Increasing Capacity for the Treatment of Common Musculoskeletal Problems: A Non-Inferiority RCT and Economic Analysis of Corticosteroid Injection for Shoulder Pain Comparing a Physiotherapist and Orthopaedic Surgeon.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Role substitution is a strategy employed to assist health services manage the growing demand for musculoskeletal care. Corticosteroid injection is a common treatment in this population but the efficacy of its prescription and delivery by physiotherapists has not been established against orthopaedic standards. This paper investigates whether corticosteroid injection given by a physiotherapist for shoulder pain is as clinically and cost effective as that from an orthopaedic surgeon. METHODS:A double blind non-inferiority randomized controlled trial was conducted in an Australian public hospital orthopaedic outpatient service, from January 2013 to June 2014. Adults with a General Practitioner referral to Orthopaedics for shoulder pain received subacromial corticosteroid and local anaesthetic injection prescribed and delivered independently by a physiotherapist or a consultant orthopaedic surgeon. The main outcome measure was total Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) score at baseline, six and 12 weeks, applying a non-inferiority margin of 15 points. Secondary outcomes tested for superiority included pain, shoulder movement, perceived improvement, adverse events, satisfaction, quality of life and costs. RESULTS:278 participants were independently assessed by the physiotherapist and the orthopaedic surgeon, with 64 randomised (physiotherapist 33, orthopaedic surgeon 31). There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between groups. Non-inferiority of injection by the physiotherapist was declared from total SPADI scores at 6 and 12 weeks (upper limit of the 95% one-sided confidence interval 13.34 and 7.17 at 6 and 12 weeks, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences between groups on any outcome measures at 6 or 12 weeks. From the perspective of the health funder, the physiotherapist was less expensive. CONCLUSIONS:Corticosteroid injection for shoulder pain, provided by a suitably qualified physiotherapist is at least as clinically effective, and less expensive, compared with similar care delivered by an orthopaedic surgeon. Policy makers and service providers should consider implementing this model of care. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 12612000532808.
Project description:Shoulder pain is common with rotator cuff disease as the most frequently used clinical diagnosis. There is a wide range of treatment options for this condition, but limited evidence to guide patients and clinicians in the choice of treatment strategy. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible prognostic factors of short-term outcome after corticosteroid injection for rotator cuff disease.We performed analyses of data from 104 patients who had participated in a randomized controlled study. Socio-demographic, clinical and radiographic baseline factors were assessed for association with outcome at six-weeks follow-up evaluated by Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and patient perceived outcome. Factors with significant univariate association were entered into multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses.In the multivariate analyses; a high SPADI score indicating pain and disability at follow-up was associated with decreasing age, male gender, high baseline pain and disability, being on sick-leave, and using regular pain medication. A successful patient perceived outcome was associated with not being on sick-leave, high active abduction, local corticosteroid injection and previous cortisone injections. Structural findings of rotator cuff tendon pathology on MRI and bursal exudation or thickening on ultrasonography did not contribute to the predictive model.Baseline characteristics were associated with outcome after corticosteroid injection in rotator cuff disease. Sick-leave was the best predictor of poor short-term outcome.Clinical trials NCT00640575.
Project description:Optimal management for adhesive shoulder capsulitis (frozen shoulder) is currently unclear. We intended to explore whether treatment by intra-articular injections with corticosteroid and distension is more effective than treating with corticosteroids alone or treatment-as-usual in a primary care setting in Norway.In this prospective randomised intention to treat parallel study, 106 patients were block randomised to three groups; 36 (analysed 35) receiving steroid injection and Lidocaine (IS), 34 receiving steroid and additional saline as distension (ISD) and 36 had treatment-as-usual (TAU). Intervention groups received four injections within 8 weeks, assessed on 1st visit, at the 4th and 8th week. Outcomes were Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), Numerical pain rating scale (NPRS) and passive range of motion (PROM). Postal assessment was repeated after 1 year for SPADI. Patients in the IS and ISD groups were "blinded" for intervention received and the assessor was "blinded" to group allocation.At baseline there were no differences between groups in outcome measures. There were no statistical significant differences between the intervention groups in SPADI, NPRS and PROM at baseline, at short-term (4-and 8 weeks) or long-term (12 months). There were statistically significant differences (p?<?0.01) in change scores at short-term for SPADI when comparing the IS and TAU groups (-20.8; CI-28.9 to -12.7), and the ISD and TAU groups (-21.7; CI-29.4 to -14.0), respectively for NPRS (-2.0; CI-2.8 to -1.1 and -2.2; CI-3.0 to -1.4), and for PROM, but not at long-term for SPADI (p?>?0.05). Effect size (ES) at 8 weeks was large between both injection groups and TAU (ES 1.2). At 12 months ES was reduced to 0.3 and 0.4 respectively. Transitory side effects as flushing and after-pain were reported by 14 % in intervention groups.This intention to treat RCT in primary care indicates that four injections with corticosteroid with or without distension, given with increasing intervals during 8 weeks, were better than treatment-as-usual in treatment of adhesive shoulder capsulitis. However, in the long run no difference was found between any of the groups, indicating that natural healing takes place independent of treatment or not.ClinicalTrials.gov, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ identifier: NCT01570985.
