Characteristics Analysis of F1 Hybrids between Genetically Modified Brassica napus and B. rapa.
ABSTRACT: A number of studies have been conducted on hybridization between transgenic Brassica napus and B. rapa or backcross of F1 hybrid to their parents. However, trait changes must be analyzed to evaluate hybrid sustainability in nature. In the present study, B. rapa and transgenic (BrAGL20) B. napus were hybridized to verify the early flowering phenomenon of F1 hybrids, and F1 hybrid traits were analyzed to predict their impact on sustainability. Flowering of F1 hybrid has been induced slightly later than that of the transgenic B. napus, but flowering was available in the greenhouse without low temperature treatment to young plant, similar to the transgenic B. napus. It is because the BrAGL20 gene has been transferred from transgenic B. napus to F1 hybrid. The size of F1 hybrid seeds was intermediate between those of B. rapa and transgenic B. napus, and ~40% of F1 pollen exhibited abnormal size and morphology. The form of the F1 stomata was also intermediate between that of B. rapa and transgenic B. napus, and the number of stomata was close to the parental mean. Among various fatty acids, the content of erucic acid exhibited the greatest change, owing to the polymorphism of parental FATTY ACID ELONGASE 1 alleles. Furthermore, F2 hybrids could not be obtained. However, BC1 progeny were obtained by hand pollination of B. rapa with F1 hybrid pollen, with an outcrossing rate of 50%.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Unintentional introgression from genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to a relative is inevitable in the open field. A feasible and practical strategy for restricting the spread of GM offspring is to set a reasonable isolated distance between GM B. napus and the relatives. To define the isolated distance, a pollen donor/recipient pair is a prerequisite to conducting the field trial of pollen flow. However, because the cultivation of GM B. napus is prohibited in Taiwan, it is difficult to obtain relevant information. Thus, this study explored the morphological and genetic characteristics of five varieties of B. napus (donor), three varieties of B. rapa (recipient), and the 15 corresponding F1 hybrids, aiming to construct phenotypic data and genetic variation data and to select the most appropriate pollen donor/recipient for future field trials of pollen flow. RESULTS:The genome size of all F1 hybrids estimated using flow cytometry showed intermediate DNA content between B. napus and B. rapa varieties. Most of the F1 hybrids had intermediate plant height and blooming period, and the rosette leaves type and colors resembled those of B. napus varieties. The results of sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) showed an average of 9.52 bands per primer combination and 67.87 polymorphic bands among the F1 hybrid population. Similarity and cluster analyses revealed higher similarity between F1 hybrids and B. napus varieties than between F1 hybrids and B. rapa varieties. Furthermore, we identified a specific 1100-bp band (LOC106302894) in F1 hybrids and B. napus varieties but not in B. rapa varieties. CONCLUSIONS:The rosette leaves and the DNA marker LOC106302894 observed in F1 hybrids are consistent phenotypic and genetic characteristics that can be used to identify the presence of unintentional hybridization from B. napus to B. rapa in Taiwan. Due to the prohibition of GM crop cultivation, the hybridization system of non-GM Brassica species in this study can be utilized as a mimic scheme to conduct pollen flow trials, thus facilitating the determination of the proper isolated distance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Polyploidy provides a means of interspecific genome transfer to incorporate preferable traits from progenitor to progeny. However, few studies on miRNA expression profiles of interspecific hybrids of B. napus (AnAnCnCn) and B. rapa (ArAr) have been reported. RESULTS:Here, we apply small RNA sequencing to explore miRNA expression patterns between B. napus, B. rapa and their F1 hybrid. Bioinformatics analysis identified 376, 378, 383 conserved miRNAs and 82, 76, 82 novel miRNAs in B. napus, B. rapa and the F1 hybrid, respectively. Moreover, 213 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed between B. napus, B. rapa and the F1 hybrid. The present study also shows 211 miRNAs, including 77 upregulated and 134 downregulated miRNAs, to be nonadditively expressed in the F1 hybrid. Furthermore, miRNA synteny analysis revealed high genomic conservation between the genomes of B. napus, B. rapa and their F1 hybrid, with some miRNA loss and gain events in the F1 hybrid. CONCLUSIONS:This study not only provides useful resources for exploring global miRNA expression patterns and genome structure but also facilitates genetic research on the roles of miRNAs in genomic interactions of Brassica allopolyploids.
