Survival analysis of patients with advanced-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma according to the Epstein-Barr virus status.
ABSTRACT: The main aim of this study is to analyze the prognostic differences in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients who are positive and negative for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).Of the 1106 patients, 248 (22.4%) had undetectable pre-treatment plasma EBV DNA levels. The total distant metastasis rate for EBV-negative group vs. EBV-positive group were 3.6% (9/248) vs. 15.0% (128/858) (P < 0.001). The estimated 4-year disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) for EBV-negative group vs. EBV-positive group were 88.9% vs. 76.9% (P < 0.001), 93.6% vs. 85.9% (P = 0.001), 96.7% vs. 84.8% (P < 0.001) and 94.1% vs. 90.0% (P = 0.1), respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that the EBV status was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (HR, 1.813; 95% CI, 1.219-2.695; P = 0.003), OS (HR, 1.828; 95% CI, 1.075-3.107; P = 0.026) and DMFS (HR, 3.678; 95% CI, 1.859-7.277; P <0.001), and overall stage still remained the most important prognostic factor in patients with stage III-IVB NPC.Data on 1106 patients with non-metastatic, histologically proven advanced-stage (III-IVB) NPC who underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were retrospectively reviewed. Patient survival between different EBV status groups were compared.EBV status was an independent prognostic factor for patients with stage III-IVB NPC. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) should be better treatment regimen for EBV-positive patients since distant metastasis was the main failure pattern, and CCRT may be enough for EBV-negative patients.
Project description:We examined the benefits of the combination of anti-EGFR targeted treatment, cetuximab (CTX) or nimotuzumab (NTZ) and concurrent platinum-based chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) compared with CCRT alone in patients with stage II - IVb nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A total of 1,628 eligible patients with stage II - IVb NPC, who received CCRT (three cycles of 100 mg/m2 cisplatin every 3 weeks with intensity-modulated radiotherapy) with or without CTX or NTZ between June 2009 and December 2013 were included in the analysis. Using propensity scores to adjust for potential prognostic factors, a well-balanced cohort of 878 patients was created by matching each patient who received CTX or NTZ plus CCRT with no more than four patients who received CCRT alone (1:4). Efficacy and safety were compared between CTX/NTZ plus CCRT and CCRT alone arms. Compared with CCRT alone, treatment with CTX/NTZ plus CCRT was associated with a significantly increased overall survival (3-year OS, 96.6% vs. 92.9%, P = 0.015), improved disease-free survival (3-year DFS, 93.5% vs 86.9%, P = 0.028), and improved distant metastasis-free survival (3-year DMFS, 94.6% vs 89.3%, P = 0.030). Increased rate of CTX related-skin reaction and mucositis was observed in the CTX plus CCRT arm. Multivariate analysis demonstrated the combination of CTX/NTZ was a significant protective factor for OS, DFS, and DMFS in patients treated with CCRT. Our analysis suggests that the addition of CTX/NTZ to CCRT is more effective for maximizing survival in patients with stage II-IVb NPC compared with CCRT alone.
Project description:The effects of induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in high-risk (stage III-IVb with EBV DNA?4000 copies/ml) nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients are unclear.A total of 325 high-risk NPC patients treated with IC+CCRT or CCRT alone who were treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) between March 2007 and March 2013 were included. For each patient in the IC+CCRT group, a matched pair in the CCRT group was matching for: gender, age, T stage, N stage, clinical stage and WHO (World Health Organization) type. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), and the secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and locoregional relapse-free survival (LRFS).There were no significant differences in OS, PFS, DMFS, and LRFS between the IC+CCRT (148 patients) and CCRT (177 patients) groups. After matching, 103 paired patients were analyzed, and there were no differences between the IC+CCRT and CCRT groups regarding clinical outcomes. Based on the subgroup analysis of 156 very-high-risk patients (stage N2-3 with EBV DNA ?4000 copies/ml), the 5-year OS of the IC+CCRT and CCRT groups was 84.3% and 67.5% (P =0.033), respectively. Based on our multivariate analysis, the treatment group was significantly associated with OS (P=0.034; HR0.451, 95%CI 0.216-0.941).IC+CCRT did not improve the clinical outcomes of high-risk NPC patients compared to CCRT alone. However, in very-high-risk patients, IC+CCRT treatment led to increased OS compared to patients received CCRT treatment alone.
