Proteomics Analysis of Three Different Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under In vitro Hypoxia and Evaluation of Hypoxia Associated Antigen's Specific Memory T Cells in Healthy Household Contacts.
ABSTRACT: In vitro mimicking conditions are thought to reflect the environment experienced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis inside the host granuloma. The majority of in vitro dormancy experimental models use laboratory-adapted strains H37Rv or Erdman instead of prevalent clinical strains involved during disease outbreaks. Thus, we included the most prevalent clinical strains (S7 and S10) of M. tuberculosis from south India in addition to H37Rv for our in vitro oxygen depletion (hypoxia) experimental model. Cytosolic proteins were prepared from hypoxic cultures, resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis and protein spots were characterized by mass spectrometry. In total, 49 spots were characterized as over-expressed or newly emergent between the three strains. Two antigens (ESAT-6, Lpd) out of the 49 characterized spots were readily available in recombinant form in our lab. Hence, these two genes were overexpressed, purified and used for in vitro stimulation of whole blood collected from healthy household contacts (HHC) and active pulmonary tuberculosis patients (PTB). Multicolor flow cytometry analysis showed high levels of antigen specific CD4(+) central memory T cells in the circulation of HHC compared to PTB (p < 0.005 for ESAT-6 and p < 0.0005 for Lpd). This shows proteins that are predicted to be up regulated during in vitro hypoxia in most prevalent clinical strains would indicate possible potential immunogens. In vitro hypoxia experiments with most prevalent clinical strains would also elucidate the probable true representative antigens involved in adaptive mechanisms.
Project description:The ESX-1 secreted virulence factor ESAT-6 is one of the major and most well-studied virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, given that its inactivation severely attenuates virulent mycobacteria. In this work, we show that clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis produce and secrete larger amounts of ESAT-6 than the widely used M. tuberculosis H37Rv laboratory strain. A search for the genetic polymorphisms underlying this observation showed that whiB6 (rv3862c), a gene upstream of the ESX-1 genetic locus that has not previously been found to be implicated in the regulation of the ESX-1 secretory apparatus, presents a unique single nucleotide insertion in its promoter region in strains H37Rv and H37Ra. This polymorphism is not present in any of the other publicly available M. tuberculosis complex genomes or in any of the 76 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates analyzed in our laboratory. We demonstrate that in consequence, the virulence master regulator PhoP downregulates whiB6 expression in H37Rv, while it upregulates its expression in clinical strains. Importantly, reintroduction of the wild-type (WT) copy of whiB6 in H37Rv restored ESAT-6 production and secretion to the level of clinical strains. Hence, we provide clear evidence that in M. tuberculosis--with the exception of the H37Rv strain--ESX-1 expression is regulated by WhiB6 as part of the PhoP regulon, which adds another level of complexity to the regulation of ESAT-6 secretion with a potential role in virulence adaptation.
Project description:Analysis of mycobacterial strains that have lost their ability to cause disease is a powerful approach to identify yet unknown virulence determinants and pathways involved in tuberculosis pathogenesis. Two of the most widely used attenuated strains in the history of tuberculosis research are Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (H37Ra), which both lost their virulence during in vitro serial passage. Whereas the attenuation of BCG is due mainly to loss of the ESAT-6 secretion system, ESX-1, the reason why H37Ra is attenuated remained unknown. However, here we show that a point mutation (S219L) in the predicted DNA binding region of the regulator PhoP is involved in the attenuation of H37Ra via a mechanism that impacts on the secretion of the major T cell antigen ESAT-6. Only H37Ra "knock-ins" that carried an integrated cosmid with the wild-type phoP gene from M. tuberculosis H37Rv showed changes in colony morphology, increased virulence, ESAT-6 secretion, and induction of specific T cell responses, whereas other H37Ra constructs did not. This finding established a link between the PhoP regulator and ESAT-6 secretion that opens exciting new perspectives for elucidating virulence regulation in M. tuberculosis.
