Correlations of Medial Joint Space Width on Fixed-Flexed Standing Computed Tomography and Radiographs With Cartilage and Meniscal Morphology on Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
ABSTRACT: To assess whether medial tibiofemoral joint space width (JSW) on 3-dimensional (3-D) standing computed tomography (SCT) correlates more closely with magnetic resonance imaging cartilage morphology (CM) and meniscal scores than does radiographic 2-D JSW.Participants in the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study, who had standing fixed-flexion posteroanterior knee radiographs, were recruited. Medial tibiofemoral 3-D JSW on SCT and 2-D JSW on fixed-flexion radiographs were compared with medial tibiofemoral cartilage and meniscal morphology using the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS). Associations between the area of the articular surface with 3-D JSW <2.5 mm on SCT, radiographic minimal 2-D JSW, and the WORMS-CM and meniscal scores were assessed using Spearman's rho.For the 19 participants included (33 knees), mean?±?SD age was 66.9?±?5.4 years, body mass index was 29.5?±?4.4 kg/m(2) , 42.1% of participants were female, and the Kellgren/Lawrence grades were 0 (21.2%), 1 (36.4%), 2 (18.2%), and 3 (24.2%). The articular surface area with 3-D JSW <2.5 mm on SCT correlated with WORMS-CM scores for the central medial tibia (rs ?=?0.84, P?
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To explore to what extent three-dimensional measures of the meniscus and femorotibial cartilage explain the variation in medial and lateral femorotibial radiographic joint space width (JSW), in healthy men and women. METHODS:The right knees of 87 Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference participants (no symptoms, radiographic signs or risk factors of osteoarthritis; 37 men, 50 women; age 55.0±7.6; BMI 24.4±3.1) were assessed. Quantitative measures of subregional femorotibial cartilage thickness and meniscal position and morphology were computed from segmented magnetic resonance images. Minimal and medial/lateral fixed-location JSW were determined from fixed-flexion radiographs. Correlation and regression analyses were used to explore the contribution of demographic, cartilage and meniscal parameters to JSW in healthy subjects. RESULTS:The correlation with (medial) minimal JSW was somewhat stronger for cartilage thickness (0.54?r?0.67) than for meniscal (-0.31?r?0.50) or demographic measures (-0.15?r?0.48), in particular in men. In women, in contrast, the strength of the correlations of cartilage thickness and meniscal measures with minimal JSW were in the same range. Fixed-location JSW measures showed stronger correlations with cartilage thickness (r?0.68 medially; r?0.59 laterally) than with meniscal measures (r?|0.32| medially; r?|0.32| laterally). Stepwise regression models revealed that meniscal measures added significant independent information to the total variance explained in minimal JSW (adjusted multiple r2=58%) but not in medial or lateral fixed-location JSW (r2=60/51%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:In healthy subjects, minimal JSW was observed to reflect a combination of cartilage and meniscal measures, particularly in women. Fixed-location JSW, in contrast, was found to be dominated by variance in cartilage thickness in both men and women, with somewhat higher correlations between cartilage and JSW in the medial than lateral femorotibial compartment. The significant contribution of the meniscus' position on minimal JSW reinforces concerns over validity of JSW as an indirect measure of hyaline cartilage.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To determine meniscal extrusion and cartilage coverage on magnetic resonance (MR) images and factors associated with these parameters in knees of middle-aged and elderly persons free from radiographic tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (OA).<h4>Methods</h4>Seven hundred eighteen persons, free of radiographic tibiofemoral OA, aged 50-90 years from Framingham, MA, USA, were included. We measured meniscal extrusion on 1.5 T MRI of both knees to evaluate both medial and lateral meniscal body extrusion and cartilage coverage. We also determined meniscal morphology and structural integrity. The multivariable association with age, body mass index (BMI), and ipsilateral meniscal damage was also evaluated.<h4>Results</h4>The mean meniscal body extrusion medially was 2.7 mm and laterally 1.8 mm. The tibial cartilage coverage was about 30% of ipsilateral cartilage surface (both compartments). The presence of ipsilateral meniscal damage was associated with more extrusion in only the medial compartment, 1.0 mm in men and 0.6 mm in women, and less cartilage coverage proportion, -5.5% in men and -4.6% in women.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Mean medial meniscal body extrusion in middle-aged or older persons without radiographic tibiofemoral OA approximates the commonly used cutoff (3 mm) to denote pathological extrusion. Medial meniscal damage is a factor associated with medial meniscal body extrusion and less cartilage coverage.<h4>Key points</h4>• Medial meniscal extrusion in middle-aged/older persons without OA is around 3 mm. • Lateral meniscal extrusion in middle-aged/older persons without OA is around 2 mm. • Meniscal damage is associated with medial meniscal extrusion and less cartilage coverage.