Project description:Brassica napus is a leading oilseed crop throughout many parts of the world. It is well adapted to long day photoperiods, however, it does not adapt well to short day subtropical regions. Short duration B. napus plants were resynthesized through ovary culture from interspecific crosses in which B. rapa cultivars were reciprocally crossed with B. oleracea. From five different combinations, 17 hybrid plants were obtained in both directions. By self-pollinating the F1 hybrids or introgressing them with cultivated B. napus, resynthesized (RS) F3 and semi-resynthesized (SRS) F2 generations were produced, respectively. In field trial in Bangladesh, the RS B. napus plants demonstrated variation in days to first flowering ranging from 29 to 73 days; some of which were similar to cultivated short duration B. napus, but not cultivated short duration B. rapa. The RS and SRS B. napus lines produced 2-4.6 and 1.6-3.7 times higher yields, respectively, as compared to cultivated short duration B. napus. Our developed RS lines may be useful for rapeseed breeding not only for subtropical regions, but also for areas such as Canada and Europe where spring rapeseed production can suffer from late spring frosts. Yield and earliness in RS lines are discussed.
Project description:Using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, 39,598; 32,403and 42,208 genes were identified in flower buds of B. carinata cv.W29, B. napus cv. Zhongshuang 11 and their hybrids, respectively. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly enriched in pollen wall assembly, pollen exine formation, pollen development, pollen tube growth, pollination, gene transcription, macromolecule methylation and translation, which might be associated with impaired fertility in the F1 hybrid. These results will shed light on the mechanisms underlying the low fertility of the interspecific hybrids and expand our knowledge of interspecific hybridization. Overall design: Transcriptome analysis of floral buds of the interspecific Brassica hybrid and its parents using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform,.
Project description:Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is grown in different geographical regions of the world. It is adapted to different environments by modification of flowering time and requirement for cold. A broad variation exists from very early-flowering spring-type to late-flowering winter cultivars which only flower after exposure to an extended cold period. B. napus is an allopolyploid species which resulted from the hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the PEBP-domain genes FLOWERING LOCUS-T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER-1 (TFL1) are important integrators of different flowering pathways. Six FT and four TFL1 paralogs have been identified in B. napus. However, their role in flowering time control is unknown. We identified EMS mutants of the B. napus winter-type inbreed line Express 617. In total, 103 mutant alleles have been determined for BnC6FTb, BnC6FTa, and BnTFL1-2 paralogs. We chose three non-sense and 15 missense mutant lines (M3) which were grown in the greenhouse. Although only two out of 6 FT paralogs were mutated, 6 out of 8 BnC6FTb mutant lines flowered later as the control, whereas all five BnC6FTa mutant lines started flowering as the non-mutated parent. Mutations within the BnTFL1-2 paralog had no large effects on flowering time but on yield components. F1 hybrids between BnTFL1-2 mutants and non-mutated parents had increased seed number per pod and total seeds per plant suggesting that heterozygous mutations in a TFL1 paralog may impact heterosis in rapeseed. We demonstrate that single point-mutations in BnFT and BnTFL1 paralogs have effects on flowering time despite the redundancy of the rapeseed genome. Moreover, our results suggest pleiotropic effects of BnTFL1 paralogs beyond the regulation of flowering time.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Polyploidy is an important evolutionary mechanism in flowering plants that often induces immediate extensive changes in gene expression through genomic merging and doubling. Brassica napus L. is one of the most economically important polyploid oil crops and has been broadly studied as an example of polyploid crop. RNA-seq is a recently developed technique for transcriptome study, which could be in choice for profiling gene expression pattern in polyploids. RESULTS: We examined the global gene expression patterns of the first four generations of resynthesized B. napus (F1-F4), its diploid progenitors B. rapa and B. oleracea, and natural B. napus using digital gene expression analysis. Almost 42 million clean tags were generated using Illumina technology to produce the expression data for 25959 genes, which account for 63% of the annotated B. rapa genome. More than 56% of the genes were transcribed from both strands, which indicate the importance of RNA-mediated gene regulation in polyploidization. Tag mapping of the B. rapa genome generated 19023, 18547, 24383, 20659, 18881, 20692, and 19955 annotated genes for the B. rapa, B. oleracea, F1-F4 of synthesized B. napus, and natural B. napus libraries, respectively. The unambiguous tag-mapped genes in the libraries were functionally categorized via gene ontological analysis. Thousands of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified and revealed the substantial changes in F1-F4. Among the 20 most DEGs are DNA binding/transcription factor, cyclin-dependent protein kinase, epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, and glycine-rich protein. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis of the DEGs suggested approximately 120 biological pathways. CONCLUSIONS: The systematic deep sequencing analysis provided a comprehensive understanding of the transcriptome complexity of early generations of synthesized B. napus. This information broadens our understanding of the mechanisms of B. napus polyploidization and contributes to molecular and genetic research by enriching the Brassica database.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Seed size has significant implications in ecology, because of its effects on plant fitness. The hybrid seeds that result from crosses between crops and their wild relatives are often small, and the consequences of this have been poorly investigated. Here we report on plant performance of hybrid and its parental transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and wild B. juncea, all grown from seeds sorted into three seed-size categories.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Three seed-size categories were sorted by seed diameter for transgenic B. napus, wild B. juncea and their transgenic and non-transgenic hybrids. The seeds were sown in a field at various plant densities. Globally, small-seeded plants had delayed flowering, lower biomass, fewer flowers and seeds, and a lower thousand-seed weight. The seed-size effect varied among plant types but was not affected by plant density. There was no negative effect of seed size in hybrids, but it was correlated with reduced growth for both parents.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results imply that the risk of further gene flow would probably not be mitigated by the small size of transgenic hybrid seeds. No fitness cost was detected to be associated with the Bt-transgene in this study.
