ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of daily living (ADL) and surgical interventions in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA). The factor(s) that affect ADL are age, clinical phenotypes, surgical interventions, therapeutic effect, and body mass index. The ADL questionnaire comprises three domains: "Movement," "Movement with cognition," and "Cognition." Each domain has four subcategories rated on a 5-point scale based on the level of assistance. The questionnaire was collected from 145 healthy controls and 82 patients with MPS IVA. The patient cohort consisted of 63 severe and 17 attenuated phenotypes (2 were undefined); 4 patients treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), 33 patients treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for more than a year, and 45 untreated patients. MPS IVA patients show a decline in ADL scores after 10years of age. Patients with a severe phenotype have a lower ADL score than healthy control subjects, and lower scores than patients with an attenuated phenotype in domains of "Movement" and "Movement with cognition." Patients, who underwent HSCT and were followed up for over 10years, had higher ADL scores and fewer surgical interventions than untreated patients. ADL scores for ERT patients (2.5years follow-up on average) were similar with the-age-matched controls below 10years of age, but declined in older patients. Surgical frequency was higher for severe phenotypic patients than attenuated ones. Surgical frequency for patients treated with ERT was not decreased compared to untreated patients. In conclusion, we have shown the utility of the proposed ADL questionnaire and frequency of surgical interventions in patients with MPS IVA to evaluate the clinical severity and therapeutic efficacy compared with age-matched controls.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA, also called Morquio A syndrome) is caused by a deficiency of N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) and results in skeletal dysplasia symptoms such as short stature and abnormal gait. Treatments include enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but the effects are limited depending on the age of initiation and clinical phenotype. Thus, this study aims to assess the effects of treatments on MPS IVA patients compared to untreated MPS IVA patients and an age-matched control group.<h4>Methods</h4>We used activity of daily living (ADL) survey with 4 sections: "movement," "movement with cognition," "cognition," and "other MPS symptoms." Lower scores indicate more assistance required. This study included 161 patients, 270 total surveys, and 70 patients with longitudinal data.<h4>Results</h4>We describe 134 severe patients and 25 attenuated patients. ERT and HSCT treatment improved only the "other MPS symptoms" section in severe patients. There were no differences between ERT and HSCT severe patient scores. A 19-year-old male patient, who had robust physical training, provided a significant increase in "movement" without treatment, suggesting the importance of exercise.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Overall, this ADL questionnaire has demonstrated validation and reliability in assessing the MPS IVA patients and therapeutic efficacy.
Project description:The aim of this study was to assess the activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis II; MPS II) using a newly designed ADL questionnaire. We applied the questionnaire to evaluate clinical phenotypes and therapeutic efficacies of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We also explored early signs and symptoms to make early diagnosis feasible. We devised a new ADL questionnaire with three domains: "movement," "movement with cognition," and "cognition." Each domain has four subcategories rated on a 5-point scale based on level of assistance. We also scored signs and symptoms unique to MPS by 12 subcategories (five points per category), providing 60 points in total. The questionnaire was first administered to 138 healthy Japanese controls (0.33-50 years), and successively, to 74 Japanese patients with Hunter syndrome (4-49 years). The patient cohort consisted of 51 severe and 23 attenuated phenotypes; 20 patients treated with HSCT, 23 patients treated early with ERT (?8 years), 25 patients treated late with ERT (>8 years), and 4 untreated patients. Among 18 severe phenotypic patients treated by HSCT, 10 were designated as early HSCT (?5years), while 8 were designated as late HSCT (>5years). Scores from patients with severe phenotypes were lower than controls and attenuated phenotypes in all categories. Among patients with severe phenotypes, there was a trend that HSCT provides a higher ADL score than early ERT, and there was a significant difference in ADL scores between late ERT and HSCT groups. Early ERT and early HSCT provided a higher score than late ERT and late HSCT, respectively. In conclusion, we have evaluated the feasibility of a new questionnaire in control population and patients with Hunter syndrome, leading to a novel evaluation method for clinical phenotypes and therapeutic efficacy. Early treatment with HSCT provides a better consequence in ADL of patients.