (total variance in 6MWD explained: 88%).<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>COPD patients have an altered walking pattern during 6MWT compared to healthy subjects. These differences in walking pattern partially explain the lower 6MWD in patients with COPD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The six-minute walking test (6MWT) is a tool that plays a key role in evaluating the functional exercise capacity, prognosis and evaluation of treatment response of patients with various cardiopulmonary diseases. However, standard reference equations are currently unavailable for the six-minute walking distance (6MWD) for people aged 60-85?years in China. The purpose of this study was to 1) measure the 6MWD of healthy Chinese people aged 60-85?years, 2) establish reference equations for predicting the 6MWD, and 3) compare our reference equations with equations reported in previously published studies. METHOD:We obtained informed consent from each participant prior to the test, and the research design was approved by the Ethics Committee of Wenzhou People's Hospital. The demographic and anthropometric data and the 6MWD of healthy Chinese subjects aged 60-85?years old were measured using a standardized protocol. Every subject completed two 6MWTs, and the longest 6MWD further analyzed. RESULTS:Two hundred sixty-six subjects (128 males and 138 females) completed the 6MWT, and the mean walking distance was 518?±?72?m. Males achieved a longer walking distance than females (518?±?72?m vs. 487?±?70?m; p <?0.0001), and active subjects achieved a longer walking distance than nonactive subjects (512?±?76?m vs. 485?±?63?m; p <?0.0001). According to the univariate analysis, the 6MWD was significantly associated with age, height, body mass index (BMI), heart rate and blood pressure after exercise and changes in heart rate before and after exercise. The stepwise multivariate regression analysis identified age, height and BMI as independent predictors of the 6MWD. The reference equations for Caucasians and South Americans tended to overestimate the 6MWD of our subjects, while the equations for Asian and African populations tended to underestimate the 6MWD. CONCLUSIONS:This study is the first to describe the 6MWD of healthy Chinese people aged 60-85?years, and reference prediction equations were proposed. These findings will help to improve the evaluation of Chinese patients with diseases that affect exercise capacity.
Project description:Four-meter gait speed (4MGS) has been associated with functional capacity and overall mortality in elderly patients, and may easily be translated to daily practice. We evaluated the association of 4MGS with meaningful outcomes.In 70 subjects we conducted the 4MGS, 6-min walk test (6MWT), objectively measured physical activity, and assessed dyspnea, quality of life, and self-efficacy for walking and routine physical activity. 4MGS was measured in 3 separate time epochs during the 6MWT, to explore 4MGS variability.Diagnoses included COPD (51.4%), interstitial lung disease (38.6%), and other pulmonary conditions (10%). The mean ± SD values were: 4MGS 0.85 ± 0.21 m/s, 6-min walk distance (6MWD) 305 ± 115 m, and physical activity level 1.28 ± 0.17, which is consistent with severe physical inactivity. The gait speeds within the time epochs 1-2, 3-4, and 5-6 min during the 6MWT were not significantly different: 1.01 ± 0.29 m/s, 0.98 ± 0.31 m/s, and 1.00 ± 0.31 m/s, respectively. 4MGS had a significant correlation with 6MWD (r = 0.70, P < .001). 6MWD was the dominant variable for predicting 4MGS. Other significant predictors of 4MGS included dyspnea, self-efficacy, quality of life, and objectively measured physical activity.4MGS is significantly and independently associated with 6MWD, and may serve as a reasonable simple surrogate for 6MWD in subjects with chronic lung disease. Gait speed was remarkably stable throughout the 6MWT, which supports the validity of an abbreviated walk test such as 4MGS.
