The Quest for Anti-inflammatory and Anti-infective Biomaterials in Clinical Translation.
ABSTRACT: Biomaterials are now being used or evaluated clinically as implants to supplement the severe shortage of available human donor organs. To date, however, such implants have mainly been developed as scaffolds to promote the regeneration of failing organs due to old age or congenital malformations. In the real world, however, infection or immunological issues often compromise patients. For example, bacterial and viral infections can result in uncontrolled immunopathological damage and lead to organ failure. Hence, there is a need for biomaterials and implants that not only promote regeneration but also address issues that are specific to compromised patients, such as infection and inflammation. Different strategies are needed to address the regeneration of organs that have been damaged by infection or inflammation for successful clinical translation. Therefore, the real quest is for multifunctional biomaterials with combined properties that can combat infections, modulate inflammation, and promote regeneration at the same time. These strategies will necessitate the inclusion of methodologies for management of the cellular and signaling components elicited within the local microenvironment. In the development of such biomaterials, strategies range from the inclusion of materials that have intrinsic anti-inflammatory properties, such as the synthetic lipid polymer, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), to silver nanoparticles that have antibacterial properties, to inclusion of nano- and micro-particles in biomaterials composites that deliver active drugs. In this present review, we present examples of both kinds of materials in each group along with their pros and cons. Thus, as a promising next generation strategy to aid or replace tissue/organ transplantation, an integrated smart programmable platform is needed for regenerative medicine applications to create and/or restore normal function at the cell and tissue levels. Therefore, now it is of utmost importance to develop integrative biomaterials based on multifunctional biopolymers and nanosystem for their practical and successful clinical translation.
Project description:An interesting field within the broad subject of biomaterials is the chemical and physical crafting of materials that can functionally substitute or help regenerate the organs and tissues of the human body. Regeneration is the new dimension of this field as opposed to the more established area of permanent implants and devices to substitute natural structures and functions. With the advent of nanoscience, the field is experiencing a renaissance by embracing the vision that artificial nanostructures of the self-assembling type could be designed for highly specific functions to promote regenerative processes.
Project description:The efficient cutaneous wound healing accompanied with the enhanced skin appendage regeneration is still a challenge. The bacterial infection and excessive/prolonged inflammation inhibit wound healing process and result in the scar formation. Herein, we reported an anti-inflammatory polycitrate-polyethyleneimine-Ibuprofen (PCEI) and multifunctional PCEI-based F127-?-polypeptide-alginic (FEA) dressing (FEA-PCEI) for accelerating wound healing and hair follicle neogenesis. PCEI showed the excellent anti-inflammation function through stimulating macrophage towards anti-inflammatory M2 subtype polarization. The FEA-PCEI dressing showed the temperature-response gelation, injectability, robust antibacterial activity, light-damage-resistant, homeostasis ability, and good cytocompatibility. The optimized dosage of FEA-PCEI dressing could significantly accelerate wound healing with anti-infection ability, reduce the scar formation, and promote the hair follicle neogenesis. This study provided a wound-repairing strategy through regulating the phenotype of immune cells by the designing bioactive multifunctional biomaterials. Graphical abstract Image 1 Highlights • Anti-inflammation PCEI and multifunctional PCEI-based hydrogel was fabricated.• PCEI and hydrogel dressing inhibited inflammation with increased M2 macrophages.• PCEI-based hydrogel dressing showed antibacterial/anti-UV/hemostasis activity.• PCEI-based hydrogel dressing promoted wound healing and hair follicle neogenesis.
Project description:Connective tissue is one of the four major types of animal tissue and plays essential roles throughout the human body. Genetic factors, aging, and trauma all contribute to connective tissue dysfunction and motivate the need for strategies to promote healing and regeneration. The goal here is to link a fundamental understanding of connective tissues and their multiscale properties to better inform the design and translation of novel biomaterials to promote their regeneration. Major clinical problems in adipose tissue, cartilage, dermis, and tendon are discussed that inspire the need to replace native connective tissue with biomaterials. Then, multiscale structure-function relationships in native soft connective tissues that may be used to guide material design are detailed. Several biomaterials strategies to improve healing of these tissues that incorporate biologics and are biologic-free are reviewed. Finally, important guidance documents and standards (ASTM, FDA, and EMA) that are important to consider for translating new biomaterials into clinical practice are highligted.
