High-Risk Human Papillomavirus E7 Proteins Target PTPN14 for Degradation.
ABSTRACT: The major transformation activity of the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) is associated with the E7 oncoprotein. The interaction of HPV E7 with retinoblastoma family proteins is important for several E7 activities; however, this interaction does not fully account for the high-risk E7-specific cellular immortalization and transformation activities. We have determined that the cellular non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN14 interacts with HPV E7 from many genus alpha and beta HPV types. We find that high-risk genus alpha HPV E7, but not low-risk genus alpha or beta HPV E7, is necessary and sufficient to reduce the steady-state level of PTPN14 in cells. High-risk E7 proteins target PTPN14 for proteasome-mediated degradation, which requires the ubiquitin ligase UBR4, and PTPN14 is degraded by the proteasome in HPV-positive cervical cancer cell lines. Residues in the C terminus of E7 interact with the C-terminal phosphatase domain of PTPN14, and interference with the E7-PTPN14 interaction restores PTPN14 levels in cells. Finally, PTPN14 degradation correlates with the retinoblastoma-independent transforming activity of high-risk HPV E7.High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the cause of cervical cancer, some other anogenital cancers, and a growing fraction of oropharyngeal carcinomas. The high-risk HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins enable these viruses to cause cancer, and the mechanistic basis of their carcinogenic activity has been the subject of intense study. The high-risk E7 oncoprotein is especially important in the immortalization and transformation of human cells, which makes it a central component of HPV-associated cancer development. E7 oncoproteins interact with retinoblastoma family proteins, but for several decades, it has been recognized that high-risk HPV E7 oncoproteins have additional cancer-associated activities. We have determined that high-risk E7 proteins target the proteolysis of the cellular protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN14 and find that this activity is correlated with the retinoblastoma-independent transforming activity of E7.
Project description:Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causative agents of various diseases associated with cellular hyperproliferation, including cervical cancer, one of the most prevalent tumors in women. E7 is one of the two HPV-encoded oncoproteins and directs recruitment and subsequent degradation of tumor-suppressive proteins such as retinoblastoma protein (pRb) via its LxCxE motif. E7 also triggers tumorigenesis in a pRb-independent pathway through its C-terminal domain, which has yet been largely undetermined, with a lack of structural information in a complex form with a host protein. Herein, we present the crystal structure of the E7 C-terminal domain of HPV18 belonging to the high-risk HPV genotypes bound to the catalytic domain of human nonreceptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase 14 (PTPN14). They interact directly and potently with each other, with a dissociation constant of 18.2 nM. Ensuing structural analysis revealed the molecular basis of the PTPN14-binding specificity of E7 over other protein tyrosine phosphatases and also led to the identification of PTPN21 as a direct interacting partner of E7. Disruption of HPV18 E7 binding to PTPN14 by structure-based mutagenesis impaired E7's ability to promote keratinocyte proliferation and migration. Likewise, E7 binding-defective PTPN14 was resistant for degradation via proteasome, and it was much more effective than wild-type PTPN14 in attenuating the activity of downstream effectors of Hippo signaling and negatively regulating cell proliferation, migration, and invasion when examined in HPV18-positive HeLa cells. These results therefore demonstrated the significance and therapeutic potential of the intermolecular interaction between HPV E7 and host PTPN14 in HPV-mediated cell transformation and tumorigenesis.
Project description:High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 proteins enable oncogenic transformation of HPV-infected cells by inactivating host cellular proteins. High-risk but not low-risk HPV E7 target PTPN14 for proteolytic degradation, suggesting that PTPN14 degradation may be related to their oncogenic activity. HPV infects human keratinocytes but the role of PTPN14 in keratinocytes and the consequences of PTPN14 degradation are unknown. Using an HPV16 E7 variant that can inactivate retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (RB1) but cannot degrade PTPN14, we found that high-risk HPV E7-mediated PTPN14 degradation impairs keratinocyte differentiation. Deletion of PTPN14 from primary human keratinocytes decreased keratinocyte differentiation gene expression. Related to oncogenic transformation, both HPV16 E7-mediated PTPN14 degradation and PTPN14 deletion promoted keratinocyte survival following detachment from a substrate. PTPN14 degradation contributed to high-risk HPV E6/E7-mediated immortalization of primary keratinocytes and HPV+ but not HPV- cancers exhibit a gene-expression signature consistent with PTPN14 inactivation. We find that PTPN14 degradation impairs keratinocyte differentiation and propose that this contributes to high-risk HPV E7-mediated oncogenic activity independent of RB1 inactivation.