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in <i>N</i>-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase, which results in skeletal and connective tissue abnormalities, as well as various non-skeletal manifestations. Although enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is recommended as the first-line treatment, the outcomes of ERT on bone pathology remain controversial. We report clinical characteristics and outcomes of ERT in 9 patients with MPS IVA (6 males and 3 females) from 7 unrelated families. During ERT, results from pulmonary function tests, echocardiography, the 6-min walk test, and the Functional Independence Measure were monitored biannually. Anthropometric data were compared with previously reported growth charts of subjects with MPS IVA. Among the 9 patients (5 severe, and 4 slowly progressive form), 7 patients (5 severe, 2 slowly progressive) commenced ERT at a median age of 3.8 years (range: 0.8-13.7 years) and were treated for a median duration of 1.9 years (range: 1.2-5.7 years). Mean height standard deviation scores using MPS IVA growth charts were + 0.4 (+0.0 in severe phenotypes) at initiation and + 0.7 (+0.2 in severe phenotypes) at the last follow-up. Four patients with severe phenotypes underwent surgery for cervical myelopathy and 1 patient with a slowly progressive phenotype underwent a bilateral pelvic osteotomy for hip pain during ERT. The parameters of pulmonary and heart function, endurance, and Functional Independence Measure scores were maintained or increased after ERT. Overall, ERT was well tolerated without deterioration of cardiorespiratory and functional outcomes during treatment, although skeletal outcomes, including growth, were limited.
Project description:Patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome) have accumulation of the glycosaminoglycans, keratan sulfate, and chondroitin-6-sulfate, in bone and cartilage, causing systemic spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia. Features include lumbar gibbus, pectus carinatum, faring of the rib cage, marked short stature, cervical instability and stenosis, kyphoscoliosis, genu valgum, and laxity of joints. Generally, MPS IVA patients are wheelchair-bound as teenagers and do not survive beyond the second or third decade of life as a result of severe bone dysplasia, causing restrictive lung disease and airway narrowing, increasing potential for pneumonia and apnea; stenosis and instability of the upper cervical region; high risk during anesthesia administration due to narrowed airway as well as thoracoabdominal dysfunction; and surgical complications. Patients often need multiple surgical procedures, including cervical decompression and fusion, hip reconstruction and replacement, and femoral or tibial osteotomy, throughout their lifetime. Current measures to intervene in disease progression are largely palliative, and improved therapies are urgently needed. A clinical trial for enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and an investigational trial for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are underway. Whether sufficient enzyme will be delivered effectively to bone, especially cartilage (avascular region) to prevent the devastating skeletal dysplasias remains unclear. This review provides an overview of historical aspects of studies on MPS IVA, including clinical manifestations and pathogenesis of MPS IVA, orthopedic surgical interventions, and anesthetic care. It also describes perspectives on potential ERT, HSCT, and gene therapy.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the <i>N</i>-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (<i>GALNS</i>) gene. Skeletal dysplasia and the related clinical features of MPS IVA are caused by disruption of the cartilage and its extracellular matrix, leading to a growth imbalance. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human GALNS has yielded positive results in activity of daily living and endurance tests. However, no data have demonstrated improvements in bone lesions and bone grow thin MPS IVA after ERT, and there is no correlation between therapeutic efficacy and urine levels of keratan sulfate, which accumulates in MPS IVA patients. Using qualitative and quantitative proteomics approaches, we analyzed leukocyte samples from healthy controls (<i>n</i> = 6) and from untreated (<i>n</i> = 5) and ERT-treated (<i>n</i> = 8, sampled before and after treatment) MPS IVA patients to identify potential biomarkers of disease. Out of 690 proteins identified in leukocytes, we selected a group of proteins that were dysregulated in MPS IVA patients with ERT. From these, we identified four potential protein biomarkers, all of which may influence bone and cartilage metabolism: lactotransferrin, coronin 1A, neutral alpha-glucosidase AB, and vitronectin. Further studies of cartilage and bone alterations in MPS IVA will be required to verify the validity of these proteins as potential biomarkers of MPS IVA.