Platelet-rich concentrate in serum free medium enhances osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells.
ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that platelet concentrates used in conjunction with appropriate growth media enhance osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). However, their potential in inducing osteogenesis of hMSCs when cultured in serum free medium has not been explored. Furthermore, the resulting osteogenic molecular signatures of the hMSCs have not been compared to standard osteogenic medium. We studied the effect of infrequent supplementation (8-day interval) of 15% non-activated platelet-rich concentrate (PRC) in serum free medium on hMSCs proliferation and differentiation throughout a course of 24 days, and compared the effect with those cultured in a standard osteogenic medium (OM). Cell proliferation was analyzed by alamar blue assay. Gene expression of osteogenic markers (Runx2, Collagen1, Alkaline Phosphatase, Bone morphogenetic protein 2, Osteopontin, Osteocalcin, Osteonectin) were analyzed using Q-PCR. Immunocytochemical staining for osteocalcin, osteopontin and transcription factor Runx2 were done at 8, 16 and 24 days. Biochemical assays for the expression of ALP and osteocalcin were also performed at these time-points. Osteogenic differentiation was further confirmed qualitatively by Alizarin Red S staining that was quantified using cetylpyridinium chloride. Results showed that PRC supplemented in serum free medium enhanced hMSC proliferation, which peaked at day 16. The temporal pattern of gene expression of hMSCs under the influence of PRC was comparable to that of the osteogenic media, but at a greater extent at specific time points. Immunocytochemical staining revealed stronger staining for Runx2 in the PRC-treated group compared to OM, while the staining for Osteocalcin and Osteopontin were comparable in both groups. ALP activity and Osteocalcin/DNA level were higher in the PRC group. Cells in the PRC group had similar level of bone mineralization as those cultured in OM, as reflected by the intensity of Alizarin red stain. Collectively, these results demonstrate a great potential of PRC alone in inducing proliferation of hMSCs without any influence from other lineage-specific growth media. PRC alone has similar capacity to enhance hMSC osteogenic differentiation as a standard OM, without changing the temporal profile of the differentiation process. Thus, PRC could be used as a substitute medium to provide sufficient pool of pre-differentiated hMSCs for potential clinical application in bone regeneration.
Project description:Regenerative medicine aims to restore damaged tissues and mainly takes advantage of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs), either alone or combined with three-dimensional scaffolds. The scaffold is generally considered a support, and its contribution to hMSC proliferation and differentiation is unknown or poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of an innovative three-dimensional gelatin-chitosan hybrid hydrogel scaffold (HC) to activate the osteogenic differentiation process in hMSCs. We seeded hMSCs from adipose tissue (AT-hMSCs) and bone marrow (BM-hMSCs) in highly performing HC of varying chitosan content in the presence of growing medium (GM) or osteogenic medium (OM) combined with Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) or human platelet lysate (hPL). We primarily evaluated the viability and the proliferation of AT-hMSCs and BM-hMSCs under different conditions. Then, in order to analyse the activation of osteogenic differentiation, the osteopontin (OPN) transcript was absolutely quantified at day 21 by digital PCR. OPN was expressed under all conditions, in both BM-hMSCs and AT-hMSCs. Cells seeded in HC cultured with OM+hPL presented the highest OPN transcript levels, as expected. Interestingly, both BM-hMSCs and AT-hMSCs cultured with GM+FBS expressed OPN. In particular, BM-hMSCs cultured with GM+FBS expressed more OPN than those cultured with GM+hPL and OM+FBS; AT-hMSCs cultured with GM+FBS presented a lower expression of OPN when compared with those cultured with GM+hPL, but no significant difference was detected when compared with AT-hMSCs cultured with OM+FBS. No OPN expression was detected in negative controls. These results show the capability of HC to primarily and independently activate osteogenic differentiation pathways in hMCSs. Therefore, these scaffolds may be considered no more as a simple support, rather than active players in the differentiative and regenerative process.