Project description:Background: Shoulder pain is common in primary care. The management of subacromial impingement (SAI) can include corticosteroid injections and physiotherapy. Physiotherapy can be on an individual or group basis. Aim: To examine the clinical effectiveness and make an economic analysis of individual versus group physiotherapy, following corticosteroid injection for SAI. Design and Setting: A single-blind, open-label, randomised equivalence study comparing group and individual physiotherapy. Patients referred by local general practitioners and physiotherapists were considered for inclusion. Method: Patients were randomised to individual or group physiotherapy groups, and all received corticosteroid injection before physiotherapy. The primary outcome measure was shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI) at 26 weeks. An economic analysis was conducted. Results and Conclusion: 136 patients were recruited, 68 randomised to each group. Recruitment was 68% of the target 200 participants. SPADI (from baseline to 26 weeks) demonstrated a difference (SE) in mean change between groups of -0.43 (5.7) (p-value = 0.050001), and the TOST (two-one-sided test for equivalence) 90% CI for this difference was (-10.0 to 9.14). This was borderline. In a secondary analysis using inputted data, patients without SPADI at week 26 were analysed by carrying forward scores at week 12 (mean difference (95% CI) = -0.14 (-7.5 to 7.3), p-value = 0.014). There is little difference in outcome at 26 weeks. Group physiotherapy was cheaper to deliver per patient (£252 versus £84). Group physiotherapy for SAI produces similar clinical outcomes to individual physiotherapy with potential cost savings. Due to low recruitment to our study, firm conclusions are difficult and further research is required to give a definitive answer to this research question. (NCT Clinical Trial Registration Number NCT04058522).
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Shoulder pain is very common, with around 70% of cases due to disorders of the rotator cuff. Despite widespread provision of physiotherapy, there is uncertainty about which type of exercise and delivery mechanisms are associated with best outcomes. There is also uncertainty around the long-term benefits and harms of corticosteroid injection therapy, which is often used in addition to physiotherapy. The Getting it Right: Addressing Shoulder Pain trial will assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of individually tailored, progressive exercise compared with best practice advice, with or without corticosteroid injection, in adults with a rotator cuff disorder. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:We are conducting a large multicentre randomised controlled trial (2×2 factorial design). We will recruit adults ?18 years with a new episode of shoulder pain attributable to a rotator cuff disorder as per British Elbow and Shoulder Society guidelines, not currently receiving physiotherapy or being considered for surgery, from at least eight UK National Health Service primary care-based musculoskeletal and related physiotherapy services. Participants (n=704) will be randomised (centralised computer-generated 1:1:1:1 allocation ratio) to one of four interventions: (1) progressive exercise (?6 physiotherapy sessions); (2) best practice advice (one physiotherapy session); (3) corticosteroid injection then progressive exercise (?6 sessions) or (4) corticosteroid injection then best practice advice (one session). The primary outcome is the mean difference in Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) total score at 12 months. Secondary outcomes are: pain and function SPADI subdomains; health-related quality of life (Five-Level version of the EuroQol EQ-5D-5L); sleep disturbance; return to activity; global impression of change; health resource use; out-of-pocket expenses; work disability. A parallel within-trial economic evaluation will be conducted. The primary analysis will be intention to treat. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Research Ethics Committee approval (REC: 16/SC/0508) has been obtained. Results of the main trial and secondary outcomes will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ISRCTN16539266; EudraCT number: 2016-002991-28.