Project description:This study is aimed to (i) compare both the magnitude of impairment in exercise capacity and exercise responses measured during the six-minute walk test (6MWT) and the cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) and (ii) investigate the effect of test repetition on six-minute walk distance (6MWD) in people following curative intent treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Twenty participants (67 ± 10 years; 14 females), 6-10 weeks following lobectomy, underwent a CPET and two 6MWTs. Peak exercise responses, dyspnoea and leg fatigue, as well as heart rate (HR) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) during the 6MWT, were compared to those during the CPET. Compared with exercise capacity when expressed as peak rate of oxygen consumption (%pred) measured during the CPET, exercise capacity when expressed as 6MWD (%pred) was less impaired (81 ± 10 vs. 63 ± 15 %pred; p < 0.001). Compared with the CPET, the 6MWT elicited lower peak HR (119 ± 15 vs. 128 ± 18 beats minute(-1); p = 0.02), lower SpO2 (93 ± 2 vs. 95 ± 3%; p < 0.05), less dyspnoea (3.1 ± 1.6 vs. 6.9 ± 2.6; p < 0.01) and less leg fatigue (2.0 ± 1.9 vs. 6.8 ± 2.4; p < 0.01). The 6MWD increased 19 ± 19 metre (4 ± 4%) with test repetition (p < 0.001). In people following curative intent treatment for NSCLC, the 6MWT appears to elicit sub-maximal exercise responses when compared with the CPET. There is a significant effect of test repetition on 6MWD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Exercise tolerance can be assessed by the cycle endurance test (CET) and six-minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We sought to investigate the characteristics of functional exercise performance and determinants of the CET and 6MWT in a large clinical cohort of COPD patients. METHODS: A dataset of 2053 COPD patients (43% female, age: 66.9 ± 9.5 years, FEV1% predicted: 48.2 ± 23.2) was analyzed retrospectively. Patients underwent, amongst others, respiratory function evaluation; medical tests and questionnaires, one maximal incremental cycle test where peak work rate was determined and two functional exercise tests: a CET at 75% of peak work rate and 6MWT. A stepwise multiple linear regression was used to assess determinants. RESULTS: On average, patients had impaired exercise tolerance (peak work rate: 56 ± 27% predicted, 6MWT: 69 ± 17% predicted). A total of 2002 patients had CET time of duration (CET-Tend) less than 20 min while only 51 (2.5%) of the patients achieved 20 min of CET-Tend . In former patients, the percent of predicted peak work rate achieved differed significantly between men (48 ± 21% predicted) and women (67 ± 31% predicted). In contrast, CET-Tend was longer in men (286 ± 174 s vs 250 ± 153 s, p < 0.001). Also, six minute walking distance (6MWD) was higher in men compared to women, both in absolute terms as in percent of predicted (443 m, 67%predicted vs 431 m, 72%predicted, p < 0.05). Gender was associated with the CET-Tend but BMI, FEV1 and FRC were related to the 6MWD highlighting the different determinants of exercise performance between CET and 6MWT. CONCLUSIONS: CET-Tend is a valuable outcome of CET as it is related to multiple clinical aspects of disease severity in COPD. Gender difference should temper the interpretation of CET.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently associated with exertional oxygen desaturation, which may be evaluated using the 6-minute walking test (6MWT). However, it is a time-consuming test. The 1-minute sit-to-stand test (1STST) is a simpler test, already used to evaluate the functional status. The aim of this study was to compare the 1STST to the 6MWT in the evaluation of exertional desaturation.<h4>Methods</h4>This was a cross-sectional study including 30 stable COPD patients who performed the 6MWT and 1STST on the same day. Six-minute walking distance (6MWD), number of 1STST repetitions (1STSTr), and cardiorespiratory parameters were recorded.<h4>Results</h4>A significant correlation was found between the 6MWD and the number of 1STSTr (r = 0.54; <i>p</i> = 0.002). The minimum oxygen saturation (SpO<sub>2</sub>) in both tests showed a good agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.81) and correlated strongly (r = 0.84; <i>p</i> < 0.001). Regarding oxygen desaturation, the total agreement between the tests was 73.3% with a fair Cohen´s kappa (? = 0.38; <i>p</i> = 0.018), and 93.33% of observations were within the limits of agreement for both tests in the Bland-Altman analysis.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The 1STST seems to be a capable tool of detecting exercise-induced oxygen desaturation in COPD. Because it is a less time- and resources-consuming test, it may be applied during the outpatient clinic consultation to regularly evaluate the exercise capacity and exertional desaturation in COPD.
