Clinical Genotyping of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers Using Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing: Utility of Identifying Rare and Co-mutations in Oncogenic Driver Genes.
ABSTRACT: Detection of somatic mutations in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), especially adenocarcinomas, is important for directing patient care when targeted therapy is available. Here, we present our experience with genotyping NSCLC using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) and the AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2. We tested 453 NSCLC samples from 407 individual patients using the 50 gene AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 from May 2013 to July 2015. Using 10 ng of DNA, up to 11 samples were simultaneously sequenced on the Ion Torrent PGM (316 and 318 chips). We identified variants with the Ion Torrent Variant Caller Plugin, and Golden Helix's SVS software was used for annotation and prediction of the significance of the variants. Three hundred ninety-eight samples were successfully sequenced (12.1% failure rate). In all, 633 variants in 41 genes were detected with a median of 2 (range of 0 to 7) variants per sample. Mutations detected in BRAF, EGFR, ERBB2, KRAS, NRAS, and PIK3CA were considered potentially actionable and were identified in 237 samples, most commonly in KRAS (37.9%), EGFR (11.1%), BRAF (4.8%), and PIK3CA (4.3%). In our patient population, all mutations in EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF were mutually exclusive. The Ion Torrent Ampliseq technology can be utilized on small biopsy and cytology specimens, requires very little input DNA, and can be applied in clinical laboratories for genotyping of NSCLC. This targeted next-generation sequencing approach allows for detection of common and also rare mutations that are clinically actionable in multiple patients simultaneously.
Project description:Recently, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has begun to supplant other technologies for gene mutation testing that is now required for targeted therapies. However, transfer of NGS technology to clinical daily practice requires validation.We validated the Ion Torrent AmpliSeq Colon and Lung cancer panel interrogating 1850 hotspots in 22 genes using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. First, we used commercial reference standards that carry mutations at defined allelic frequency (AF). Then, 51 colorectal adenocarcinomas (CRC) and 39 non small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) were retrospectively analyzed.Sensitivity and accuracy for detecting variants at an AF >4% was 100% for commercial reference standards. Among the 90 cases, 89 (98.9%) were successfully sequenced. Among the 86 samples for which NGS and the reference test were both informative, 83 showed concordant results between NGS and the reference test; i.e. KRAS and BRAF for CRC and EGFR for NSCLC, with the 3 discordant cases each characterized by an AF <10%.Overall, the AmpliSeq colon/lung cancer panel was specific and sensitive for mutation analysis of gene panels and can be incorporated into clinical daily practice.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High grade serous ovarian cancer is one of the poorly characterized malignancies. This study aimed to elucidate the mutational events in Malaysian patients with high grade serous ovarian cancer by performing targeted sequencing on 50 cancer hotspot genes. RESULTS:Nine high grade serous ovarian carcinoma samples and ten normal ovarian tissues were obtained from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC) and the Kajang Hospital. The Ion AmpliSeq™ Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 targeting "mutation-hotspot region" in 50 most common cancer-associated genes was utilized. A total of 20 variants were identified in 12 genes. Eleven (55%) were silent alterations and nine (45%) were missense mutations. Six of the nine missense mutations were predicted to be deleterious while the other three have low or neutral protein impact. Eight genes were altered in both the tumor and normal groups (APC, EGFR, FGFR3, KDR, MET, PDGFRA, RET and SMO) while four genes (TP53, PIK3CA, STK11 and KIT) were exclusively altered in the tumor group. TP53 alterations were present in all the tumors but not in the normal group. Six deleterious mutations in TP53 (p.R175H, p.H193R, p.Y220C, p.Y163C, p.R282G and p.Y234H) were identified in eight serous ovarian carcinoma samples and none in the normal group. CONCLUSION:TP53 remains as the most frequently altered gene in high grade serous ovarian cancer and Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) in combination with Ion Ampliseq™ Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 were proven to be instrumental in identifying a wide range of genetic alterations simultaneously from a minute amount of DNA. However, larger series of validation targeting more genes are necessary in order to shed a light on the molecular events underlying pathogenesis of this cancer.