Project description:To assess the association of meniscal root tear with the development or worsening of tibiofemoral cartilage damage.Institutional review board approval and written informed consent from all subjects were obtained. A total of 596 knees with radiographically depicted osteoarthritis were randomly selected from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis study cohort. Cartilage damage was semiquantitatively assessed by using the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS) system (grades 0-6). Subjects were separated into three groups: root tear only, meniscal tear without root tear, and neither meniscal nor root tear. A log-binomial regression model was used to calculate the relative risks for knees to develop incident or progressing cartilage damage in the root tear group and the meniscal tear group, with the no tear group serving as a reference.In the medial tibiofemoral joint, there were 37 knees with isolated medial posterior root tear, 294 with meniscal tear without root tear, and 264 without meniscal or root tear. There were only two lateral posterior root tears, and no anterior root tears were found. Thus, the focus was on the medial posterior root tear. The frequency of severe cartilage damage (WORMS ≥ 5) was higher in the group with root tear than in the group without root or meniscal tear (76.7% vs 19.7%, P < .0001) but not in the group with meniscal but no root tear (76.7% vs 65.2%, P = .055). Longitudinal analyses included 33 knees with isolated medial posterior root tear, 270 with meniscal tear, and 245 with no tear. Adjusted relative risk of cartilage loss was 2.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18, 3.48) for the root tear group and 1.84 (95% CI: 1.32, 2.58) for the meniscal tear group.Isolated medial posterior meniscal root tear is associated with incident and progressive medial tibiofemoral cartilage loss.
Project description:PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to relate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features at baseline with radiographically determined joint space narrowing (JSN) in the medial compartment of the knee after 2 years in a group of patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis at multiple joint sites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI of the knee and standardized radiographs were obtained at baseline and after 2 years in 186 patients (81% female; aged 43-76 years; mean 60 years). MRI was analyzed for bone marrow lesions, cysts, osteophytes, hyaline cartilage defects, joint effusion, and meniscal pathology in the medial compartment. Radiographs were scored semiquantitatively for JSN in the medial tibiofemoral joint using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) atlas. Radiological progression was defined as > or =1 grade increase. Associations between baseline magnetic resonance (MR) parameters and subsequent radiographic JSN changes were assessed using logistic regression. Relative risk (RR) was then calculated. RESULTS: Radiographic progression of JSN was observed in 17 (9.1%) of 186 patients. Eleven patients had a Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) score of > or =2. A significant association was observed between all patients and meniscal tears (RR 3.57; confidence interval (CI) 1.08-10.0) and meniscal subluxation (RR 2.73; CI 1.20-5.41), between KL < 2 and meniscal subluxation (RR 11.3; CI 2.49-29.49) and KL > or = 2 and meniscus tears (RR 8.91; CI 1.13-22.84) and radiographic JSN 2 years later. Follow-up MR in 15 of 17 patients with progressive JSN showed only new meniscal abnormalities and no progression of cartilage loss. CONCLUSION: Meniscal pathology (tears and/or meniscal subluxation) was the only MRI parameter to be associated with subsequent radiographic progression of JSN in the medial tibiofemoral compartment on a radiograph 2 years later, as assessed by the OARSI score.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:High tibial osteotomy (HTO) and knee joint distraction (KJD) are treatments to unload the osteoarthritic (OA) joint with proven success in postponing a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). While both treatments demonstrate joint repair, there is limited information about the quality of the regenerated tissue. Therefore, the change in quality of the repaired cartilaginous tissue after KJD and HTO was studied using delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC). DESIGN:Forty patients (20 KJD and 20 HTO), treated for medial tibiofemoral OA, were included in this study. Radiographic outcomes, clinical characteristics, and cartilage quality were evaluated at baseline, and at 1- and 2-year follow-up. RESULTS:Two years after KJD treatment, clear clinical improvement was observed. Moreover, a statistically significant increased medial (? 0.99 mm), minimal (? 1.04 mm), and mean (? 0.68 mm) radiographic joint space width (JSW) was demonstrated. Likewise, medial (? 1.03 mm), minimal (? 0.72 mm), and mean (? 0.46 mm) JSW were statistically significantly increased on radiographs after HTO. There was on average no statistically significant change in dGEMRIC indices over two years and no difference between treatments. Yet there seemed to be a clinically relevant, positive relation between increase in cartilage quality and patients' experienced clinical benefit. CONCLUSIONS:Treatment of knee OA by either HTO or KJD leads to clinical benefit, and an increase in cartilage thickness on weightbearing radiographs for over 2 years posttreatment. This cartilaginous tissue was on average not different from baseline, as determined by dGEMRIC, whereas changes in quality at the individual level correlated with clinical benefit.