Project description:Soft-tissue regeneration methods currently yield suboptimal clinical outcomes due to loss of tissue volume and a lack of functional tissue regeneration. Grafted tissues and natural biomaterials often degrade or resorb too quickly, while most synthetic materials do not degrade. In previous research we demonstrated that soft-tissue regeneration can be supported using silk porous biomaterials for at least 18 months in vivo in a rodent model. In the present study, we scaled the system to a survival study using a large animal model and demonstrated the feasibility of these biomaterials for soft-tissue regeneration in adult horses. Both slow and rapidly degrading silk matrices were evaluated in subcutaneous pocket and intramuscular defect depots. We showed that we can effectively employ an equine model over 6 months to simultaneously evaluate many different implants, reducing the number of animals needed. Furthermore, we were able to tailor matrix degradation by varying the initial format of the implanted silk. Finally, we demonstrate ultrasound imaging of implants to be an effective means for tracking tissue regeneration and implant degradation.
Project description:Short collagen-like peptides (CLPs) are being proposed as alternatives to full-length collagen for use in tissue engineering, on their own as soft hydrogels, or conjugated to synthetic polymer for mechanical strength. However, despite intended clinical use, little is known about their safety and efficacy, mechanism of action or degree of similarity to the full-length counterparts they mimic. Here, we show the functional equivalence of a CLP conjugated to polyethylene glycol (CLP-PEG) to full-length recombinant human collagen in vitro and in promoting stable regeneration of corneal tissue and nerves in a pre-clinical mini-pig model. We also show that these peptide analogs exerted their pro-regeneration effects through stimulating extracellular vesicle production by host cells. Our results support future use of CLP-PEG implants for corneal regeneration, suggesting the feasibility of these or similar peptide analogs in clinical application in the eye and other tissues.<h4>Statement of significance</h4>Although biomaterials comprising full-length recombinant human collagen and extracted animal collagen have been evaluated and used clinically, these macromolecules provide only a limited number of functional groups amenable to chemical modification or crosslinking and are demanding to process. Synthetic, customizable analogs that are functionally equivalent, and can be readily scaled-up are therefore very desirable for pre-clinical to clinical translation. Here, we demonstrate, using cornea regeneration as our test bed, that collagen-like-peptides conjugated to multifunctional polyethylene glycol (CLP-PEG) when grafted into mini-pigs as corneal implants were functionally equivalent to recombinant human collagen-based implants that were successfully tested in patients. We also show for the first time that these materials affected regeneration through stimulation of extracellular vesicle production by endogenous host cells that have migrated into the CLP-PEG scaffolds.
Project description:Understanding the foreign body response (FBR) and desiging strategies to modulate such a response represent a grand challenge for implant devices and biomaterials. Here, the development of a microfluidic platform is reported, i.e., the FBR-on-a-chip (FBROC) for modeling the cascade of events during immune cell response to implants. The platform models the native implant microenvironment where the implants are interfaced directly with surrounding tissues, as well as vasculature with circulating immune cells. The study demonstrates that the release of cytokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) from the extracellular matrix (ECM)-like hydrogels in the bottom tissue chamber induces trans-endothelial migration of circulating monocytes in the vascular channel toward the hydrogels, thus mimicking implant-induced inflammation. Data using patient-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells further reveal inter-patient differences in FBR, highlighting the potential of this platform for monitoring FBR in a personalized manner. The prototype FBROC platform provides an enabling strategy to interrogate FBR on various implants, including biomaterials and engineered tissue constructs, in a physiologically relevant and individual-specific manner.