Project description:KRAS mutant non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) vary in clinical outcome depending on which specific KRAS mutation is present. Shorter progression free survival has been associated with KRAS variants G12C and G12V. Cell lines with these variants depend to a greater extent on the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and become more susceptible to MEK inhibition. Because different KRAS mutations may lead to altered drug sensitivity, we aimed to determine specific KRAS mutation status in a NSCLC patient cohort at our institution. A total of 502 NSCLC samples were screened for somatic mutations using the 50 gene AmpliSeq™ Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 (CHPv2). However only samples positive for variants in the KRAS gene were included in this study. Variants identified in the KRAS genes were curated using publicly available databases. The overall mutation rate in the KRAS gene was 32.7% (164/502). The most common KRAS mutations were G12C (41%), G12V (19%), and G12D (14%) along with less frequent variants. After re-mining our sequencing data, we found that more than a half of our KRAS mutant NSCLC patients could potentially benefit from the addition of a MEK inhibitor such as selumetinib to standard chemotherapeutic agents. Due to mutated KRAS, these patients will likely fail traditional anti-EGFR therapies but be eligible for newer combination therapies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Molecularly targeted therapy has revolutionized the treatment of advanced melanoma. However, despite its high efficiency, a majority of patients experience relapse within 1 year of treatment because of acquired resistance, and approximately 10-25% patients gain no benefit from these agents owing to intrinsic resistance. This is mainly caused by the genetic heterogeneity of melanoma cells. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to validate the predictive significance of selected genes in advanced melanoma patients before treatment with BRAF/MEK inhibitors. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Archival DNA derived from 37 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded pre-treatment advanced melanoma samples of patients treated with targeted therapy was used for next-generation sequencing analysis using the Ion Torrent platform. The AmpliSeq Custom Panel comprised coding sequences or hot spots of 23 melanoma genes: ATM, BRAF, CDK4, CDKN2A, CTNNB1, EGFR, HOXD8, HRAS, IDH1, KIT, KRAS, MAP3K8, MAP2K1, MAP2K2, MITF, MYC, NF1, NRAS, PAX5, PIK3R1, PTEN, RAC1, and RB1. The sequences were evaluated for genomic alterations and further validated using Sanger sequencing. RESULTS:Our analysis revealed non-BRAF genetic alterations in 28 out of 37 samples (75.7%). Genetic changes were identified in PTEN, CDK4, CDKN2A, CTNNB1, EGFR, HOXD8, HRAS, KIT, MAP2K1, MAP2K2, MITF, MYC, NF1, PAX5, RAC1, and RB1. Fifteen known pathogenic mutations (single nucleotide variants or indels) and 11 variants of unknown significance were detected. Statistical analysis revealed an association between the presence of pathogenic mutations and time to progression during treatment with combination therapy. CONCLUSIONS:Pathogenic mutations identified by gene panel sequencing have potential predictive value for targeted therapy of melanoma and are worth further validation in a larger series of cases. The role of some known mutations (e.g. CDK4R24, PTEN c.801?+?1G?>?A, CTNNB1S45F) as well as variants of unknown significance identified in this study (e.g. MITFR316K, KITG498S) in the generation of resistance to BRAF/MEK inhibitors should be further investigated.
Project description:Targeted Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) offers a way to implement testing of multiple genetic aberrations in diagnostic pathology practice, which is necessary for personalized cancer treatment. However, no standards regarding input material have been defined. This study therefore aimed to determine the effect of the type of input material (e.g. formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) versus fresh frozen (FF) tissue) on NGS derived results. Moreover, this study aimed to explore a standardized analysis pipeline to support consistent clinical decision-making.We used the Ion Torrent PGM sequencing platform in combination with the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 to sequence frequently mutated regions in 50 cancer related genes, and validated the NGS detected variants in 250 FFPE samples using standard diagnostic assays. Next, 386 tumour samples were sequenced to explore the effect of input material on variant detection variables. For variant calling, Ion Torrent analysis software was supplemented with additional variant annotation and filtering.Both FFPE and FF tissue could be sequenced reliably with a sensitivity of 99.1%. Validation showed a 98.5% concordance between NGS and conventional sequencing techniques, where NGS provided both the advantage of low input DNA concentration and the detection of low-frequency variants. The reliability of mutation analysis could be further improved with manual inspection of sequence data.Targeted NGS can be reliably implemented in cancer diagnostics using both FFPE and FF tissue when using appropriate analysis settings, even with low input DNA.
Project description:To validate next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology for clinical diagnosis and to determine appropriate read depth.We validated the KRAS, BRAF, and EGFR genes within the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA).We developed a statistical model to determine the read depth needed for a given percent tumor cellularity and number of functional genomes. Bottlenecking can result from too few input genomes. By using 16 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cancer-free specimens and 118 cancer specimens with known mutation status, we validated the six traditional analytic performance characteristics recommended by the Next-Generation Sequencing: Standardization of Clinical Testing Working Group. Baseline noise is consistent with spontaneous and FFPE-induced C:G?T:A deamination mutations.Redundant bioinformatic pipelines are essential, since a single analysis pipeline gave false-negative and false-positive results. NGS is sufficiently robust for the clinical detection of gene mutations, with attention to potential artifacts.
Project description:Detection of clinically actionable mutations in diagnostic tumour specimens aids in the selection of targeted therapeutics. With an ever increasing number of clinically significant mutations identified, tumour genetic diagnostics is moving from single to multigene analysis. As it is still not feasible for routine diagnostic laboratories to perform sequencing of the entire cancer genome, our approach was to undertake targeted mutation detection. To optimise our diagnostic workflow, we evaluated three target enrichment strategies using two next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms (Illumina MiSeq and Ion PGM). The target enrichment strategies were Fluidigm Access Array custom amplicon panel including 13 genes (MiSeq sequencing), the Oxford Gene Technologies (OGT) SureSeq Solid Tumour hybridisation panel including 60 genes (MiSeq sequencing), and an Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel including 50 genes (Ion PGM sequencing). DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks of eight previously characterised cancer cell lines was tested using the three panels. Matching genomic DNA from fresh cultures of these cell lines was also tested using the custom Fluidigm panel and the OGT SureSeq Solid Tumour panel. Each panel allowed mutation detection of core cancer genes including KRAS, BRAF, and EGFR. Our results indicate that the panels enable accurate variant detection despite sequencing from FFPE DNA.