Project description:This study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic value of treatment-related lymphopenia in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).A total of 413 consecutive stage II-IVb NPC patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) were enrolled. The overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method, and differences were compared using the log-rank test.A minimum (mini)-absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) of < 390 cells/?L or ALC after 3 months of CCRT (post3m-ALC) < 705 cells/?L was significantly associated with worse outcome than mini-ALC ? 390 cells/?L (OS, p=0.002; PFS, p=0.005; DMFS, p=0.004) or post3m-ALC ? 705 cells/?L (OS, p < 0.001; PFS, p < 0.001; DMFS, p=0.001). Patients with lymphopenia (mini-ALC < 390 cells/?L and post3m-ALC < 705 cells/?L) had a worse prognosis than those without lymphopenia (mini-ALC ? 390 cells/?L and post3m-ALC ? 705 cells/?L) (OS, p < 0.001; PFS, p < 0.001; DMFS, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that post3m-ALC was an independent prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 2.78; p=0.015), PFS (HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.82; p=0.003), and DMFS (HR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.13 to 3.08; p=0.014). Multivariate analysis also revealed that patients with lymphopenia had a high risk of death (HR, 3.79; 95% CI, 1.75 to 8.19; p=0.001), disease progression (HR, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.59 to 5.41; p=0.001), and distant metastasis (HR, 3.89; 95% CI, 1.67 to 9.10; p=0.002). Multivariate analysis performed with time dependent Cox regression demonstrated ALC was an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR, 0.995; 95% CI, 0.991 to 0.999; p=0.025) and PFS (HR, 0.993; 95% CI, 0.988 to 0.998; p=0.006).Treatment-related lymphopenia was a poor prognostic factor in NPC patients.
Project description:Background:To compare the efficacy of induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy (IC+CCRT) versus induction chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (IC+RT) in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients and Methods:One thousand three hundred twenty four patients with newly-diagnosed NPC treated with IC+CCRT or IC+RT were enrolled. Progression-free survival (PFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), overall survival (OS), locoregional relapse-free survival (LRFS), and acute toxicities during radiotherapy were compared using propensity score matching (PSM). A nomogram was developed to predict the 3- and 5-year PFS with or without concurrent chemotherapy (CC). Results:PSM assigned 387 patients to the IC+CCRT group and IC+RT group, respectively. After 3 years, no significant difference in PFS (84.7 vs. 87.5%, P = 0.080), OS (95.5 vs. 97.6%, P = 0.123), DMFS (89.7 vs. 92.8%, P = 0.134), or LRFS (94.0 vs. 94.1%, P = 0.557) was noted between the groups. Subgroup analysis indicated comparable survival outcomes in low-risk NPC patients (II-III with EBV DNA <4,000 copies/ml) between the groups, although IC+RT alone was associated with fewer acute toxicities. However, IC+CCRT was associated with significantly higher 3-year PFS, OS, DMFS, and LRFS rates, relative to IC+RT alone, in high-risk NPC patients (IVa-b or EBV DNA ?4,000 copies/ml). Multivariate analysis showed that T category, N category, EBV DNA level, and treatment group were predictive of PFS, and were hence incorporated into the nomogram. The nomogram predicted that the magnitude of benefit from CC could vary significantly. Conclusions:IC+RT had similar efficacy as IC+CCRT in low-risk NPC patients, but was associated with fewer acute toxicities. However, in high-risk patients, IC+CCRT was superior to IC+RT.