Project description:There is a substantive lack of knowledge about comorbidity in patients with frozen shoulder. The aim of this study was to investigate whether subjective health complaints and Neuroticism would predict treatment outcome in patients diagnosed with frozen shoulder as measured by the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and change in SPADI.A total of 105 patients with frozen shoulder were recruited for a randomised controlled trial, where 69 were in the intervention group and received intraarticular corticosteroid injections and 36 patients served as control group. The SPADI was used as the outcome measure after 8 weeks, and change in SPADI from baseline to 8 weeks as a measure of rate of recovery. To examine comorbidities, all participants completed the Subjective Health Complaints (SHC) questionnaire with its five subscales, and the Neuroticism (N) component of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised. Multiple regression analysis was performed with the baseline comorbidity variables that correlated significantly with SPADI after 8 weeks, and with change in SPADI from baseline to 8 weeks, controlling for the variables intervention, age, gender and duration of pain.In this study, patients with frozen shoulder had little comorbidity as measured with SHC and scored normally with respect to Neuroticism. Only the Pseudoneurology subscale in SHC correlated significantly with SPADI and had significant predictive power (p < 0.001) for the outcome at 8 weeks. The intervention group exhibited significant statistical predictive power (p < 0.001) for the treatment outcome as measured by a change in SPADI from baseline to 8 weeks. Being female also had some predictive significance for change in SPADI (p < 0.005).Psychometric parameters as measured by the Pseudoneurology subscale in SHC questionnaire did predict the treatment outcome in frozen shoulder as measured by SPADI at 8 weeks, but not by change in SPADI from baseline to 8 weeks. One may conclude that psychometric parameters may affect symptoms, but do not predict the rate of recovery in frozen shoulder.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT01570985 .
Project description:Subacromial shoulder pain is a common complaint. Radial Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (rESWT) has being increasingly used to treat calcific and non-calcific tendinosis, although there is no evidence of the effectiveness of rESWT in non-calcific tendinosis of the rotator cuff. A randomised single blind study showed that the short-term effect of supervised exercises (SE) was significantly better than rESWT on subacromial shoulder pain, but both groups improved. In a clinical trial on achilles tendinopathy rESWT improved the effectiveness of treatment with eccentric loading. The objective of this present study is to evaluate if rESWT in addition to SE is more effective in improving shoulder pain and function compared with sham rESWT and SE in patients with subacromial shoulder pain.This is a double blind, randomised sham-controlled trial which is performed at the shoulder clinic at the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation in Oslo University Hospital, Norway. One-hundred-forty-four patients with subacromial shoulder pain lasting at least 3 months, age from 25 to 70 years old are included in the trial. Patients are randomly allocated in 1:1 ratio to receive either rESWT or sham rESWT once a week in addition to SE once a week for the initial 4 weeks. Subsequently SE are provided twice a week for 8 weeks. The primary outcome measure is a change in the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) at 24 weeks follow-up. Secondary outcomes include return to work, pain at rest and on activity, function, and health related quality of life. The patients, the physiotherapist providing the exercise regimen and the outcome assessor are blinded to group assignment. The physiotherapist providing the rESWT is not blinded.Because of the extensive use of rESWT in the treatment of subacromial shoulder pain the results of this trial will be of importance and have impact on clinical practice.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01441830.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Getting it Right: Addressing Shoulder Pain (GRASP) trial assesses the clinical and cost-effectiveness of individually tailored, progressive exercise compared with best practice advice, with or without corticosteroid injection, in adults with a rotator cuff disorder. This article describes the statistical analysis plan for the GRASP randomised controlled trial. METHODS/DESIGN:GRASP is a multicentre randomised controlled trial using a 2?×?2 factorial design. Adults aged ??18?years with a new episode of shoulder pain related to a rotator cuff disorder, not currently receiving physiotherapy or being considered for surgery, are randomised (centralised computer-generated 1:1:1:1 allocation ratio) to one of four interventions: (1) progressive exercise (up to 6 physiotherapy sessions), (2) best practice advice (one physiotherapy session), (3) subacromial corticosteroid injection then progressive exercise and (4) subacromial corticosteroid injection then best practice advice. The primary outcome is the mean difference in Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) total score over 12?months. Secondary outcomes are as follows: pain and function SPADI subdomains, health-related quality of life (EuroQol EQ-5D-5L), sleep disturbance, return to activity, global impression of change, health resource use, out-of-pocket expenses and work disability. Here, we describe in detail the following: sample size calculation, descriptive statistics of the primary and secondary outcomes, statistical models used for the analysis of the main outcomes, handling of missing data, planned sensitivity and subgroup analyses. This pre-specified statistical analysis plan was written and submitted without prior knowledge of the trial results. DISCUSSION:Publication of the statistical analysis plan for the GRASP trial aims to reduce the risk of outcome reporting bias and increase transparency of the data analysis. Any deviations or changes to the current SAP will be described and justified in the final study report and any results publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION:International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN16539266 . Registered on 14 June 2016. EudraCT number 2016-002991-28. Registered on 12 June 2016.