Project description:Activation of signaling pathways ensuring cell growth is essential for the proliferative competence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected cells. Tyrosine kinases and phosphatases are key regulators of cellular growth control pathways. A recently identified potential cellular target of HPV E7 is the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN14, which is a potential tumor suppressor and is linked to the control of the Hippo and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathways. In this study, we show that the E7 proteins of both high-risk and low-risk mucosal HPV types can interact with PTPN14. This interaction is independent of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and involves residues in the carboxy-terminal region of E7. We also show that high-risk E7 induces proteasome-mediated degradation of PTPN14 in cells derived from cervical tumors. This degradation appears to be independent of cullin-1 or cullin-2 but most likely involves the UBR4/p600 ubiquitin ligase. The degree to which E7 downregulates PTPN14 would suggest that this interaction is important for the viral life cycle and potentially also for the development of malignancy. In support of this we find that overexpression of PTPN14 decreases the ability of HPV-16 E7 to cooperate with activated EJ-ras in primary cell transformation assays.IMPORTANCE This study links HPV E7 to the deregulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase signaling pathways. PTPN14 is classified as a potential tumor suppressor protein, and here we show that it is very susceptible to HPV E7-induced proteasome-mediated degradation. Intriguingly, this appears to use a mechanism that is different from that employed by E7 to target pRb. Therefore, this study has important implications for our understanding of the molecular basis for E7 function and also sheds important light on the potential role of PTPN14 as a tumor suppressor.
Project description:The high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with carcinomas of the cervix and other genital tumors. Previous studies have identified two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, which are expressed in the majority of HPV-associated carcinomas. The ability of high-risk HPV E6 protein to immortalize human mammary epithelial cells (MECs) has provided a single-gene model to study the mechanisms of E6-induced oncogenic transformation. In this system, the E6 protein targets the p53 tumor suppressor protein for degradation, and mutational analyses have shown that E6-induced degradation of p53 protein is required for MEC immortalization. However, the inability of most dominant-negative p53 mutants to induce efficient immortalization of MECs suggests the existence of additional targets of the HPV E6 oncoprotein. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have isolated a novel E6-binding protein. This polypeptide, designated E6TP1 (E6-targeted protein 1), exhibits high homology to GTPase-activating proteins for Rap, including SPA-1, tuberin, and Rap1GAP. The mRNA for E6TP1 is widely expressed in tissues and in vitro-cultured cell lines. The gene for E6TP1 localizes to chromosome 14q23.2-14q24.3 within a locus that has been shown to undergo loss of heterozygosity in malignant meningiomas. Importantly, E6TP1 is targeted for degradation by the high-risk but not the low-risk HPV E6 proteins both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the immortalization-competent but not the immortalization-incompetent HPV16 E6 mutants target the E6TP1 protein for degradation. Our results identify a novel target for the E6 oncoprotein and provide a potential link between HPV E6 oncogenesis and alteration of a small G protein signaling pathway.
Project description:It is well known that human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancer. The integration of HPV genes into the host genome causes the upregulation of E6 and E7 oncogenes. E6 and E7 proteins inactivate and degrade tumor suppressors p53 and retinoblastoma, respectively, leading to malignant progression. HPV E6 and E7 antigens are ideal targets for the development of therapies for cervical cancer and precursor lesions because they are constitutively expressed in infected cells and malignant tumors but not in normal cells and they are essential for cell immortalization and transformation. Immunotherapies are being developed to target E6/E7 by eliciting antigen-specific immune responses. siRNA technologies target E6/E7 by modulating the expression of the oncoproteins. Proteasome inhibitors and histone deacetylase inhibitors are being developed to indirectly target E6/E7 by interfering with their oncogenic activities. The ultimate goal for HPV-targeted therapies is the progression through clinical trials to commercialization.