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the <i>GALNS</i> gene, which leads to deficient activity of N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase. MPS IVA patients usually present skeletal dysplasia, coarse features, short stature, airway obstruction, cervical spinal cord compression, dental abnormalities, and cardiac valvular alterations. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with elosulfase alfa is the only disease-specific treatment available for MPS IVA patients and has been shown to improve important clinical and biochemical parameters; however, little is known about the effects of ERT interruption on these patients. In this article, we report the impact of different periods of treatment interruption on clinical outcomes of 18 MPS IVA patients. All MPS IVA patients included in this case series were treated and followed up in Latin American centers and had been receiving elosulfase alfa intravenously for at least 8 months before ERT was interrupted. Different clinical parameters and assessments were evaluated at variable timepoints following therapy interruption. Altogether, our report indicates that some beneficial ERT effects in MPS IVA patients may last after different periods of treatment interruption, as cardiac and respiratory function improvements. However, worsening of important disease parameters after ERT interruption, such as the increase in uGAGs, pain, joint and skeletal aspects, and surgery indications suggests that treatment discontinuation should be avoided in order to maintain the disease as stable as possible, aiming to optimize these patients' life expectancy and quality of life.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cardiac abnormalities have been observed in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) of any type, with the most documented abnormalities being valvular heart disease and cardiac hypertrophy. However, few studies have focused on the cardiac features of MPS IVA. METHODS:We reviewed the medical records, echocardiograms, and electrocardiograms of 32 Taiwanese patients with MPS IVA (16 males and 16 females; median age, 10.8 years; age range, 1.1 to 29.1 years) as well as the echocardiographic data of six patients who received enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for 3-6 years. RESULTS:Echocardiographic examinations (n?=?32) revealed mean z scores of left ventricular mass index (LVMI), interventricular septum diameter in diastole (IVSd), left ventricular posterior wall diameter in diastole (LVPWd), and aortic diameter of 0.94, 2.70, 0.39, and 3.26, respectively. Z scores >?2 were identified in 25%, 50%, 29%, and 69% of the LVMI, IVSd, LVPWd, and aortic diameter values, respectively. Diastolic dysfunction [reversed ratio between early and late (atrial) ventricular filling velocity (E/A ratio?<?1)] was identified in four patients (13%), however, the ejection fraction was normal (50-75%) in all of the patients. Sixteen patients (50%) had valvular heart disease and most were of mild degree. Fourteen (44%) had valvular stenosis, and 10 (31%) had regurgitation. The z scores of LVMI, IVSd, LVPWd, and aortic diameter, the severity scores of aortic stenosis and regurgitation, and the existence of a thickened interventricular septum were all positively correlated with increasing age (p?<?0.05). For the 14 patients with valve thickening, the z scores of LVMI, IVSd and aortic diameter were all larger than those of the 18 patients without valve thickening (p?<?0.05). For two patients who started ERT at a younger age (1.4 and 2.8 years, respectively), the z scores for LVMI, IVSd, and LVPWd all decreased after ERT. CONCLUSIONS:A large proportion of the patients with MPS IVA had valvular heart disease and cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac abnormalities worsened with increasing age in accordance with the progressive nature of this disease. ERT appeared to be effective in stabilizing or reducing cardiac hypertrophy, and better results may have been associated with starting ERT at a younger age.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This post hoc subanalysis examined outcomes in adult patients with Morquio A (mucopolysaccharidosis IVA) who received enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with elosulfase alfa over a 120-weeks period. Patients ?18 years of age evaluated in an open-label, long-term extension study of elosulfase alfa (modified per protocol [MPP], n?=?32; intent-to-treat [ITT], n?=?37; MOR-005; NCT01415427) were compared with the ?18-year-old untreated population with 2-years follow-up from a Morquio A natural history study (n?