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Instruments designed to measure the subjective impact of painful shoulder conditions have become essential in shoulder research. The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) is one of the most extensively used scales of this type. The objective of this study was to investigate reproducibility and responsiveness of the SPADI in patients with adhesive capsulitis. METHODS: SPADI test-retest reproducibility was estimated by the "intraclass correlation coefficient" (ICC) and the "smallest detectable difference" (SDD). Responsiveness was assessed by exploring baseline and follow-up data recorded in a recently reported clinical trial regarding hydrodilatation and corticosteroid injections in 76 patients with adhesive capsulitis. "Standardized response mean" (SRM) and "reliable change proportion" (RCP) for SPADI were compared with corresponding figures for shoulder range-of-motion (ROM). The relationship between SPADI and ROM change scores was investigated through correlation and linear regression analyses. RESULTS: Results for test-retest reproducibility indicated a smallest detectable difference of 17 points on the 0-100 scale, and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.89. The SPADI was generally more responsive than ROM. Weak to moderately strong associations were identified between SPADI and ROM change scores. According to the regression model, the three variables baseline SPADI, baseline active ROM and change in active ROM together explained 60% of the variance in SPADI improvement. CONCLUSION: This study supports the use of SPADI as an outcome measure in similar settings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Examine the ability of a dynamic scapular recognition exercise to improve scapular upward rotation and decrease shoulder pain and disability in patients with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. METHODS:A test-retest randomized controlled study design was used. A total of sixty-six patients with unilateral adhesive capsulitis were equally divided into two groups. The study group received a dynamic scapular recognition exercise using a wireless biofeedback system, while the control group received placebo treatment in the form of active range-of-motion (ROM) exercises of the sound upper limb. A digital inclinometer was used to measure the scapular upward rotation and ROM of the shoulder joint, and the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) was used to measure the shoulder pain and disability. RESULTS:Study results showed that after two weeks, there were statistically significant differences between the study and control groups in scapular upward rotation and shoulder flexion and abduction (P < .05) and nonsignificant differences in shoulder external rotation and SPADI (P > .05). After two and six months, there were statistically significant differences between study and control groups in scapular upward rotation; shoulder flexion, abduction and external rotation; and SPADI scores (P < .05). CONCLUSION:This study showed that a dynamic scapular recognition exercise significantly improves scapular upward rotation and the ROM of shoulder flexion and abduction after two weeks. At two and six months, this exercise improves scapular upward rotation; ROM of shoulder flexion, abduction, and external rotation; and SPADI scores. These improvements persisted for six months after the performance of this exercise.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Corticosteroid injections can be performed blind (landmark-guided) or with image guidance, and this may account for variable clinical outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of image-guided versus blind corticosteroid injections in improving pain and function among adults with shoulder pain. METHODS: MEDLINE, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and EMBASE were searched to May 2010. Additional studies were identified by searching bibliographies of shortlisted articles. Search items included blind, landmark, anatomical, clinical exam, image-guided, ultrasound, fluoroscopy, steroid injection, frozen shoulder, random allocation, randomized controlled trial (RCT) and clinical trial.Randomized controlled studies comparing image-guided versus blind (landmark-guided) corticosteroid shoulder injections that examined pain, function and/or adverse events were included. Independent extraction was done by two authors using a form with pre-specified data fields, including risk of bias appraisal. Conflicts were resolved by discussion. The decision to pool data was based on assessment of clinical design homogeneity. When warranted, studies were pooled under a random-effects model. RESULTS: Two RCTs for pain, function and adverse events (n = 101) met eligibility criteria. No serious threats to validity were found. Both trials compared ultrasound-guided versus landmark-guided injections and were judged similar in clinical design. Low to moderate heterogeneity was observed: shoulder pain I2 = 60%, function I2 = 22%. A meta-analysis demonstrated greater improvement with ultrasound-guided injections at 6 weeks after injection in both pain (mean difference = 2.23 [95% CI: 1.27, 3.18]), as assessed with a 0 to 10 visual analogue scale, and shoulder function (standardised mean difference = 1.09 [95% CI: 0.61, 1.57]) as assessed with shoulder function scores. Although more adverse events (all mild) were reported with landmark-guided injections, the difference was not statistically significant (risk ratio = 0.20 [95% CI: 0.04, 1.13]).This review was only based on two moderate-sized trials. Blinding of patients was not performed in both trials, causing some risk of bias in outcome assessment since primary endpoints were wholly or partially patient-reported. CONCLUSION: There is a paucity of RCTs on image-guided versus landmark-guided corticosteroid shoulder injections examining pain, function and adverse events. In this review, patients who underwent image-guided (ultrasound) injections had statistically significant greater improvement in shoulder pain and function at 6 weeks after injection. Image-guided (ultrasound) corticosteroid injections potentially offer a significantly greater clinical improvement over blind (landmark-guided) injections in adults with shoulder pain. However, this apparent benefit requires confirmation from further studies (adequately-powered and well-executed RCTs).