Project description:Background: Plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA has been determined as a prognostic factor in adult nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. This study was designed to evaluate the prognostic value of plasma pretreatment EBV DNA in children and adolescent NPC patients receiving intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: Pretreatment EBV DNA was retrospectively assessed in 147 children with newly diagnosed, non-metastatic NPC. All patients were treated using IMRT. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify the optimal EBV DNA cutoff point. Prognostic value was examined using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 58 months (range, 10-119 months), and the 5-year survival rates for all patients were as follows: overall survival (OS), 88.7%; locoregional relapse-free survival, 95.2%; distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), 84.8%; and disease-free survival (DFS), 81.5%. For ROC curve analysis, the optimal cutoff value of pretreatment EBV DNA load for DFS was 40,000 copies/mL. High plasma EBV DNA was significantly associated with poorer 5-year DMFS (70.6 vs. 89.1%, P = 0.003) and DFS (63.9 vs. 86.9%, P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, high plasma EBV DNA was an independent predictor for DMFS and DFS. Conclusions: Pretreatment EBV DNA level was a powerful prognostic discriminator for DMFS and DFS in children and adolescent NPC patients treated with IMRT.
Project description:Aim:The present study aimed to evaluate the combined value of locoregional extension patterns (LEPs) and circulating cell-free Epstein-Barr virus (cf EBV) DNA for risk stratification of locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC) to better guide therapeutic strategies. Methods:A total of 7227 cases of LA-NPC were reviewed retrospectively and classified into six groups according to their LEP (ascending, descending, or mixed type) and pre-treatment cf EBV-DNA load (? versus <4000 copy/ml). Using a supervised statistical clustering approach, patients in the six groups were clustered into low, intermediate, and high-risk clusters. Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and differences were compared using the log-rank test. Results:Survival curves for the low, intermediate, and high-risk clusters were significantly different for all endpoints. The 5-year survival rate for the low, intermediate, and high-risk clusters, respectively, were: PFS (83.5%, 73.2%, 62.6%, p?<?0.001), OS (91.0%, 82.7%, 73.2%, p?<?0.001), DMFS (92.3%, 83.0%, 73.4%, p?<?0.001), and LRRFS (91.0%, 88.0%, 83.3%, p?<?0.001). The risk clusters acted as independent prognostic factors for all endpoints. Among the patients in the high-risk cluster, neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) significantly improved the patients 5-year PFS (66.4% versus 57.9%, p?=?0.014), OS (77.6% versus 68.6%; p?<?0.002), and DMFS (76.6% versus 70.6%; p?=?0.028) compared with those treated with CCRT. Conclusion:Our results could facilitate the development of risk-stratification and risk-adapted therapeutic strategies for patients with LA-NPC.
Project description:The prognostic value of plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA remains unknown in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 584 newly diagnosed patients with nonmetastatic and biopsy-proven NPC treated using IMRT. Plasma EBV DNA concentration was measured before therapy (pre-DNA) and within 1 month of completing therapy (post-DNA) using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to identify pre-DNA and post-DNA cut-off values. Prognostic value was assessed using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model .Three-year disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), loco-regional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) and distant metastasis-free (DMFS) for pre-DNA >2010 vs.?2010 were 78.1% vs. 93.6% (P?<?0.001), 92.3% vs. 98.9% (P?<?0.001), 90.9% vs. 96.6% (P?=?0.004) and 85.5% vs. 96.6% (P?<?0.001), respectively. Three-year DFS, OS, LRRFS and DMFS for post-DNA >0 vs.?=?0 were 49.9% vs. 88.5% (P?<?0.001), 72.1% vs. 97.5% (P?<?0.001), 86.6% vs. 94.3% (P?=?0.019), and 60.5% vs. 93.3% (P?<?0.001), respectively. Plasma EBV DNA remains a prognostic factor in IMRT era and should be incorporated into TNM staging to guide individualized treatment strategies in NPC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The role of pretreatment Epstein-Barr virus DNA (pre-DNA) for individualized induction chemotherapy (IC) in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC) still remains unknown. We aimed to address this clinical issue. METHODS:In total, data on 6218 patient with newly diagnosed LA-NPC receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with or without IC were retrospectively reviewed. