Whole-brain patterns of (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging in Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies.
ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy has demonstrated metabolite changes in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB); however, their pattern and relationship to clinical symptoms is unclear. To determine whether the spatial patterns of brain-metabolite changes in AD and DLB are regional or diffused, and to examine whether the key metabolite levels are associated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms, we acquired whole-brain spatially resolved 3T magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) data from subjects with AD (N=36), DLB (N=35) and similarly aged controls (N=35). Voxel-wise measurement of N-acetylaspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr), choline to Cr (Cho/Cr), myo-inositol to Cr (mI/Cr) as well as glutamate and glutamine to Cr (Glx/Cr) ratios were determined using MRSI. Compared with controls, AD and DLB groups showed a significant decrease in most brain metabolites, with NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr and mI/Cr levels being reduced in posterior cingulate, thalamus, frontotemporal areas and basal ganglia. The Glx/Cr level was more widely decreased in DLB (posterior cingulate, hippocampus, temporal regions and caudate) than in AD (only in posterior cingulate). DLB was also associated with increased levels of Cho/Cr, NAA/Cr and mI/Cr in occipital regions. Changes in metabolism in the brain were correlated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms in the DLB but not in the AD group. The different patterns between AD and DLB may have implications for improving diagnosis, better understanding disease-specific neurobiology and targeting therapeutics. In addition, the study raised important questions about the role of occipital neuroinflammation and glial activation as well as the glutamatergic treatment in DLB.
Project description:1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can reveal changes in brain biochemistry in vivo in humans and has been applied to late onset Alzheimer disease (AD). Carriers of mutations for autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) may show changes in levels of metabolites prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Proton MR spectra were acquired at 1.5 T for 16 cognitively asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic mutation carriers (CDR?<?1) and 11 non-carriers as part of a comprehensive cross-sectional study of preclinical ADAD. Levels of N-acetyl-aspartate+N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAA), glutamate/glutamine (Glx), creatine/phosphocreate (Cr), choline (Cho), and myo-inositol (mI) in the left and right anterior cingulate and midline posterior cingulate and precuneus were compared between mutation carriers (MCs) and non-carriers (NCs) using multivariate analysis of variance with age as a covariate. Among MCs, correlations between metabolite levels and time until expected age of dementia diagnosis were calculated. MCs had significantly lower levels of NAA and Glx in the left pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, and lower levels of NAA and higher levels of mI and Cho in the precuneus compared to NCs. Increased levels of mI were seen in these regions in association with increased proximity to expected age of dementia onset. MRS shows effects of ADAD similar to those seen in late onset AD even during the preclinical period including lower levels of NAA and higher levels of mI. These indices of neuronal and glial dysfunction might serve as surrogate outcome measures in prevention studies of putative disease-modifying agents.
Project description:AIM:To characterize progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS). METHODS:Eleven subjects with mild to moderate AD underwent neurocognitive testing and single-voxel (1)H MRS from the precuneus and posterior cingulate region at baseline, after 24 weeks of monotherapy with a cholinesterase inhibitor, and after another 24 weeks of combination therapy with open-label memantine and a cholinesterase inhibitor. Baseline metabolites [N-acetylaspartate (NAA), myo-inositol (mI), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr)] and their ratios in AD subjects were compared with those of an age-matched control group of 28 cognitively normal subjects. RESULTS:AD subjects had significantly higher mI/Cr and lower NAA, NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, and NAA/mI. Baseline Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL) scores significantly correlated with NAA/Cr, mI/Cr, and NAA/mI. There was an increase in mI and a decrease in NAA/mI, but no significant change in other metabolites or ratios, or neurocognitive measures, when memantine was added to a cholinesterase inhibitor. CONCLUSION:Metabolite ratios significantly differed between AD and control subjects. Baseline metabolite ratios correlated with function (ADCS-ADL). There was an increase in mI and a decrease in NAA/mI, but no changes in other metabolites, ratios, or cognitive measures, when memantine was added to a cholinesterase inhibitor.
Project description:Previous studies suggested patients with bipolar depressive disorder (BDd) or unipolar depressive disorder (UDd) have cerebral metabolites abnormalities. These abnormalities may stem from multiple sub-regions of gray matter in brain regions. Thirteen BDd patients, 20?UDd patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled to investigate these abnormalities. Absolute concentrations of 5 cerebral metabolites (glutamate-glutamine (Glx), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myo-inositol (mI), creatine (Cr), parietal cortex (PC)) were measured from 4 subregions (the medial frontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and parietal cortex (PC)) of gray matter. Main and interaction effects of cerebral metabolites across subregions of gray matter were evaluated. For example, the Glx was significantly higher in BDd compared with UDd, and so on. As the interaction analyses showed, some interaction effects existed. The concentrations of BDds' Glx, Cho, Cr in the ACC and HCs' mI and Cr in the PC were higher than that of other interaction effects. In addition, the concentrations of BDds' Glx and Cr in the PC and HCs' mI in the ACC were statistically significant lower than that of other interaction effects. These findings point to region-related abnormalities of cerebral metabolites across subjects with BDd and UDd.