Project description:The hybrid between Brassica napus and B. rapa displays obvious heterosis in both growth performance and stress tolerances. A comparative transcriptome analysis for B. napus (A(n)A(n)CC genome), B. rapa (A(r)A(r) genome), and its hybrid F1 (A(n)A(r)C genome) was carried out to reveal the possible molecular mechanisms of heterosis at the gene expression level. A total of 40,320 nonredundant unigenes were identified using B. rapa (AA genome) and B. oleracea (CC genome) as reference genomes. A total of 6,816 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mapped in the A and C genomes with 4,946 DEGs displayed nonadditively by comparing the gene expression patterns among the three samples. The coexistence of nonadditive DEGs including high-parent dominance, low-parent dominance, overdominance, and underdominance was observed in the gene action modes of F1 hybrid, which were potentially related to the heterosis. The coexistence of multiple gene actions in the hybrid was observed and provided a list of candidate genes and pathways for heterosis. The expression bias of transposable element-associated genes was also observed in the hybrid compared to their parents. The present study could be helpful for the better understanding of the determination and regulation of mechanisms of heterosis to aid Brassica improvement.
Project description:Research on the environmental risks of gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to wild relatives has traditionally emphasized recipients yielding most hybrids. For GM rapeseed (Brassica napus), interest has centred on the 'frequently hybridizing' Brassica rapa over relatives such as Brassica oleracea, where spontaneous hybrids are unreported in the wild. In two sites, where rapeseed and wild B. oleracea grow together, we used flow cytometry and crop-specific microsatellite markers to identify one triploid F1 hybrid, together with nine diploid and two near triploid introgressants. Given the newly discovered capacity for spontaneous introgression into B. oleracea, we then surveyed associated flora and fauna to evaluate the capacity of both recipients to harm cohabitant species with acknowledged conservational importance. Only B. oleracea occupies rich communities containing species afforded legislative protection; these include one rare micromoth species that feeds on B. oleracea and warrants further assessment. We conclude that increased attention should now focus on B. oleracea and similar species that yield few crop-hybrids, but possess scope to affect rare or endangered associates.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Unreduced gametes (gametes with the somatic chromosome number) may provide a pathway for evolutionary speciation via allopolyploid formation. We evaluated the effect of genotype and temperature on male unreduced gamete formation in Brassica allotetraploids and their interspecific hybrids. The frequency of unreduced gametes post-meiosis was estimated in sporads from the frequency of dyads or giant tetrads, and in pollen from the frequency of viable giant pollen compared with viable normal pollen. Giant tetrads were twice the volume of normal tetrads, and presumably resulted from pre-meiotic doubling of chromosome number. Giant pollen was defined as pollen with more than 1.5 × normal diameter, under the assumption that the doubling of DNA content in unreduced gametes would approximately double the pollen cell volume. The effect of genotype was assessed in five B. napus, two B. carinata and one B. juncea parents and in 13 interspecific hybrid combinations. The effect of temperature was assessed in a subset of genotypes in hot (day/night 30°C/20°C), warm (25°C/15°C), cool (18°C/13°C) and cold (10°C/5°C) treatments. RESULTS: Based on estimates at the sporad stage, some interspecific hybrid genotypes produced unreduced gametes (range 0.06 to 3.29%) at more than an order of magnitude higher frequency than in the parents (range 0.00% to 0.11%). In nine hybrids that produced viable mature pollen, the frequency of viable giant pollen (range 0.2% to 33.5%) was much greater than in the parents (range 0.0% to 0.4%). Giant pollen, most likely formed from unreduced gametes, was more viable than normal pollen in hybrids. Two B. napus × B. carinata hybrids produced 9% and 23% unreduced gametes based on post-meiotic sporad observations in the cold temperature treatment, which was more than two orders of magnitude higher than in the parents. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that sources of unreduced gametes, required for the triploid bridge hypothesis of allopolyploid evolution, are readily available in some Brassica interspecific hybrid genotypes, especially at cold temperatures.