Project description:BACKGROUND:An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a well-established risk factor for the long-term development of radiographic osteoarthritis (OA). However, little is known about the early degenerative changes (ie, <5 years after injury) of individual joint features (ie, cartilage, bone marrow), which may be reversible and responsive to interventions. PURPOSE:To describe early degenerative changes between 1 and 5 years after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and explore participant characteristics associated with these changes. STUDY DESIGN:Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS:Seventy-eight participants (48 men; median age, 32 years; median body mass index [BMI], 26 kg/m2) underwent 3.0-T MRI at 1 and 5 years after primary hamstring autograft ACLR. Early tibiofemoral and patellofemoral OA features were assessed with the MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score. The primary outcome was worsening (ie, incident or progressive) cartilage defects, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), osteophytes, and meniscal lesions. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations evaluated participant characteristics associated with worsening features. RESULTS:Worsening of cartilage defects in any compartment occurred in 40 (51%) participants. Specifically, worsening in the patellofemoral and medial and lateral tibiofemoral compartments was present in 34 (44%), 8 (10%), and 10 (13%) participants, respectively. Worsening patellofemoral and medial and lateral tibiofemoral BMLs (14 [18%], 5 [6%], and 10 [13%], respectively) and osteophytes (7 [9%], 8 [10%], and 6 [8%], respectively) were less prevalent, while 17 (22%) displayed deteriorating meniscal lesions. Worsening of at least 1 MRI-detected OA feature, in either the patellofemoral or tibiofemoral compartment, occurred in 53 (68%) participants. Radiographic OA in any compartment was evident in 5 (6%) and 16 (21%) participants at 1 and 5 years, respectively. A high BMI (>25 kg/m2) was consistently associated with elevated odds (between 2- and 5-fold) of worsening patellofemoral and tibiofemoral OA features. CONCLUSION:High rates of degenerative changes occur in the first 5 years after ACLR, particularly the development and progression of patellofemoral cartilage defects. Older patients with a higher BMI may be at particular risk and should be educated about this risk.
Project description:Isolated lateral compartment tibiofemoral radiographic osteoarthritis (IL-ROA) is an understudied form of knee osteoarthritis (OA). The objective of the present study was to characterize Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) abnormalities and MR-T2 relaxation time measurements associated with IL-ROA and with isolated medial compartment ROA (IM-ROA) compared with knees without OA.200 case subjects with IL-ROA (Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) grade?2 and joint space narrowing (JSN) > 0 in the lateral compartment but JSN = 0 in the medial compartment) were randomly selected from the Osteoarthritis Initiative baseline visit. 200 cases with IM-ROA and 200 controls were frequency matched to the IL-ROA cases. Cases and controls were analyzed for odds of having a subregion with >10% cartilage area affected, with ?25% bone marrow lesions (BML), with meniscal tear or maceration, and for association with cartilage T2 values.IL-ROA was more strongly associated with ipsilateral MRI knee pathologies than IM-ROA (IL-ROA: OR = 135.2 for size of cartilage lesion, 95% CI 42.7-427.4; OR = 145.4 for large size BML, 95% CI 41.5-509.5; OR = 176 for meniscal tears, 95% CI 59.8-517.7; IM-ROA: OR = 28.4 for size of cartilage lesion, 95% CI 14.7-54.7; OR = 38.1 for size of BML, 95% CI 12.7-114; OR = 37.0 for meniscal tears, 95% CI 12-113.6). Cartilage T2 values were higher in both tibial and medial femoral compartments in IL-ROA, but in IM-ROA were only significantly different from controls in the medial femur.IL-ROA knees show a greater prevalence and severity of MRI lesions and higher cartilage T2 values than IM-ROA knees compared with controls.