Project description:Mycobacterium tuberculosis has the ability to persist within the host in a clinically latent stage. One important condition believed to contribute to latency is reduced access to oxygen but the response of M. tuberculosis to hypoxia is partially characterized. Virtually all dormant models against tuberculosis the vaccine tested in animals used laboratory strains H37Rv or Erdman strains. But major outbreaks of TB occur with the strains that have widely different genotypes and phenotypes compare to H37Rv. In this study, we used a commercial oligonucleotide microarray to determine the overall transcriptional response of lab strain (H37Rv) and most prevalent strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from South India S7 and S10 to hypoxia. Analysis of microarray results revealed that a total of 1161 genes are differentially regulated in H37Rv, among them 659 genes are upregulated and 502 genes are down regulated when > 1.5 fold change was taken as cut off. Microarray data of clinical isolates showed total of 790 genes are differentially regulated in S7 clinical isolates among which 453 are upregulated and 337 are down regulated. Interestingly numerous genes are differentially regulated in S10 clinical isolates (total of 2805 genes) and 1463 are upregulated and 1342 genes are down regulated during reduced oxygen model (Wayne’s model). Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was performed for few genes to validate the microarray results. To our knowledge, this genome-wide transcriptomics approach has produced the first insights into the response of South Indian prevalent clinical strains of M. tuberculosis when exposed to reduced oxygen stress. Overall design: Three samples of Mycobacterium tuberculosis namely H37Rv,S7 and S10 were included. All are triplicates. Here control strain is H37Rv.
Project description:Tuberculosis remains a global health threat, and there is dire need to develop a vaccine that is safe and efficacious and confers long-lasting protection. In this study, we constructed recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV) strains with plasmids expressing fusion proteins consisting of the 80 amino-terminal amino acids of the type 3 secretion system effector SopE of Salmonella and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa (ESAT-6) protein and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10). We demonstrated that the SopE-mycobacterial antigen fusion proteins were translocated into the cytoplasm of INT-407 cells in cell culture assays. Oral immunization of mice with RASV strains synthesizing SopE-ESAT-6-CFP-10 fusion proteins resulted in significant protection of the mice against aerosol challenge with M. tuberculosis H37Rv that was similar to the protection afforded by immunization with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) administered subcutaneously. In addition, oral immunization with the RASV strains specifying these mycobacterial antigens elicited production of significant antibody titers to ESAT-6 and production of ESAT-6- or CFP-10-specific gamma interferon (IFN-?)-secreting and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?)-secreting splenocytes.
Project description:Emerging evidence points to an important role of autophagy in the immune response mediated by dendritic cells (DC) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Since current vaccination based on Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is unable to stop the tuberculosis epidemic, a deeper comprehension of the alterations induced by Mtb in DC is essential for setting new vaccine strategies. Here, we compared the capacity of virulent (H37Rv) and avirulent (H37Ra) Mtb strains as well as BCG to modulate autophagy in human primary DC. We found that Mtb H37Rv impairs autophagy at the step of autophagosome-lysosome fusion. In contrast, neither Mtb H37Ra nor BCG strains were able to hamper autophagosome maturation. Both these attenuated strains have a functional inhibition of the 6kD early secreted antigenic target ESAT-6, an effector protein of the ESAT-6 Secretion System-1(ESX-1)/type VII secretion system. Notably, the ability to inhibit autophagy was fully restored in recombinant BCG and Mtb H37Ra strains in which ESAT-6 secretion was re-established by genetic complementation using either the ESX-1 region from Mtb (BCG::ESX-1) or the PhoP gene (Mtb H37Ra::PhoP), a regulator of ESAT-6 secretion. Importantly, the autophagic block induced by Mtb was overcome by rapamycin treatment leading to an increased interleukin-12 expression and, in turn, to an enhanced capacity to expand a Th1-oriented response. Collectively, our study demonstrated that Mtb alters the autophagic machinery through the ESX-1 system, and thereby opens new exciting perspectives to better understand the relationship between Mtb virulence and its ability to escape the DC-mediated immune response.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of M.tb H37Rv cells comparing control wild type H37Rv with H37Rv cells electroporated with constitutive expression plasmid pVV16 expressing ESAT-6 binding peptide SL3. The expression of SL3 makes H37Rv less virulent during ex vivo and BalB/c mice infections, sequesters ESAT-6 inside M.tb cells and cause severe defects in mycobacterial morphology. Goal was to determine the effects of SL3 expression on global H37Rv gene expression. Overall design: Two color Experiment,Organism: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, ilife Discoveries designed Custom Mycobacterium tuberculosis on 8x15k GE Microarray. Two-condition experiment, H37Rv vs. H37Rv/SL3. Biological replicates: 2 biological control H37RV replicates labelled with Cy3, 2 SL3 biological expressing replicates labelled with Cy5.