Project description:To date, single voxel spectroscopy (SVS) is the most commonly used MRS technique. SVS is relatively easy to use and provides automated and immediate access to the resulting spectra. However, it is also limited in spatial coverage. A new and very promising MRS technique allows for whole-brain MR spectroscopic imaging (WB-MRSI) with much improved spatial resolution. Establishing the reproducibility of data obtained using SVS and WB-MRSI is an important first step for using these techniques to evaluate longitudinal changes in metabolite concentration. The purpose of this study was to assess and directly compare the reproducibility of metabolite quantification at 3T using SVS and WB-MRSI in 'hand-knob' areas of motor cortices and hippocampi in healthy volunteers. Ten healthy adults were scanned using both SVS and WB-MRSI on three occasions one week apart. N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho) and myo-inositol (mI) were quantified using SVS and WB-MRSI with reference to both Cr and H2 O. The reproducibility of each technique was evaluated using the coefficient of variation (CV), and the correspondence between the two techniques was assessed using Pearson correlation analysis. The measured mean (range) intra-subject CVs for SVS were 5.90 (2.65-10.66)% for metabolites (i.e. NAA, Cho, mI) relative to Cr, and 8.46 (4.21-21.07)% for metabolites (NAA, Cr, Cho, mI) relative to H2 O. The mean (range) CVs for WB-MRSI were 7.56 (2.78-11.41)% for metabolites relative to Cr, and 7.79 (4.57-14.11)% for metabolites relative to H2 O. Significant positive correlations were observed between metabolites quantified using SVS and WB-MRSI techniques when the Cr but not H2 O reference was used. The results demonstrate that reproducibilities of SVS and WB-MRSI are similar for quantifying the four major metabolites (NAA, Cr, Cho, mI); both SVS and WB-MRSI exhibited good reproducibility. Our findings add reference information for choosing the appropriate 1 H-MRS technique in future studies.
Project description:The glutamatergic system is a key point in pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Sarcosine (N-methylglycine) is an exogenous amino acid that acts as a glycine transporter inhibitor. It modulates glutamatergic transmission by increasing glycine concentration around NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptors. In patients with schizophrenia, the function of the glutamatergic system in the prefrontal cortex is impaired, which may promote negative and cognitive symptoms. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy is a non-invasive imaging method enabling the evaluation of brain metabolite concentration, which can be applied to assess pharmacologically induced changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a six-month course of sarcosine therapy on the concentration of metabolites (NAA, N-acetylaspartate; Glx, complex of glutamate, glutamine and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA); mI, myo-inositol; Cr, creatine; Cho, choline) in the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with stable schizophrenia. Fifty patients with schizophrenia, treated with constant antipsychotics doses, in stable clinical condition were randomly assigned to administration of sarcosine (25 patients) or placebo (25 patients) for six months. Metabolite concentrations in DLPFC were assessed with 1.5 Tesla ¹H-NMR spectroscopy. Clinical symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The first spectroscopy revealed no differences in metabolite concentrations between groups. After six months, NAA/Cho, mI/Cr and mI/Cho ratios in the left DLPFC were significantly higher in the sarcosine than the placebo group. In the sarcosine group, NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, mI/Cr, mI/Cho ratios also significantly increased compared to baseline values. In the placebo group, only the NAA/Cr ratio increased. The addition of sarcosine to antipsychotic therapy for six months increased markers of neurons viability (NAA) and neurogilal activity (mI) with simultaneous improvement of clinical symptoms. Sarcosine, two grams administered daily, seems to be an effective adjuvant in the pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The brain mechanisms of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), a highly effective treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), are unknown. Neuroimaging in adult OCD indicates that CBT is associated with metabolic changes in striatum, thalamus, and anterior cingulate cortex. We therefore probed putative metabolic effects of CBT on these brain structures in pediatric OCD using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H MRSI). METHOD:Five unmedicated OCD patients (4 ♀, 13.5±2.8) and 9 healthy controls (7 ♀, 13.0±2.5) underwent MRSI (1.5 T, repetition-time/echo-time=1500/30 ms) of bilateral putamen, thalamus and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC). Patients were rescanned after 12 weeks of exposure-based CBT. The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) of OCD symptoms was administered before and after CBT. RESULTS:Four of 5 patients responded to CBT (mean 32.8% CY-BOCS reduction). Multiple metabolite effects emerged. Pre-CBT, N-acetyl-aspartate+N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (tNAA) in left pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) was 55.5% higher in patients than controls. Post-CBT, tNAA (15.0%) and Cr (23.9%) in left pACC decreased and choline compounds (Cho) in right thalamus increased (10.6%) in all 5 patients. In left thalamus, lower pre-CBT tNAA, glutamate+glutamine (Glx), and myo-inositol (mI) predicted greater post-CBT drop in CY-BOCS (r=0.98) and CY-BOCS decrease correlated with increased Cho. CONCLUSIONS:Interpretations are offered in terms of the Glutamatergic Hypothesis of Pediatric OCD. Similar to 18FDG-PET in adults, objectively measurable regional MRSI metabolites may indicate pediatric OCD and predict its response to CBT.