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Minimum radiographic joint space width (mJSW) represents the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standard for demonstrating structural therapeutic benefits for knee osteoarthritis (KOA), but only shows moderate responsiveness (sensitivity to change). We directly compare the responsiveness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based cartilage thickness and JSW measures from fixed-flexion radiography (FFR) and explore the correlation of region-matched changes between both methods. METHODS:Nine hundred and sixty-seven knees of Osteoarthritis Initiative participants with radiographic KOA were studied: 445 over 1 year with coronal FLASH MRI and FFR, and 375/522 over 1/2 years with sagittal DESS MRI and FFR. Standardized response means (SRM) of cartilage thickness and mJSW were compared using the sign-test. RESULTS:With FLASH MRI, SRM was -0.28 for medial femorotibial compartment (MFTC) cartilage loss vs -0.15 for mJSW, and -0.32 vs -0.22 for the most sensitive MRI subregion (central MFTC) vs the most sensitive fixed-location JSW(x = 0.25). With DESS MRI, 1-year SRM was -0.34 for MFTC vs -0.22 for mJSW and -0.44 vs -0.28 for central MFTC vs JSW(x = 0.225). Over 2 years, the SRM was significantly greater for MFTC than for mJSW (-0.43 vs -0.31, P = 0.017) and for central MFTC than for JSW(x = 0.225) (-0.51 vs -0.44, P < 0.001). Correlations between changes in spatially matched MRI subregions and fixed-location JSW were not consistently higher (r = 0.10-0.51) than those between non-matched locations (r = 0.15-0.50). CONCLUSIONS:MRI displays greater responsiveness in KOA than JSW FFR-based JSW, with the greatest SRM observed in the central medial femorotibial compartment. Fixed-location radiographic measures appear not capable of determining the spatial distribution of femorotibial cartilage loss.
Project description:Medial meniscal root injury is known to cause an increase in tibiofemoral contact pressure and results in early osteoarthritis. There have been many reports on meniscal root repairing techniques, which can be categorized into 2 groups. One is transosseous suture, and the other is anchor suture repair. Both techniques show improvement in not only clinical performance, but also radiographic finding. However, the meniscal root repair procedure must be performed by experienced physicians. Most techniques require a posteromedial portal, which takes time and may even complicate the procedure. The technique proposed in this study provides a simple procedure in which no posteromedial portal is required and a soft anchor suture, a commonly used suture in glenolabral repair, is used. The use of this suture, instead of the conventional anchor suture, is believed to lessen possible injury to the cartilage and results in easier revision surgery.
Project description:To evaluate subchondral bone trabecular integrity (BTI) on radiographs as a predictor of knee osteoarthritis (OA) progression.Longitudinal (baseline, 12-month, and 24-month) knee radiographs were available for 60 female subjects with knee OA. OA progression was defined by 12- and 24-month changes in radiographic medial compartment minimal joint space width (JSW) and medial joint space area (JSA), and by medial tibial and femoral cartilage volume on magnetic resonance imaging. BTI of the medial tibial plateau was analyzed by fractal signature analysis using commercially available software. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for BTI were used to predict a 5% change in OA progression parameters.Individual terms (linear and quadratic) of baseline BTI of vertical trabeculae predicted knee OA progression based on 12- and 24-month changes in JSA (P < 0.01 for 24 months), 24-month change in tibial (P < 0.05), but not femoral, cartilage volume, and 24-month change in JSW (P = 0.05). ROC curves using both terms of baseline BTI predicted a 5% change in the following OA progression parameters over 24 months with high accuracy, as reflected by the area under the curve measures: JSW 81%, JSA 85%, tibial cartilage volume 75%, and femoral cartilage volume 85%. Change in BTI was also significantly associated (P < 0.05) with concurrent change in JSA over 12 and 24 months and with change in tibial cartilage volume over 24 months.BTI predicts structural OA progression as determined by radiographic and MRI outcomes. BTI may therefore be worthy of study as an outcome measure for OA studies and clinical trials.