Project description:Successful osseointegration of orthopaedic and orthodontic implants is dependent on a competition between osteogenesis and bacterial contamination on the implant-tissue interface. Previously, by taking advantage of the highly interactive capabilities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), we effectively introduced an antimicrobial effect to metal implant materials using an AgNP/poly(dl-lactic- co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) coating. Although electrical forces have been shown to promote osteogenesis, creating practical materials and devices capable of harnessing these forces to induce bone regeneration remains challenging. Here, we applied galvanic reduction-oxidation (redox) principles to engineer a nanoscale galvanic redox system between AgNPs and 316L stainless steel alloy (316L-SA). Characterized by scanning electron microscopy , energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy, and contact angle measurement, the surface properties of the yield AgNP/PLGA-coated 316L-SA (SNPSA) material presented a significantly increased positive surface potential, hydrophilicity, surface fractional polarity, and surface electron accepting/donating index. Importantly, in addition to its bactericidal property, SNPSA's surface demonstrated a novel osteogenic bioactivity by promoting peri-implant bone growth. This is the first report describing the conversion of a normally deleterious galvanic redox reaction into a biologically beneficial function on a biomedical metal material. Overall, this study details an innovative strategy to design multifunctional biomaterials using a controlled galvanic redox reaction, which has broad applications in material development and clinical practice.
Project description:The central nervous system shows limited regenerative capacity after injury. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating traumatic injury resulting in loss of sensory, motor, and autonomic function distal from the level of injury. An appropriate combination of biomaterials and bioactive substances is currently thought to be a promising approach to treat this condition. Systemic administration of valproic acid (VPA) has been previously shown to promote functional recovery in animal models of SCI. In this study, VPA was encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microfibers by the coaxial electrospinning technique. Fibers showed continuous and cylindrical morphology, randomly oriented fibers, and compatible morphological and mechanical characteristics for application in SCI. Drug-release analysis indicated a rapid release of VPA during the first day of the in vitro test. The coaxial fibers containing VPA supported adhesion, viability, and proliferation of PC12 cells. In addition, the VPA/PLGA microfibers induced the reduction of PC12 cell viability, as has already been described in the literature. The biomaterials were implanted in rats after SCI. The groups that received the implants did not show increased functional recovery or tissue regeneration compared to the control. These results indicated the cytocompatibility of the VPA/PLGA core-shell microfibers and that it may be a promising approach to treat SCI when combined with other strategies.
Project description:Regeneration as a therapeutic priniciple and regenerative medicine in general are promising new strategies to add new therapeutic dimensions to our current treatment options. Today, reconstructive surgery, drugs and implants such as the cochlear implant can replace the functions of damaged tissues. In contrast, regenerative therapies aim at the replacement of the damaged tissues themselves while at the same time replacing their lost tissue function. In this review article new technologies such as 3D-bioprinting and the application of decellularised tissues as biomaterials are introduced and explained. A summary of current preclinical and clinical regenerative studies in otorhinolaryngology is complementing these basic aspects.
Project description:Osteosarcomas are highly malignant tumors, which develop rapid growth and local infiltration, inducing metastases that spread primarily in the lung. Treatment of these tumors is mainly based on pre- and post-operative chemotherapy and surgery of the primary tumor. Surgical resection though, generates bone defects. Reparation of these weaknesses presents formidable challenges to orthopedic surgery. Medicine regenerative grafts that act as both tumor therapy with constant local drug delivery and tissue regeneration may provide a new prospect to address this need. These implants can provide sustained drug release at the cancer area, decreasing systemic second effects such as inflammation, and a filling of the resected tissues with regenerative biomaterials. In this study microporous poly-?-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds have been developed for sustained local release of anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone (DXM), used as drug model, in cancer medicine regenerative field. The microporous PCL matrix of the scaffolds supported the attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of osteoblast-like cells, while the polyelectrolyte multilayers, anchored to the inner pore surfaces, sustained locally DXM release. These microporous scaffolds demonstrate the ability to deliver DXM as a localized tumor therapy and to promote proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells in vitro.