Project description:Despite its relatively poor efficacy, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been used as a tuberculosis (TB) vaccine since its development in 1921. BCG induces robust T helper 1 (Th1) immune responses but, for many individuals, this is not sufficient for host resistance against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection. Here we provide evidence that early secreted antigenic target protein 6 (ESAT-6), expressed by the virulent M. tb strain H37Rv but not by BCG, promotes vaccine-enhancing Th17 cell responses. These activities of ESAT-6 were dependent on TLR-2/MyD88 signalling and involved IL-6 and TGF-? production by dendritic cells. Thus, animals that were previously infected with H37Rv or recombinant BCG containing the RD1 region (BCG::RD1) exhibited improved protection upon re-challenge with virulent H37Rv compared with mice previously infected with BCG or RD1-deficient H37Rv (H37Rv?RD1). However, TLR-2 knockout (TLR-2?/?) animals neither showed Th17 responses nor exhibited improved protection in response to immunization with H37Rv. Furthermore, H37Rv and BCG::RD1 infection had little effect on the expression of the anti-inflammatory microRNA-146a (miR146a) in dendritic cells (DCs), whereas BCG and H37Rv?RD1 profoundly induced its expression in DCs. Consistent with these findings, ESAT-6 had no effect on miR146a expression in uninfected DCs, but dramatically inhibited its upregulation in BCG-infected or LPS-treated DCs. Collectively, our findings indicate that, in addition to Th1 immunity induced by BCG, RD1/ESAT-6-induced Th17 immune responses are essential for optimal vaccine efficacy.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of M.tb H37Rv cells comparing control wild type H37Rv with H37Rv cells electroporated with constitutive expression plasmid pVV16 expressing ESAT-6 binding peptide SL3. The expression of SL3 makes H37Rv less virulent during ex vivo and BalB/c mice infections, sequesters ESAT-6 inside M.tb cells and cause severe defects in mycobacterial morphology. Goal was to determine the effects of SL3 expression on global H37Rv gene expression. Two color Experiment,Organism: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, ilife Discoveries designed Custom Mycobacterium tuberculosis on 8x15k GE Microarray. Two-condition experiment, H37Rv vs. H37Rv/SL3. Biological replicates: 2 biological control H37RV replicates labelled with Cy3, 2 SL3 biological expressing replicates labelled with Cy5.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv has five copies of a cluster of genes known as the ESAT-6 loci. These clusters contain members of the CFP-10 (lhp) and ESAT-6 (esat-6) gene families (encoding secreted T-cell antigens that lack detectable secretion signals) as well as genes encoding secreted, cell-wall-associated subtilisin-like serine proteases, putative ABC transporters, ATP-binding proteins and other membrane-associated proteins. These membrane-associated and energy-providing proteins may function to secrete members of the ESAT-6 and CFP-10 protein families, and the proteases may be involved in processing the secreted peptide. RESULTS:Finished and unfinished genome sequencing data of 98 publicly available microbial genomes has been analyzed for the presence of orthologs of the ESAT-6 loci. The multiple duplicates of the ESAT-6 gene cluster found in the genome of M. tuberculosis H37Rv are also conserved in the genomes of other mycobacteria, for example M. tuberculosis CDC1551, M. tuberculosis 210, M. bovis, M. leprae, M. avium, and the avirulent strain M. smegmatis. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting sequences have established the duplication order of the gene clusters and demonstrated that the gene cluster known as region 4 (Rv3444c-3450c) is ancestral. Region 4 is also the only region for which an ortholog could be found in the genomes of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Streptomyces coelicolor. CONCLUSIONS:Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the presence of the ESAT-6 gene cluster is a feature of some high-G+C Gram-positive bacteria. Multiple duplications of this cluster have occurred and are maintained only within the genomes of members of the genus Mycobacterium.
Project description:H37Rv and H37Ra are well-described laboratory strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis derived from the same parental strain, H37, that show dramatically different pathogenic phenotypes.In this study, the transcriptomes of the two strains during axenic growth in broth and during intracellular growth within murine bone-marrow macrophages were compared by whole genome expression profiling. We identified and compared adaptations of either strain upon encountering an intracellular environment, and also contrasted the transcriptomes of the two strains while inside macrophages. In the former comparison, both strains induced genes that would facilitate intracellular survival including those involved in mycobactin synthesis and fatty acid metabolism. However, this response was stronger and more extensive for H37Rv than for H37Ra. This was manifested as the differential expression of a greater number of genes and an increased magnitude of expression for these genes in H37Rv. In comparing intracellular transcriptional signatures, fifty genes were found to be differentially expressed between the strains. Of these fifty, twelve were under control of the PhoPR regulon. Further differences between strains included genes whose products were members of the ESAT-6 family of proteins, or were associated with their secretion.Along with the recent identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in H37Ra when compared to H37Rv, our demonstration of differential expression of PhoP-regulated and ESX-1 region-related genes during macrophage infection further highlights the significance of these genes in the attenuation of H37Ra.