DNA Origami Rotaxanes: Tailored Synthesis and Controlled Structure Switching.
ABSTRACT: Mechanically interlocked supramolecular assemblies are appealing building blocks for creating functional nanodevices. Herein, we describe the multistep assembly of large DNA origami rotaxanes that are capable of programmable structural switching. We validated the topology and structural integrity of these rotaxanes by analyzing the intermediate and final products of various assembly routes by electrophoresis and electron microscopy. We further analyzed two structure-switching behaviors of our rotaxanes, which are both mediated by DNA hybridization. In the first mechanism, the translational motion of the macrocycle can be triggered or halted at either terminus. In the second mechanism, the macrocycle can be elongated after completion of the rotaxane assembly, giving rise to a unique structure that is otherwise difficult to access.
Project description:We recently identified competitive formation of doubly interlocked rotaxanes as the origin of the non-linear variation in yield of rotaxane with macrocycle size in the bipyridine-mediated AT-CuAAC reaction. Selection of reaction conditions gave rotaxanes in essentially quantitative yield in all cases and hard to access doubly threaded rotaxanes in up to 50% yield in a single, four component coupling. Based on the effect of macrocycle structure on the reaction outcome we propose a detailed mechanism of rotaxane formation.
Project description:A rotaxane was produced through the assembly of a picolinaldehyde, an amine, and a bipyridine macrocycle around a Cu(I) template by imine bond formation in close-to-quantitative yield. An analogous rotaxane is obtained in excellent yield by replacing the amine with a diamine, thus showing the suitability of the system for the construction of higher order interlocked structures. The rotaxanes are formed within a few minutes simply through mixing the components in solution at room temperature and they can be isolated through removal of the solvent or precipitation.
Project description:Mechanical encapsulation of fluorescent, deep-red bis(anilino)squaraine dyes inside Leigh-type tetralactam macrocycles produces interlocked squaraine rotaxanes. The surrounding macrocycles are flexible and undergo rapid exchange of chair and boat conformations in solution. A series of X-ray crystal structures show how the rotaxane co-conformational exchange process involves simultaneous lateral oscillation of the macrocycle about the center of the encapsulated squaraine thread. Rotaxane macrocycles with 1,4-phenylene sidewalls and 2,6-pyridine dicarboxamide bridging units are more likely to adopt boat conformations in the solid state than analogous squaraine rotaxane systems with isophthalamide-containing macrocycles. A truncated squaraine dye, with a secondary amine attached directly to the central C(4)O(2) core, is less electrophilic than the extended bis(anilino)squaraine analogue, but it is still susceptible to chemical and photochemical bleaching. Its stability is greatly enhanced when it is encapsulated as an interlocked squaraine rotaxane. An X-ray crystal structure of this truncated squaraine rotaxane shows the macrocycle in a boat conformation, and NMR studies indicate that the boat is maintained in solution. Encapsulation as a rotaxane increases the dye's brightness by a factor of 6. The encapsulation process appears to constrain the dye and reduce deformation of the chromophore from planarity. This study shows how mechanical encapsulation as a rotaxane can be used as a rational design parameter to fine-tune the chemical and photochemical properties of squaraine dyes.
Project description:The synthesis of novel hydrogen-bonded rotaxanes having two pyridine rings in the macrocycle and azo- and hydrazodicarboxamide-based templates decorated with four cyclohexyl groups is described. The different affinity of the binding sites for the benzylic amide macrocycle and the formation of programmed non-covalent interactions between the interlocked components have an important effect on the dynamic behavior of these compounds. Having this in mind, the chemical interconversion between the azo and hydrazo forms of the rotaxane was investigated to provide a chemically-driven interlocked system enable to switch its circumrotation rate as a function of the oxidation level of the binding site. Different structural modifications were carried out to further functionalize the nitrogen of the pyridine rings, including oxidation, alkylation or protonation reactions, affording interlocked azo-derivatives whose rotation dynamics were also analyzed.
Project description:Pseudorotaxane complexes of squaraine dyes and tetralactam macrocycles are converted into permanently interlocked rotaxane structures using copper-catalyzed and copper-free cycloaddition reactions with bulky stopper groups. The photophysical properties of the encapsulated squaraine depend on the structure of the macrocycle. In one case, squaraine rotaxanes are produced in near-quantitative yields and with intense near-IR fluorescence. In another case, squaraine fluorescence is greatly diminished upon macrocyclic encapsulation but the signal can be restored by dye displacement with anions.
Project description:Heterobifunctional rotaxanes serve as efficient catalysts for the addition of malonates to Michael acceptors. We report a series of four different heterobifunctional rotaxanes, featuring an amine-based thread and a chiral 1,1'-binaphthyl-phosphoric-acid-based macrocycle. High-level DFT calculations provided mechanistic insights and enabled rational catalyst improvements, leading to interlocked catalysts that surpass their non-interlocked counterparts in terms of reaction rates and stereoselectivities.