=?10; MorCAP; NCT00787995). The MOR-005 MPP population excluded patients who underwent orthopedic surgical procedures or were noncompliant with study protocol (defined as missing ?20% of ERT infusions). No MorCAP patients underwent orthopedic surgical procedures during the relevant time period. Endurance was assessed by the 6-min walk test (6MWT) and 3-min stair climb test (3MSCT). Activities of daily living (ADLs) were assessed by the MPS Health Assessment Questionnaire (MPS HAQ). RESULTS:Least squares (LS) mean (SE) 6MWT distances increased by 34.9 (11.7) m (MPP) and 30.5 (10.8) m (ITT) by week 120; LS mean (SE) change in 3MSCT at week 120 was 6.7 (1.8) stairs/min (MPP) and 5.9 (1.7) stairs/min (ITT). MorCAP patients showed no improvement in 6MWT distance or 3MSCT over a similar period of time. Pulmonary function measures remained unchanged in both MOR-005 and MorCAP adults. All MPS HAQ domain scores improved in MOR-005 adults, whereas MorCAP adults had unchanged caregiver assistance and mobility outcomes and worsened self-care outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Long-term ERT in adult patients with Morquio A was associated with increased endurance and improvement in performance of ADLs. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Trial Registration NCT01415427 . Name of registry: Long-Term Efficacy and Safety Extension Study of BMN 110 in Patients With Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (Morquio A Syndrome). Registered 8 August 2011, retrospectively registered.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>There is a paucity of real-world epidemiological data on patients with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) in Latin America. This real-world study assessed the disease burden, management patterns and multidisciplinary clinical approaches for MPS-IVA and MPS-VI patients in Latin America (Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru).<h4>Methods</h4>Data were collected from physicians/specialists experienced in treating MPS patients between April-June 2020, via an online patient-diary survey.<h4>Results</h4>Overall, 29 physicians/specialists participated in this study. Data from 98 patients were analyzed (MPS-IVA, 71 patients and MPS-VI, 27 patients). Mean age for MPS-IVA patients was 17.5 years and for MPS-VI patients was 11.6 years, and the majority were females (52% and 78%, respectively). MPS-IVA and VI patients presented a high absenteeism from school (55% and 37%, respectively; <18 years age) and workplace (78% and 100%, respectively; >18 years age), indicating an impact of the disease on some aspects of the patients' quality of life. The onset of the first symptom occurred at the age of 3.1 years for MPS-IVA patients and at 1 year for MPS-VI, with delay in diagnosis (3.5-3.9 years from symptom onset) and enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) initiation (1.1-3.6 years from diagnosis). ERT interruptions were observed for MPS-IVA (48%) and MPS-VI patients (44%), with non-availability of medication recorded as the main reason for non-adherence (46% and 60% patients, respectively). ERT showed noticeable treatment benefits in MPS-IVA/VI patients, with stabilization/reduction in complications or the number of surgeries. A multidisciplinary clinical team approach was used for patient management.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The disease burden for MPS-IVA/VI was high in Latin America, with consistent management, treatment and socio-demographic trends throughout the region.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA, or Morquio syndrome type A) is an inherited metabolic lysosomal disease caused by the deficiency of the N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase enzyme. The deficiency of this enzyme accumulates the specific glycosaminoglycans (GAG), keratan sulfate, and chondroitin-6-sulfate mainly in bone, cartilage, and its extracellular matrix. GAG accumulation in these lesions leads to unique skeletal dysplasia in MPS IVA patients. Clinical, radiographic, and biochemical tests are needed to complete the diagnosis of MPS IVA since some clinical characteristics in MPS IVA are overlapped with other disorders. Early and accurate diagnosis is vital to optimizing patient management, which provides a better quality of life and prolonged life-time in MPS IVA patients. Currently, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are available for patients with MPS IVA. However, ERT and HSCT do not have enough impact on bone and cartilage lesions in patients with MPS IVA. Penetrating the deficient enzyme into an avascular lesion remains an unmet challenge, and several innovative therapies are under development in a preclinical study. In this review article, we comprehensively describe the current diagnosis, treatment, and management for MPS IVA. We also illustrate developing future therapies focused on the improvement of skeletal dysplasia in MPS IVA.