Project description:Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor currently in a clinical phase III trial for multiple myeloma (MM) patients, has been reported to cause bone loss. The purpose of this study was to test whether, and to what extent, vorinostat influences the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro and bone formation in vivo.Bone marrow-derived MSCs were prepared from both normal donors and MM patients. The MSCs were cultured in an osteogenic differentiation induction medium to induce osteogenic differentiation, which was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, Alizarin Red S staining and the mRNA expression of osteogenic markers. Naïve mice were administered vorinostat (100 mg/kg, ip) every other day for 3 weeks. After the mice were sacrificed, bone formation was assessed based on serum osteocalcin level and histomorphometric analysis.Vorinostat inhibited the viability of hMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner (the IC50 value was 15.57 ?mol/L). The low concentration of vorinostat (1 ?mol/L) did not significantly increase apoptosis in hMSCs, whereas pronounced apoptosis was observed following exposure to higher concentrations of vorinostat (10 and 50 ?mol/L). In bone marrow-derived hMSCs from both normal donors and MM patients, vorinostat (1 ?mol/L) significantly increased ALP activity, mRNA expression of osteogenic markers, and matrix mineralization. These effects were associated with upregulation of the bone-specifying transcription factor Runx2 and with the epigenetic alterations during normal hMSCs osteogenic differentiation. Importantly, the mice treated with vorinostat did not show any bone loss in response to the optimized treatment regimen.Vorinostat, known as a potent anti-myeloma drug, stimulates MSC osteogenesis in vitro. With the optimized treatment regimen, any decrease in bone formation was not observed in vivo.
Project description:Microspace culture is promising for self-organization of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, the optimal size of microspaces for osteogenic differentiation is unclear. We hypothesized that a specific microspace size could facilitate self-organizing iPSC differentiation to form bone-like tissue in vitro. The objectives of this study were to investigate such effects of microspace size and to evaluate bone regeneration upon transplantation of the resulting osteogenic constructs. Dissociated mouse gingival fibroblast-derived iPSCs were plated in ultra-low-attachment microspace culture wells containing hundreds of U-bottom-shaped microwell spots per well to form cell aggregates in growth medium. The microwells had different aperture diameters/depths (400/560??m (Elp400), 500/700??m (Elp500), and 900/700??m (Elp900)) (Kuraray; Elplasia). After 5 days of aggregation, cells were maintained in osteogenic induction medium for 35 days. Only cells in the Elp500 condition tightly aggregated and maintained high viability during osteogenic induction. After 10 days of induction, Elp500 cell constructs showed significantly higher gene expression of Runx2, Osterix, Collagen 1a1, Osteocalcin, Bone sialoprotein, and Osteopontin compared to constructs in Elp400 and Elp900. In methylene blue-counterstained von Kossa staining and Movat's pentachrome staining, only Elp500 constructs showed robust osteoid formation on day 35, with high expression of type I collagen (a major osteoid component) and osteocalcin proteins. Cell constructs were transplanted into rat calvarial bone defects, and micro-CT analysis after 3 weeks showed better bone repair with significantly higher bone mineral density in the Elp500 group compared to the Elp900 group. These results suggest that microspace size affects self-organized osteogenic differentiation of iPSCs. Elp500 microspace culture specifically induces mouse iPSCs into osteoid-rich bone-like tissue possessing high bone regeneration capacity.
Project description:Here, we aimed to investigate osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in three-dimensional (3D) bioprinted tissue constructs in vitro and in vivo. A 3D Bio-plotter dispensing system was used for building 3D constructs. Cell viability was determined using live/dead cell staining. After 7 and 14 days of culture, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to analyze the expression of osteogenesis-related genes (RUNX2, OSX, and OCN). Western blotting for RUNX2 and immunofluorescent staining for OCN and RUNX2 were also performed. At 8 weeks after surgery, osteoids secreted by osteogenically differentiated cells were assessed by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining, Masson trichrome staining, and OCN immunohistochemical staining. Results from live/dead cell staining showed that most of the cells remained alive, with a cell viability of 89%, on day 1 after printing. In vitro osteogenic induction of the 3D construct showed that the expression levels of RUNX2, OSX, and OCN were significantly increased on days 7 and 14 after printing in cells cultured in osteogenic medium (OM) compared with that in normal proliferation medium (PM). Fluorescence microscopy and western blotting showed that the expression of osteogenesis-related proteins was significantly higher in cells cultured in OM than in cells cultured in PM. In vivo studies demonstrated obvious bone matrix formation in the 3D bioprinted constructs. These results indicated that 3D bioprinted constructs consisting of hASCs had the ability to promote mineralized matrix formation and that hASCs could be used in 3D bioprinted constructs for the repair of large bone tissue defects.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of genes involved in bone metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-505 in the osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. METHODS:We performed miRNA sequencing to identify differentially expressed miRNAs between MC3T3-E1 cells treated with osteogenic induction medium (OIM) and control cells. Bioinformatics analysis was performed by using the TargetScan and miRDB databases. The expression of miR-505 in MC3T3-E1 cells was detected during osteogenic differentiation. After transfection with miR-505 mimic or miR-505 inhibitor, MC3T3-E1 cells were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts, and the expression of osteogenic differentiation markers (Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), and osterix (OSX)) was detected. RESULTS:miR-505 was the most downregulated miRNA among the differentially expressed miRNAs. The RUNX2 gene was identified as a potential target of miR-505 using the target prediction program. miR-505 expression was downregulated during osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. The expression of osteogenic marker genes was inhibited in MC3T3-E1 cells after transfection with miR-505. However, the expression of osteogenic marker genes was upregulated after transfection with miR-505 inhibitor. CONCLUSION:This study is the first to report miR-505 could bind to the RUNX2 gene and thus regulate partly the dysfunction of osteoblasts differentiation, which is expected to be targets for the treatment of osteoporosis.
