Outcomes from an orientation model to reduce attrition in paediatric weight management.
ABSTRACT: We aimed to reduce attrition of newly referred patients in a paediatric weight management programme by implementing an orientation to address families' expectations and screen for and support behavioural and mental health problems and psychosocial stressors at programme outset. Orientation impact was monitored with run charts with percentages of scheduled encounters completed. Long-term impact was assessed by comparing patients in the initial 6 months of the orientation to a baseline group of referred patients during the same 6-month time interval in the prior year (Pre-Orientation Group). The outcome measure was programme attrition within 15 months. Groups were compared using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression modelling. Patients in the Orientation Group had a 23% increased odds of attrition compared to patients in the Pre-Orientation group (adjusted Hazard ratio, aHR 1.23; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.01, 1.51) and shorter median duration of follow-up (2.0 vs. 2.9 months, P = 0.004). An increase in body mass index z-score of 1 unit resulted in a nearly fivefold increased odds of attrition (aHR 5.24; 95% CI: 2.95, 9.3). An orientation for new patients did not reduce attrition within 15 months. We suggest that ongoing retention strategies should be embedded into the treatment phase of the programme.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> Reducing attrition in paediatric HIV-positive patients using combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) programmes in sub-Saharan Africa is a challenge. This study explored the rates and predictors of attrition in children started on cART in Asmara, Eritrea. <h4>Methods</h4> This was a retrospective cohort study using data from all paediatric patients on cART between 2005 and 2020, conducted at the Orotta National Referral and Teaching Hospital. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the likelihood of attrition and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the factors associated with attrition. All p values were two sided and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. <h4>Results</h4> The study enrolled 710 participants with 374 boys (52.7%) and 336 girls (47.3%). After 5364 person-years’ (PY) follow-up, attrition occurred in 172 (24.2%) patients: 65 (9.2%) died and 107 (15.1%) were lost to follow-up (LTFU). The crude incidence rate of attrition was 3.2 events/100 PY, mortality rate was 2.7/100 PY and LTFU was 1.2/100 PY. The independent predictors of attrition included male sex (adjusted HR (AHR)=1.6, 95% CI: 1 to 2.4), residence outside Zoba Maekel (AHR=1.5, 95% CI: 1 to 2.3), later enrolment years (2010–2015: AHR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.9 to 5.3; >2015: AHR=6.1, 95% CI: 3 to 12.2), WHO body mass index-for-age z-score <−2 (AHR=1.4, 95% CI: 0.9 to 2.1), advanced HIV disease (WHO III or IV) at enrolment (AHR=2.2, 95% CI: 1.2 to 3.9), and initiation of zidovudine+lamivudine or other cART backbones (unadjusted HR (UHR)=2, 95% CI: 1.2 to 3.2). In contrast, a reduced likelihood of attrition was observed in children with a record of cART changes (UHR=0.2, 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.4). <h4>Conclusion</h4> A low incidence of attrition was observed in this study. However, the high mortality rate in the first 24 months of treatment and late presentation are concerning. Therefore, data-driven interventions for improving programme quality and outcomes should be prioritised.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Since the scale-up of the HIV "Treat All" recommendation, evidence on its real-world effect on predictors of attrition (either death or lost to follow-up) is lacking. We conducted a retrospective study using Zimbabwe ART program data to assess the association between "Treat All" and, patient-mix, programmatic characteristics, retention and predictors of attrition. METHODS:We used patient-level data from the electronic patient monitoring system (ePMS) from the nine districts, which piloted the "Treat All" recommendation. We compared patient-mix, programme characteristics, retention and predictors of attrition (lost to follow-up, death or stopping ART) in two cohorts; before (April/May 2016) and after (January/February 2017) "Treat All". Retention was estimated using survival analysis. Predictors of attrition were determined using a multivariable Cox regression model. Interactions were used to assess the change in predictors of attrition before and after "Treat All". RESULTS:We analysed 3787 patients, 1738 (45.9%) and 2049 (54.1%) started ART before and after "Treat All", respectively. The proportion of men was higher after "Treat All" (39.4.