Project description:The differences between high risk and low risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV and LR-HPV, respectively) that contribute to the tumorigenic potential of HR-HPV are not well understood but can be expected to involve the HPV oncoproteins, E6 and E7. We combine genome comparison and machine learning techniques to identify a previously unnoticed insert near the 3'-end of the E6 oncoprotein gene that is unique to HR-HPV. Analysis of the insert sequence suggests that it exerts a dual effect, by creating a PDZ domain-binding motif at the C-terminus of E6, as well as eliminating the overlap between the E6 and E7 coding regions in HR-HPV. We show that, as a result, the insert might enable coupled termination-reinitiation of the E6 and E7 genes, supported by motifs complementary to the human 18S rRNA. We hypothesize that the added functionality of E6 and positive regulation of E7 expression jointly account for the tumorigenic potential of HR-HPV.
Project description:High-risk human papillomaviruses are the etiological agents of cervical cancer and HPV16 is the most oncogenic genotype. Immortalization and transformation of infected cells requires the overexpression of the two viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 following HPV DNA integration into the host cell genome. Integration often leads to the loss of the E2 open reading frame and the corresponding protein can no longer act as a transcriptional repressor on p97 promoter. Recently, it has been proposed that long control region methylation also contributes to the regulation of E6/E7 expression.To determine which epigenetic mechanism is involved in HPV16 early gene regulation, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine was used to demethylate Ca Ski and SiHa cell DNA. Decreased expression of E6 mRNA and protein levels was observed in both cell lines in an E2-independent manner. E6 repression was accompanied by neither a modification of the main cellular transcription factor expression involved in long control region regulation, nor by a modification of the E6 mRNA splicing pattern. In contrast, a pronounced upregulation of miR-375, known to destabilize HPV16 early viral mRNA, was observed. Finally, the use of miR-375 inhibitor definitively proved the involvement of miR-375 in E6 repression. These results highlight that cellular DNA methylation modulates HPV16 early gene expression and support a role for epigenetic events in high-risk HPV associated-carcinogenesis.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Viral oncoproteins are ideal targets in therapeutic vaccines for functional inhibition of human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Herein, we designed the peptide constructs derived from E5 and E7 oncoproteins of high-risk HPV types 16, 18, 31 and 45 using the bioinformatics tools and investigated their potency in mice. RESULTS:The framework of the combined in silico/in vivo analysis included (1) to determine physicochemical properties of the designed constructs, (2) to identify potential IFN-?-inducing epitopes, (3) to assess allergenicity, (4) to recognize linear and discontinuous B cell epitopes using modeling and validation of 3D structure of the designed constructs, and (5) to evaluate immune responses and tumor growth in vivo. Our in silico data determined high potency of the HPV16,18,31,45 E5 and HPV16,18,31,45 E7 peptides for trigger B- and T-cell responses, and IFN-? secretion. In vivo study indicated that the mixture of E5 and E7 immunodominant peptides from four types of high-risk HPV could induce Th1 immune response, and protect completely mice against TC-1 tumor cells. CONCLUSION:Generally, the combined in silico/in vivo approaches showed the ability of the designed E5 and E7 peptide constructs from four major high-risk HPV types for development of therapeutic vaccines.
Project description:Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that infect mucosal epithelium can be classified as high risk or low risk based on their propensity to cause lesions that can undergo malignant progression. HPVs produce the E7 protein that binds to cell cycle regulatory proteins including the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB) to modulate cell cycle control. Generally, high-risk HPV E7 proteins bind to RB with a higher affinity than low-risk HPV E7s, but both are able to deactivate RB and trigger S phase progression. In uninfected cells, RB inactivation is a tightly controlled process that must coincide with growth factor stimulation to commit cells to division. High-risk HPV E7 proteins short-circuit this control by decreasing growth factor requirement for cell division. We develop a mathematical model to examine the role that RB binding affinity, growth factor concentration, and E7 concentration have on cell cycle progression. Our model predicts that high RB binding affinity and E7 concentration accelerate the [Formula: see text] to S phase transition and weaken the dependence on growth factor. This model thus captures a key step in high-risk HPV oncogenesis.
Project description:Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in women worldwide and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in developing countries. Important etiological factors in this cancer are high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV), as roughly 96% of cervical cancer cases are positive for these oncoviruses. On the other hand, it has been recently pointed out that E6/E7 oncoproteins of high-risk HPV can upregulate the programmed cell death-1/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) axis. Likewise, several recent reports showed that checkpoint blockades targeting PD-1/PD-L1 pathways have achieved efficient clinical responses via suppressing cancer progression and improving survival in several types of human cancers including metastatic cervical cancer. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway and its interaction with high-risk HPV and their oncoproteins, which could have an important impact on the management of HPV-associated cancers including cervical.