Project description:Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) have the capacity to differentiate into several cell types including osteoblasts and are therefore an important cell source for bone tissue regeneration. A crucial issue is to identify mechanisms that trigger hMSC osteoblast differentiation to promote osteogenic potential. Casitas B lineage lymphoma (Cbl) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates and targets several molecules for degradation. We hypothesized that attenuation of Cbl-mediated degradation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) may promote osteogenic differentiation in hMSCs. We show here that specific inhibition of Cbl interaction with RTKs using a Cbl mutant (G306E) promotes expression of osteoblast markers (Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, type 1 collagen, osteocalcin) and increases osteogenic differentiation in clonal bone marrow-derived hMSCs and primary hMSCs. Analysis of molecular mechanisms revealed that the Cbl mutant increased PDGF receptor ? and FGF receptor 2 but not EGF receptor expression in hMSCs, resulting in increased ERK1/2 and PI3K signaling. Pharmacological inhibition of FGFR or PDGFR abrogated in vitro osteogenesis induced by the Cbl mutant. The data reveal that specific inhibition of Cbl interaction with RTKs promotes the osteogenic differentiation program in hMSCs in part by decreased Cbl-mediated PDGFR? and FGFR2 ubiquitination, providing a novel mechanistic approach targeting Cbl to promote the osteogenic capacity of hMSCs.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and berberine hydrochloride (BBR) on the osteogenic differentiation ability of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) in vitro, and their underlying mechanisms. hPDLSCs were subjected to osteogenic induction and were treated with AGEs or AGEs + BBR. Following varying numbers of days in culture, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assays, ALP staining, alizarin red staining, ELISAs, and reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT?qPCR) and western blot analyses were performed to determine the osteogenic differentiation ability of hPDLSCs; RT?qPCR, western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence staining were conducted to investigate the underlying mechanisms. The canonical Wnt/??catenin pathway inhibitor XAV?939 and agonist CHIR?99021 were used to determine the contribution of the canonical Wnt/??catenin pathway to differentiation. Treatment with AGEs resulted in reduced ALP activity and Collagen I protein levels, decreased ALP staining, fewer mineralized nodules, and downregulated expression of osteogenic?specific genes [Runt?related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), Osterix, ALP, osteopontin (OPN), Collagen I and osteocalcin (OCN)] and proteins (Runx2, OPN, BSP and OCN); however, BBR partially rescued the AGE?induced decrease in the osteogenic potential of hPDLSCs. Furthermore, AGEs activated the canonical Wnt/??catenin signaling pathway and promoted the nuclear translocation of ??catenin; BBR partially attenuated this effect. In addition, XAV?939 partially rescued the AGE?induced reduction in the osteogenic potential of hPDLSCs, whereas CHIR?99021 suppressed the BBR?induced increase in the osteogenic potential of hPDLSCs. The present study indicated that AGEs attenuated the osteogenic differentiation ability of hPDLSCs, in part by activating the canonical Wnt/??catenin pathway; however, BBR attenuated these effects by inhibiting the canonical Wnt/??catenin pathway. These findings suggest a role for BBR in periodontal regeneration induced by hPDLSCs in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2) plays a key role in bone formation, but its signaling pathway is not completely understood. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) takes part in maintaining bone homeostasis. The aim of this study is to reveal the role and mechanism of Ror2 in the osteogenic differentiation from mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (mBMSCs) and to explore the effect of Stat3 on Ror2-mediated osteogenesis. METHODS:Ror2 CKO mice were generated via the Cre-loxp recombination system using Prrx1-Cre transgenic mice. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were performed to assess the expression of Stat3 and osteogenic markers in Ror2-knockdown mBMSCs (mBMSC-sh-Ror2). After being incubated in osteogenic induction medium for 3?weeks, Alizarin Red staining and western blot were used to examine the calcium deposit and osteogenic markers in Stat3 overexpression in mBMSC-sh-Ror2. RESULTS:Loss of Ror2 in mesenchymal or osteoblast progenitor cells led to a dwarfism phenotype in vivo. The mRNA expression of osteogenic markers (osteocalcin, osteopontin (OPN), and collagen I) in the ulna proximal epiphysis of Ror2 CKO mice was significantly decreased (P?<?0.05). The mRNA and protein expression of Stat3 and osteogenic markers (Runx2, osterix, and OPN) decreased in mBMSC-sh-Ror2 cells (P?<?0.05). The overexpression of Stat3 in mBMSC-sh-Ror2 cells rescued the calcium deposit and expression of Runx2, osterix, and OPN to a level comparable to normal mBMSCs. CONCLUSIONS:Ror2 was essential for skeleton development by regulating mBMSCs' osteogenesis and osteoblast differentiation. Loss of Ror2 may impair the osteogenesis of mBMSCs by inhibiting Stat3.