Project description:Dysfunction of the glutamatergic system, the main stimulating system in the brain, has a major role in pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The frontal white matter (WM) is partially composed of axons from glutamatergic pyramidal neurons and glia with glutamatergic receptors. The natural amino acid sarcosine, a component of a normal diet, inhibits the glycine type 1 transporter, increasing the glycine level. Thus, it modulates glutamatergic transmission through the glutamatergic ionotropic NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor, which requires glycine as a co-agonist. To evaluate the concentrations of brain metabolites (NAA, N-acetylaspartate; Glx, complex of glutamate, glutamine, and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA); mI, myo-inositol; Cr, creatine; Cho, choline) in the left frontal WM, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy was used. Twenty-five patients randomly chosen from a group of fifty with stable schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR) and dominant negative symptoms, who were receiving antipsychotic therapy, were administered 2 g of sarcosine daily for six months. The remaining 25 patients received placebo. Assignment was double blinded. ¹H-NMR spectroscopy (1.5 T) was performed twice: before and after the intervention. NAA, Glx and mI were evaluated as Cr and Cho ratios. All patients were also assessed twice with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results were compared between groups and in two time points in each group. The sarcosine group demonstrated a significant decrease in WM Glx/Cr and Glx/Cho ratios compared to controls after six months of therapy. In the experimental group, the final NAA/Cr ratio significantly increased and Glx/Cr ratio significantly decreased compared to baseline values. Improvement in the PANSS scores was significant only in the sarcosine group. In patients with schizophrenia, sarcosine augmentation can reverse the negative effect of glutamatergic system overstimulation, with a simultaneous beneficial increase of NAA/Cr ratio in the WM of the left frontal lobe. Our results further support the glutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia.
Project description:Although variations in neurometabolite concentrations occur in diverse neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, little is known about the nature of underlying genetic influences. The current study investigated the importance of a specific type of genetic mutation, copy number variation (CNV), for neurometabolite concentrations in a bilateral anterior cingulate voxel.These neurometabolic signals were quantified using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS): N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine-phosphocreatine (Cre), glutamate/glutamine (Glx), myoinositol (mI), and phosphorylcholine-glycerol phosphorylcholine (Cho). Genetic data were collected using the Illumina 1MDuoBeadChip Array from a sample adults with alcohol use disorders (n = 146).The number of base pairs lost through rare copy number deletions (occurring in less than 5% of our sample) predicted lower NAA, Cre, mI, and Glx. More total rare deletions also predicted lower NAA, Cre, and Glx. Principal components analyses of the five neurometabolites identified two correlated components, the first comprised of NAA, Glx, and Cre, and the second comprised of Cho, mI, and to a lesser extent, Cre. The number and length of rare deletions were correlated with the first component, capturing approximately 10% of phenotypic variance, but not the second component.These results suggest that mutation load affects neurometabolite concentrations, potentially increasing risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. The greater effect of CVNs on NAA, Glx, and Cre may reflect a greater sensitivity to the effects of mutations (i.e., reduced canalization) for neurometabolites related to metabolic activity and cellular energetics, due to extensive recent selection pressure on these phenotypes in the human lineage.
Project description:To characterize and follow the diffuse gray and white matter (GM/WM) metabolic abnormalities in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1)H-MRSI).Eighteen recently diagnosed, mildly disabled patients (mean baseline time from diagnosis 32 months, mean Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score 1.3), all on immunomodulatory medication, were scanned semiannually for 3 years with T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI and 3D (1)H-MRSI at 3 T. Ten sex- and age-matched controls were followed annually. Global absolute concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), and myo-inositol (mI) were obtained for all GM and WM in the 360 cm(3) (1)H-MRSI volume of interest.Patients' average WM Cr, Cho, and mI concentrations (over all time points), 5.3 ± 0.4, 1.6 ± 0.1, and 5.1 ± 0.7 mM, were 8%, 12%, and 11% higher than controls' (p ? 0.01), while their WM NAA, 7.4 ± 0.7 mM, was 6% lower (p = 0.07). There were increases with time of patients' WM Cr: 0.1 mM/year, Cho: 0.02 mM/year, and NAA: 0.1 mM/year (all p < 0.05). None of the patients' metabolic concentrations correlated with their EDSS score, relapse rate, GM/WM/CSF fractions, or lesion volume.Diffuse WM glial abnormalities were larger in magnitude than the axonal abnormalities and increased over time independently of conventional clinical or imaging metrics and despite immunomodulatory treatment. In contrast, the axonal abnormalities showed partial recovery, suggesting that patients' lower WM NAA levels represented a dysfunction, which may abate with treatment. Absence of detectable diffuse changes in GM suggests that injury there is minimal, focal, or heterogeneous between cortex and deep GM nuclei.