% vs 36.2%, p = 0.044). Same-day ART initiation was more frequent after "Treat All" (43.2% vs 16.4%; p<0.001) than before. Retention on ART was higher before "Treat All" (p<0.001). Among non-pregnant women and men, the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of attrition after compared to before "Treat All" was 1.73 (95%CI: 1.30-2.31). The observed hazard of attrition for women being pregnant at ART initiation decreased by 17% (aHR: 1.73*0.48 = 0.83) after "Treat All". Being male (vs female; aHR: 1.45; 95%CI: 1.12-1.87) and WHO Stage IV (vs WHO Stage I-III; aHR: 2.89; 95%CI: 1.16-7.11) predicted attrition both before and after "Treat All" implementation. CONCLUSION:Attrition was higher after "Treat All"; being male, WHO Stage 4, and pregnancy predicted attrition in both before and after Treat All. However, pregnancy became a less strong risk factor for attrition after "Treat All" implementation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> It is a global challenge to enrol and retain paediatric patients in HIV/AIDS care. Attrition causes preventable transmission, stoppable morbidity and death, undesirable treatment outcomes, increased cost of care and drug resistance. Thus, this study intended to investigate the incidence and predictors of attrition among children receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART). <h4>Method</h4> A retrospective follow-up study was conducted among children <15 years who had ART follow-up in Gedeo public hospitals. After collection, data were entered into Epi-data V.4.6, then exported to and analysed using STATA V.14. Data were described using the Kaplan-Meier statistics, life table and general descriptive statistics. The analysis was computed using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. Covariates having <0.25 p values in the univariate analysis (such as developmental stage, nutritional status, haemoglobin level, adherence, etc) were fitted to multivariable analysis. Finally, statistical significance was declared at a p value of <0.05. <h4>Results</h4> An overall 254 child charts were analysed. At the end of follow-up, attrition from ART care was 36.2% (92 of 254), of which 70 (76.1%) were lost to follow-up, and 22 (23.9%) children died. About 8145.33 child-months of observations were recorded with an incidence attrition rate of 11.3 per 1000 child-months (95% CI: 9.2 to 13.9), whereas the median survival time was 68.73 months. Decreased haemoglobin level (<10 g/dl) (adjusted HR (AHR)=3.1; 95% CI: 1.4 to 6.9), delayed developmental milestones (AHR=3.6; 95% CI: 1.2 to 10.7), underweight at baseline (AHR=5.9; 95% CI: 1.6 to 21.7), baseline CD4 count ≤200 (AHR=4.4; 95% CI: 1.6 to 12.2), and poor or fair ART adherence (AHR=3.5; 95% CI: 1.5 to 7.9) were significantly associated with attrition. <h4>Conclusion and recommendation</h4> Retention to ART care is challenging in the paediatrics population, with such a high attrition rate. Immune suppression, anaemia, underweight, delayed developmental milestones and ART non-adherence were independent predictors of attrition to ART care. Hence, it is crucial to detect and control the identified predictors promptly. Serious adherence support and strengthened nutritional provision with monitoring strategies are also essential.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To examine age differences in mortality and programme attrition amongst paediatric patients treated in four African HIV programmes.<h4>Methods</h4>Longitudinal analysis of data from patients enrolled in HIV care. Two-year mortality and programme attrition rates per 1000 person-years stratified by age group (<2, 2-4 and 5-15 years) were calculated. Associations between outcomes and age and other individual-level factors were studied using multiple Cox proportional hazards (mortality) and Poisson (attrition) regression models.<h4>Results</h4>Six thousand two hundred and sixty-one patients contributed 9500 person-years; 27.1% were aged <2 years, 30.1% were 2-4, and 42.8% were 5-14 years old. At programme entry, 45.3% were underweight and 12.6% were in clinical stage 4. The highest mortality and attrition rates (98.85 and 244.00 per 1000 person-years), and relative ratios (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.92, 95% CI 1.56-2.37; incidence ratio [aIR] = 2.10, 95% CI 1.86-2.37, respectively, compared with the 5- to 14-year group) were observed amongst the youngest children. Increased mortality and attrition were also associated with advanced clinical stage, underweight and diagnosis of tuberculosis at programme entry.