Project description:This is a cross-section observational study that investigated the cardiodynamic response to a 6-minute walk test (6MWT) in patients after stroke using impedance cardiography (ICG). Patients diagnosed with stroke were invited to participate in a 6MWT on consecutive days. Heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV) and cardiac index (CI) were measured by ICG using the PhysioFlow® PF07 EnduroTM at 1-second intervals for 10 minutes prior to, during and for 10 minutes after each 6MWT. Oxygen saturation, perceived exertion score (modified Borg scale) and the distance covered at the end of each 6MWT were recorded. Twenty-nine patients (mean age 55.6±10.9 years) completed the study. The mean duration of stroke after diagnosis was 14.4±19.1 months. There were no differences in the measured data between the first and second 6MWT (mean intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) range: 0.87-0.95). The 6 minute walk distance (6WMD) covered in the two 6MWTs was 246±126 and 255±130m respectively (p>0.05). Mean measured data for each subject at rest, and at the end of the better performed 6MWT were, respectively: HR 78±11 and 100±18 bpm; CO 5.5±1.2 and 8.9±2.6 l/min, SV 71.3±16 and 89.3±18.6 ml/beat and CI 3.0±0.6 and 4.9±1.3 l/min/m2. After commencement of the 6MWT, the increase in SV took 30 sec before the rise approaching a plateau, whereas HR, CO and CI continued to rise steeply for 90 sec before leveling off to a steady rise. After completion of the 6MWT, all parameters had returned to baseline by a mean of 3.5 min. Sub-group analysis showed that the increase in cardiac output was predominantly contributed by an increase in heart rate in participants diagnosed with stroke for less than 1 year, whereas both stroke volume and heart rate contributed similarly to the increase in cardiac output in participants with diagnosis of stroke for longer than 1 year. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) both returned to baseline within 2 minutes post 6MWT. HR recorded at the end of the 6MWT was 60.8±10.6% of the predicted maximal heart rate and perceived exertion score was 5±2. Correlations between 6MWD and HR, and between 6MWD and SV were weak, with correlation coefficients Spearman's rho (rs) =0.46, and 0.42, respectively (p<0.05). Correlation between 6MWD and CO and CI were higher (rs= 0.66 and 0.63, respectively (p<0.01)). This is the first study to report cardiac responses during a 6MWT in stroke patients. ICG is a reliable, non-invasive, repeatable method of measuring cardiodynamic data in stroke patients.
Project description:This study examined the effect of an exercise intervention on the composition of the intestinal microbiota in healthy elderly women. Thirty-two sedentary women that were aged 65 years and older participated in a 12-week, non-randomized comparative trial. The subjects were allocated to two groups receiving different exercise interventions, trunk muscle training (TM), or aerobic exercise training (AE). AE included brisk walking, i.e., at an intensity of ≥ 3 metabolic equivalents (METs). The composition of the intestinal microbiota in fecal samples was determined before and after the training period. We also assessed the daily physical activity using an accelerometer, trunk muscle strength by the modified Kraus-Weber (K-W) test, and cardiorespiratory fitness by a 6-min. walk test (6MWT). K-W test scores and distance achieved during the 6MWT (6MWD) improved in both groups. The relative abundance of intestinal Bacteroides only significantly increased in the AE group, particularly in subjects showing increases in the time spent in brisk walking. Overall, the increases in intestinal Bacteroides following the exercise intervention were associated with increases in 6MWD. In conclusion, aerobic exercise training that targets an increase of the time spent in brisk walking may increase intestinal Bacteroides in association with improved cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy elderly women.
Project description:The 6-minute walking test (6MWT) is a simple assessment tool to evaluate exercise capacity. The result of the test is the distance that a subject can walk at a constant and normal pace within 6 minutes (6MWD) and reflects the aerobic/fitness performance related to walking function. Use of 6MWT has been relevant to assess exercise tolerance either in healthy children or in patients with, heart, lung and metabolic diseases. Our aim was to find 6MWT reference values in healthy Italian children. The 6MWT was performed in 5614 children aged 6-11 years recruited from primary Italian schools. Age related reference percentiles of the covered distance were gender-modeled. A linear and quadratic regression model was used to predict 6MWT performance. Males walked longer distances than females, respectively 598.8±83.9 m vs 592.1±77.6 m (p = 0.0016). According to the regression analysis, 6MWD was positively related to age, gender and height, while it was negatively related to body weight [(6MWD = -160.16 + 93.35× age (years) -4.05× age2 (years) +7.34× gender (m) +2.12× weight (kg) -2.50× height (cm)]. Reference values were established for the 6MWT in healthy children. The age related 6MWD percentiles provided a useful tool in the assessment of capacity in 6-11 year children, in fact they may be helpful to evaluate the effect of a given treatment or rehabilitation program and represent a feasible measure as to prevention within the primary school context. It was found a substantial difference from other countries for 6mwd values. In our study, factors such as age, weight and height were relevant for the prediction of 6MWD, similarly to other studies. Therefore, these variables should be taken into account in context of exercise performance.