Project description:Interlocked molecules such as catenanes and rotaxanes, connected only via mechanical bonds have the ability to perform large-scale sliding and rotational movements, making them attractive components for the construction of artificial molecular machines and motors. We here demonstrate the realization of large, rigid rotaxane structures composed of DNA origami subunits. The structures can be easily modified to carry a molecular cargo or nanoparticles. By using multiple axle modules, rotaxane constructs are realized with axle lengths of up to 355?nm and a fuel/anti-fuel mechanism is employed to switch the rotaxanes between a mobile and a fixed state. We also create extended pseudo-rotaxanes, in which origami rings can slide along supramolecular DNA filaments over several hundreds of nanometres. The rings can be actively moved and tracked using atomic force microscopy.
Project description:Examples of using two-dimensional shape-persistent macrocycles, i.e. those having noncollapsible and geometrically well-defined skeletons, for constructing mechanically interlocked molecules are scarce, which contrasts the many applications of these macrocycles in molecular recognition and functional self-assembly. Herein, we report the crucial role played by macrocyclic shape-persistency in enhancing multipoint recognition for the highly efficient template-directed synthesis of rotaxanes. Cycloaramides, with a near-planar conformation, are found to act as powerful hosts that bind bipyridinium salts with high affinities. This unique recognition module, composed of two macrocyclic molecules with one bipyridinium ion thread through the cavity, is observed both in the solid state and in solution, with unusually high binding constants ranging from ?1013 M-2 to ?1015 M-2 in acetone. The high efficacy of this recognition motif is embodied by the formation of compact rotaxanes in excellent yields based on either a "click-capping" (91%) or "facile one-pot" (85%) approach, underscoring the great advantage of using H-bonded aromatic amide macrocycles for the highly efficient template-directed synthesis of mechanically interlocked structures. Furthermore, three cycloaramides bearing different peripheral chains 1-3 demonstrate high specificity in the synthesis of a rotaxane from 1 and 2, and a rotaxane from 3via a "facile one-pot" approach, in each case as the only isolated product. Analysis of the crystal structure of the rotaxane reveals a highly compact binding mode that would be difficult to access using other macrocycles with a flexible backbone. Leveraging this unique recognition motif, resulting from the shape-persistency of these oligoamide macrocycles, in the template-directed synthesis of compact rotaxanes may open up new opportunities for the development of higher order interlocked molecules and artificial molecular machines.
Project description:The relation between the chemical structure and the mechanical behavior of molecular machines is of paramount importance for a rational design of superior nanomachines. Here, we report on a mechanistic study of a nanometer scale translational movement in two bistable rotaxanes. Both rotaxanes consist of a tetra-amide macrocycle interlocked onto a polyether axle. The macrocycle can shuttle between an initial succinamide station and a 3,6-dihydroxy- or 3,6-di-tert-butyl-1,8-naphthalimide end stations. Translocation of the macrocycle is controlled by a hydrogen-bonding equilibrium between the stations. The equilibrium can be perturbed photochemically by either intermolecular proton or electron transfer depending on the system. To the best of our knowledge, utilization of proton transfer from a conventional photoacid for the operation of a molecular machine is demonstrated for the first time. The shuttling dynamics are monitored by means of UV-vis and IR transient absorption spectroscopies. The polyether axle accelerates the shuttling by ?70% compared to a structurally similar rotaxane with an all-alkane thread of the same length. The acceleration is attributed to a decrease in activation energy due to an early transition state where the macrocycle partially hydrogen bonds to the ether group of the axle. The dihydroxyrotaxane exhibits the fastest shuttling speed over a nanometer distance (?shuttling ? 30 ns) reported to date. The shuttling in this case is proposed to take place via a so-called harpooning mechanism where the transition state involves a folded conformation due to the hydrogen-bonding interactions with the hydroxyl groups of the end station.
Project description:Switchable crown ether-ammonium rotaxanes with a redox-active tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) unit implemented in their wheels were synthesised and fully characterised. Reversible operation in two modes is possible, in which the rotaxane's axle is either charged or neutral. Cyclic voltammetry experiments reveal the effects of mechanical bonding on the electrochemical properties of TTF and show the rotaxanes to perform a distinct function in both modes. In the charged mode, redox-switching is dominated by strong electrostatic repulsion in the rotaxane which subsequently leads to a macrocycle translation along the axle. In the non-charged mode, a selective energetic stabilisation of TTF radical cations is observed, which can be attributed to an interplay of weak electrostatic interactions between wheel and axle.