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was adopted to calculate the cut-off value of pre-DNA based on disease-free survival (DFS). Propensity score matching (PSM) method was adopted to balance prognostic factors and match patients. Survival outcomes between IC + CCRT and CCRT groups were compared. RESULTS:Among the original cohort, no survival difference between IC + CCRT and CCRT groups was found. The cut-off value of pre-DNA was 4650 copies/ml (area under curve [AUC], 0.620; sensitivity, 0.6224; specificity, 0.5673). For patients with Pre-DNA ≤ 4650 copies/ml, the IC + CCRT and CCRT groups also achieved comparable survival outcomes (P > 0.05 for all rates). However, IC + CCRT was associated with significantly improved 3-year DFS (78.6% vs. 74.8%, P = 0.03), overall survival (OS; 91.4% vs. 87.5%, P = 0.002) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS; 86.0% vs. 82.2%, P = 0.036) for patient with pre-DNA > 4650 copies/ml. Multivariate analysis also confirm that IC + CCRT was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (HR, 0.817; 95% CI, 0.683-0.977; P = 0.027), OS (HR, 0.675; 95% CI, 0.537-0.848; P = 0.001) and DMFS (HR, 0.782; 95% CI, 0.626-0.976; P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS:Pre-DNA may be a feasible and powerful consideration for individualized IC apart from other baseline clinical characteristics in LA-NPC.
Project description:The objective of this study is to verify the prognostic value of pretreatment plasma Epstein-Barr viral deoxyribonucleic acid (pEBV DNA) levels in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients to complement TNM classification based on the application of the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique.In total, 1467 patients staged at I-IVa-b (M0) and treated with IMRT were retrospectively analyzed at our cancer center from January 2007 to December 2010. Patient survival among different stages and EBV DNA levels were compared.Outcome analyses of different stages and EBV DNA levels revealed that patients in stages II-III with low EBV DNA levels had similar survival as that of patients in stages IVa-b with low EBV DNA (5-yr overall survival (OS), 94.7% vs. 92.9% (P = 0.141), progression failure-free survival (PFS), 87.2% vs. 89.0% (P = 0.685), distant metastasis failure-free survival (DMFS), 93.5% vs. 92.4% (P = 0.394) and locoregional failure-free survival (LRFS), 93.8% vs. 96.3% (P = 0.523)). Conversely, patients in stages II-III with high EBV DNA had better survival than patients in stages IVa-b with high EBV DNA (5-yr OS, 82.7% vs. 71.7% (P = 0.001), PFS, 70.7% vs. 66.2% (P = 0.047), DMFS, 79.6% vs. 74.8% (P = 0.066) and LRFS, 89.3% vs. 87.6% (P = 0.425)) but poorer survival than patients in stages IVa-b with low EBV DNA (5-yr OS, 82.7% vs. 92.9% (P = 0.025), PFS, 70.7% vs. 89.0, (P < 0.001), DMFS, 79.6% vs. 92.4%, (P = 0.001), LRFS, 89.3% vs. 96.3%, (P = 0.022)).pEBV DNA is a strong prognostic factor for patients with NPC when complemented with TNM staging in the era of IMRT application.
Project description:<b>Objective: </b>This study aimed to select optimal candidates benefiting from the addition of induction chemotherapy (IC) to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in stage II-IVa nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) based on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA and nodal maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmax-N) of [<sup>18</sup> F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.<br><br><b>Patients and materials: </b>A total of 679 patients diagnosed with stage II-IVa (except N0) NPC were retrospectively included in this study. Overall survival was the primary endpoint. Survival differences between different groups were compared using the log-rank test. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Both high levels of EBV DNA (>1500 copies/mL) and SUVmax-N (>12.3) indicated worse survival conditions. All patients were divided into low- and high-risk groups based on these two biomarkers. The risk group was an independent prognostic factor in OS, progression-free survival (PFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) (all p-values<0.05). The addition of IC to CCRT was associated with survival improvement in OS, PFS, and DMFS in high-risk patients, while no survival difference was found between CCRT and IC+CCRT in low-risk patients.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>Our study can help clinicians select stage II-IVa NPC patients who benefit from IC, which is important in guiding individual treatment.