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These results highlight the need to increase access, diagnose and provide early HIV care and to accelerate antiretroviral treatment initiation for those eligible. Adapted education and support for children and their families would also be important.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The last evaluation to assess outcomes for patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) through the Zimbabwe public sector was conducted in 2011, covering the 2007-2010 cohorts. The reported retention at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months were 90.7%, 78.1%, 68.8% and 64.4%, respectively. We report findings of a follow-up evaluation for the 2012-2015 cohorts to assess the implementation and impact of recommendations from this prior evaluation. METHODS:A nationwide retrospective study was conducted in 2016. Multi-stage proportional sampling was used to select health facilities and study participants records. The data extracted from patient manual records included demographic, baseline clinical characteristics and patient outcomes (active on treatment, died, transferred out, stopped ART and lost to follow-up (LTFU)) at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months. The data were analysed using Stata/IC 14.2. Retention was estimated using survival analysis. The predictors associated with attrition were determined using a multivariate Cox regression model. RESULTS:A total of 3,810 participants were recruited in the study. The median age in years was 35 (IQR: 28-42). Overall, retention increased to 92.4% (p-value = 0.060), 86.5% (p-value<0.001), 79.2% (p-value<0.001) and 74.4% (p-value<0.001) at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months respectively. LTFU accounted for 98% of attrition. Being an adolescent or a young adult (15-24 years) (vs adult;1.41; 95% CI:1.14-1.74), children (<15years) (vs adults; aHR 0.64; 95% CI:0.46-0.91), receiving care at primary health care facility (vs central and provincial facility; aHR 1.23; 95% CI:1.01-1.49), having initiated ART between 2014-2015 (vs 2012-2013; aHR1.45; 95%CI:1.24-1.69), having WHO Stage IV (vs Stage I-III; aHR2.06; 95%CI:1.51-2.81) and impaired functional status (vs normal status; aHR1.25; 95%CI:1.04-1.49) predicted attrition. CONCLUSION:The overall retention was higher in comparison to the previous 2007-2010 evaluation. Further studies to understand why attrition was found to be higher at primary health care facilities are warranted. Implementation of strategies for managing patients with advanced HIV disease, differentiated care for adolescents and young adults and tracking of LTFU clients should be prioritised to further improve retention.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Since June 2016, the national HIV programme in Malawi has adopted Universal Test and Treat (UTT) guidelines requiring that all persons who test HIV positive will be referred to start antiretroviral therapy (ART). Although there is strong evidence from clinical trials that early initiation of ART leads to reduced morbidity and mortality, the impact of UTT on retention on ART in real-life programmatic settings in Africa is not yet known.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a retrospective cohort study in Zomba district, Malawi to compare ART outcomes of patients who initiated ART under 2016 UTT guidelines and those who started ART prior to rollout of UTT (pre-UTT). We analysed data from 32 rural and urban health facilities of various sizes. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to determine the independent risk factors of attrition from ART at 12 months. All analyses were adjusted for clustering by health facility using a robust standard errors approach.<h4>Results</h4>Among 1492 patients (mean age 34.4 years, 933 (63%) female) who initiated ART during the study period, 501 were enrolled in the pre-UTT cohort and 911 during UTT. At 12 months, retention on ART in the UTT cohort was higher than in the pre-UTT cohort 83.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 81.0% to 85.0%) versus 76.2% (95% CI 73.9% to 78.5%). Adolescents, aged 10 to 19 years (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.53; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.32), and women who were pregnant or breastfeeding at ART initiation (aHR 1.87; 95% CI 1.30 to 2.38) were at higher risk of attrition in the combined pre-UTT and UTT cohort.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Retention on ART was nearly 6% higher after UTT introduction. Young adults and women who were pregnant or breastfeeding at the start of ART were at increased risk of attrition, emphasizing the need for targeted interventions for these groups to achieve the 90-90-90 UNAIDS targets in the UTT era.