Project description:Despite advances in stem cell biology, there are few effective techniques to promote the osteogenic differentiation of human primary dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. We attempted to investigate whether epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main component of green tea catechin, facilitates early osteogenic differentiation and mineralization on DFAT cells in vitro. DFAT cells were treated with EGCG (1.25-10 μM) in osteogenic medium (OM) with or without 100 nM dexamethasone (Dex) for 12 days (hereafter two osteogenic media were designated as OM(Dex) and OM). Supplementation of 1.25 μM EGCG to both the media effectively increased the mRNA expression of collagen 1 (COL1A1) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and also increased proliferation and mineralization. Compared to OM(Dex) with EGCG, OM with EGCG induced earlier expression for COL1A1 and RUNX2 at day 1 and higher mineralization level at day 12. OM(Dex) with 10 μM EGCG remarkably hampered the proliferation of the DFAT cells. These results suggest that OM(without Dex) with EGCG might be a preferable medium to promote proliferation and to induce osteoblast differentiation of DFAT cells. Our findings provide an insight for the combinatory use of EGCG and DFAT cells for bone regeneration and stem cell-based therapy.
Project description:Background:The periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) contain heterogeneous cell populations and possess stem-cell-like properties. PDLCs have attracted considerable attention as an option for periodontal regeneration. However, the osteogenic differentiation of PDLCs remains obscure owing to variable osteo-inductive methods and whether PDLCs could be directly used for periodontal regeneration without stem cell enrichment is uncertain. The aim of the present study was to clarify the osteogenic differentiation capacity of PDLCs and test PDLCs as an alternative to stem cells for periodontal regeneration. Methods:We tested the performance of human PDLCs in osteo-inductive culture and transplantation in vivo while taking human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as positive control. Proliferation of PDLCs and hMSCs in osteo-inductive condition were examined by MTT assay and colony formation assay. The osteogenic differentiations of PDLCs and hMSCs were assessed by Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity measurement, von Kossa staining, Alizarin red S staining and quantitative RT-PCR of osteogenic marker gene including RUNX2, ALP, OCN, Col I, BSP, OPN. We transplanted osteo-inductive PDLCs and hMSCs with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) scaffolds to immunodeficient mice to explore their biological behaviors in vivo by histological staining and immunohistochemical evaluation. Results:After 14 days of osteo-induction, PDLCs exhibited significantly higher proliferation rate but lower colony-forming ability comparing with hMSCs. PDLCs demonstrated lower ALP activity and generated fewer mineralized nodules than hMSCs. PDLCs showed overall up-regulated expression of RUNX2, ALP, OCN, Col I, BSP, OPN after osteo-induction. Col I level of PDLCs in osteo-inductive group was significantly higher while RUNX2, ALP, OCN were lower than that of hMSCs. Massive fiber bundles were produced linking or circling the scaffold while the bone-like structures were limited in the PDLCs-loaded HA/TCP samples. The fiber bundles displayed strong positive Col I, but weak OCN and OPN staining. The in vivo results were consistent with the in vitro data, which confirmed strong collagen forming ability and considerable osteogenic potential of PDLCs. Conclusion:It is encouraging to find that PDLCs exhibit higher proliferation, stronger collagen fiber formation capacity, but lower osteogenic differentiation ability in comparison with hMSCs. This characteristic is essential for the successful periodontal reconstruction which is based on the synchronization of fiber formation and bone deposition. Moreover, PDLCs have advantages such as good accessibility, abundant source, vigorous proliferation and evident osteogenic differentiation capacity when triggered properly. They can independently form PDL-like structure in vivo without specific stem cell enrichment procedure. The application of PDLCs may offer a novel cytotherapeutic option for future clinical periodontal reconstruction.