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>China's national tuberculosis programme does not have cohort wise information regarding attrition and delays in the multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) diagnosis and treatment pathway.<h4>Objective</h4>Under the Global Fund programmatic management of drug-resistant TB (2006-13), we assessed the attrition and delay in the pathway and the factors associated.<h4>Methods</h4>Cohort study involving secondary programme data. All patients identified as presumptive MDR-TB (defined as i) previously treated TB patients which included recurrent TB, return after loss to follow up, treatment after failure and ii) new TB patients that were non-converters at three months of treatment or in close contact with a known MDR-TB patient) during October 2006 to June 2013 were eligible for phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST). Pre-diagnosis attrition (presumptive MDR-TB not undergoing culture and DST) and pre-treatment attrition (confirmed MDR-TB patients not initiated on treatment) was calculated. Diagnosis delay was the time interval from DST eligibility to DST result, treatment initiation delay was fom DST result to treatment initiation and total delay was from DST eligbility to treatment initiation. Factors associated with attrition and delay were identified using log binomial regression and linear regression, respectively.<h4>Results</h4>Of 78 564 presumptive MDR-TB patients, 2 470 (3.1%) underwent pre-diagnosis attrition. Of 9 283 MDR-TB patients, 3 361 (36.2%) underwent pre-treatment attrition. Median(IQR) diagnosis delay was 84 (64, 114) days; treatment initation delay was 23(6,68) days and total delay was 117(77,187) days. Long diagnosis delay was an independent predictor of pre-treatment attrition in a dose response relationship. While pre-treatment attrition was less likely among presumptive criterion 'previously treated' and with increasing time period, it was more likey among elderly and in east and west region. While the diagnosis delay increased with time period, treatment initiation delay and total delay reduced with time period. Short diagnosis delay was associated with west region, smear negative patients and presumptive criterion 'treatment after lost to follow up'. Short treatment initiation delay was associatied with east and west regions while long treatment initiation delay was associated with elderly and presumptive criterion 'recurrent TB'. Total delay predictors were similar to treatment initiation delay. In addition, short total delay was associated with presumptive criterion 'treatment after failure'.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The diagnosis and treatment delay were long and the pre-treatment attrition was considerable high. Long diagnosis delay is likely to predict pre-treatment attrition.
Project description:PURPOSE:To determine individual, organizational, and protocol-specific factors associated with attrition in NRG Oncology's radiation-based clinical trials. METHODS AND MATERIALS:This retrospective analysis included 27,443 patients representing 134 NRG Oncology's radiation-based clinical trials .trials with primary efficacy results published from 1985-2011. Trials were separated on the basis of the primary endpoint (fixed time vs event driven). The cumulative incidence approach was used to estimate time to attrition, and cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess factors associated with attrition. RESULTS:Most patients (69%) were enrolled in an event-driven trial (n = 18,809), while 31% were enrolled in a fixed-time trial (n = 8634). Median follow-up time for patients enrolled in fixed-time trials was 4.1 months and 37.2 months for patients enrolled in event-driven trials. Fixed time trials with a duration < 6 months had a 5 month attrition rate of 4.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4%, 5.5%) and those with a duration ? 6 months had a 1 year attrition rate of 1.6% (95% CI: 1.2, 2.1). Event-driven trials had 1- and 5-year attrition rates of 0.5% (95% CI: 0.4%, 0.6%) and 13.6% (95% CI: 13.1%, 14.1%), respectively. Younger age, female gender, and Zubrod performance status >0 were associated with greater attrition as were enrollment by institutions in the West and South regions and participation in fixed-time trials. CONCLUSIONS:Attrition in clinical trials can have a negative effect on trial outcomes. Data on factors associated with attrition can help guide the development of strategies to enhance retention. These strategies should focus on patient characteristics associated with attrition in both fixed-time and event-driven trials as well as in differing geographic regions of the country.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pre-diagnosis attrition needs to be addressed urgently if we are to make progress in improving MDR-TB case detection and achieve universal access to MDR-TB care. We report the pre-diagnosis attrition, along with factors associated, and turnaround times related to the diagnostic pathway among patient with presumptive MDR-TB in Bhopal district, central India (2014).<h4>Methods</h4>Study was conducted under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme setting. It was a retrospective cohort study involving record review of all registered TB cases in Bhopal district that met the presumptive MDR-TB criteria (eligible for DST) in 2014. In quarter 1, Line Probe Assay (LPA) was used if sample was smear/culture positive. Quarter 2 onwards, LPA and Cartridge-based Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (CbNAAT) was used for smear positive and smear negative samples respectively. Pre-diagnosis attrition was defined as failure to undergo DST among patients with presumptive MDR-TB (as defined by the programme).<h4>Results</h4>Of 770 patients eligible for DST, 311 underwent DST and 20 patients were diagnosed as having MDR-TB. Pre-diagnosis attrition was 60% (459/770). Among those with pre-diagnosis attrition, 91% (417/459) were not identified as 'presumptive MDR-TB' by the programme. TAT [median (IQR)] to undergo DST after eligibility was 4 (0, 10) days. Attrition was more than 40% across all subgroups. Age more than 64 years; those from a medical college; those eligible in quarter 1; patients with presumptive criteria 'previously treated - recurrent TB', 'treatment after loss-to-follow-up' and 'previously treated-others'; and patients with extra-pulmonary TB were independent risk factors for not undergoing DST.<h4>Conclusion</h4>High pre-diagnosis attrition was contributed by failure to identify and refer patients. Attrition reduced modestly with time and one factor that might have contributed to this was introduction of CbNAAT in quarter 2 of 2014. General health system strengthening which includes improvement in identification/referral and patient tracking with focus on those with higher risk for not undergoing DST is urgently required.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The recently increased access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa has placed additional strain on human and infrastructure resources of the public health sector. Capacity from private-sector General Practitioners (GPs) could be leveraged to ease the current burden on the public health sector. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective record review of routine electronic medical record data on a systematic sample of HIV-infected adults (?18?years old) initiated on ART at a tertiary hospital outpatient HIV clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa and down-referred to private-GPs for continued care after stabilization on ART. We compared these patients ("GP down-referred") to a control-cohort who remained at the referring site ("Clinic A") and patients from a regional hospital outpatient HIV clinic not offering down-referral to GPs ("Clinic B"). Study outcomes assessed are viral load suppression (VL?<?50 copies/ml) and attrition from care (all-cause-mortality or?>?90-days late for a last-scheduled visit) by 12?months of follow-up following down-referral or eligibility. RESULTS:A total of 3685 patients, comprising 373 (10.1%) GP down-referred, 2599 (70.5%) clinic A controls, and 713 (19.4%) clinic B controls were included in the analysis. Overall, 1535 patients (53.3%) had a suppressed viral load. A higher portion of GP down-referred patients had a suppressed viral load compared to clinic A and B patients (65.7% vs 49.1% vs 58.9%). After adjusting for demographic and baseline clinical covariates, we found no difference in viral load suppression between GP down-referred and control patients (adjusted relative risk [aRR] for clinic A vs GP down-referred 1.0; 95% CI: 0.9-1.1), (aRR for clinic B vs GP down-referred 1.0; 95% CI: 0.9-1.2). Clinic B controls experienced the highest attrition compared to GP down-referred and clinic A controls (33.2% vs 11.3% vs 5.9%) and had a higher risk of attrition compared to GP down-referred patients (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 4.2; 95% CI: 2.8-6.5), whereas clinic B controls had a lower risk of attrition (aHR 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3-0.7). CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:Our results show that private-GPs can contribute to caring for stabilized public sector HIV patients on life-long ART. However, they require special efforts to improve retention in care.