Project description:Next generation sequencing based tumor tissue genotyping involves complex workflow and a relatively longer turnaround time. Semiconductor based next generation platforms varied from low throughput Ion PGM to high throughput Ion Proton and Ion S5XL sequencer. In this study, we compared Ion PGM and Ion Proton, with a new Ion S5XL NGS system for workflow scalability, analytical sensitivity and specificity, turnaround time and sequencing performance in a clinical laboratory.Eighteen solid tumor samples positive for various mutations as detected previously by Ion PGM and Ion Proton were selected for study. Libraries were prepared using DNA (range10-40ng) from micro-dissected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens using the Ion Ampliseq Library Kit 2.0 for comprehensive cancer (CCP), oncomine comprehensive cancer (OCP) and cancer hotspot panel v2 (CHPv2) panel as per manufacturer's instructions. The CHPv2 were sequenced using Ion PGM whereas CCP and OCP were sequenced using Ion Proton respectively. All the three libraries were further sequenced individually (S540) or multiplexed (S530) using Ion S5XL. For S5XL, Ion chef was used to automate template preparation, enrichment of ion spheres and chip loading. Data analysis was performed using Torrent Suite 4.6 software on board S5XL and Ion Reporter. A limit of detection and reproducibility studies was performed using serially diluted DLD1 cell line.A total of 241 variant calls (235 single nucleotide variants and 6 indels) expected in the studied cohort were successfully detected by S5XL with 100% and 97% concordance with Ion PGM and Proton, respectively. Sequencing run time was reduced from 4.5 to 2.5 hours with output range of 3-5 GB (S530) and 8-9.3Gb (S540). Data analysis time for the Ion S5XL is faster 1 h (S520), 2.5 h (S530) and 5 h (S540) chip, respectively as compared to the Ion PGM (3.5-5 h) and Ion Proton (8h). A limit detection of 5% allelic frequency was established along with high inter-run reproducibility.Ion S5XL system simplified workflow in a clinical laboratory, was feasible for running smaller and larger panels on the same instrument, had a shorter turnaround time, and showed good concordance for variant calls with similar sensitivity and reproducibility as the Ion PGM and Proton.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) technology to assess the mutational status of multiple genes on formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumors is rapidly being adopted in clinical settings, where quality control (QC) practices are required. Establishing reliable FFPE QC materials for NGS can be challenging and/or expensive. Here, we established a reliable and cost-effective FFPE QC material for routine utilization in the Ion AmpliSeq™ Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 (CHP2) assay. METHODS:The performance characteristics of the CHP2 assay were determined by sequencing various cell line mixtures and 55 different FFPE tumors on the Ion Torrent PGM platform. A FFPE QC material was prepared from a mixture of cell lines derived from different cancers, comprising single nucleotide variants and small deletions on actionable genes at different allelic frequencies. RESULTS:The CHP2 assay performed with high precision and sensitivity when custom variant calling pipeline parameters where established. In addition, all expected somatic variants in the QC material were consistently called at variant frequencies ranging from 9.1 % (CV = 11.1 %) to 37.9 % (CV = 2.8 %). CONCLUSIONS:The availability of a reliable and cost-effective QC material is instrumental in assessing the performance of this or any targeted NGS assay that detects somatic variants in fixed solid tumor specimens.
Project description:In recent years, the incidence of non?small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has become the highest lethal rate of cancer worldwide. Molecular assays of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, PIK3CA and Her?2 are widely used to guide individualized treatment in NSCLC patients. Somatic mutations in 112 NSCLC patients, including 7 oncogenic driver genes, were detected by Iontorrent personal genome machine (PGM). Sanger sequencing was used to test and verify the results of PGM. Apart from uncommon mutations of EGFR, 101 NSCLC specimens were tested by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). According to NGS results, mutations were detected in EGFR (58/112, 51.79% of tumors), KRAS (10/112, 8.93%), BRAF (2/112, 1.79%), NRAS (2/112, 1.79%), Her?2 (2/112, 1.79%), PIK3CA (6/112, 5.36%) and TP53 (31/112, 27.69%). There were 27 samples without any somatic mutations in all genes while 24 samples harboured mutations in two or more genes. A total of 61 samples had one or more mutations in a single gene. All alterations of 7 genes were presented and the overall detection rate of NGS and Sanger sequencing was determined to be 51.79% (58/112) and 37.50% (42/112), respectively (?2=5.88, P=0.015). Compared with Sanger sequencing, the total sensitivity and specificity of NGS assays was 95.24% (40/42) and 77.14% (54/70), respectively. The overall detection rate of NGS and ddPCR was 45.54% (46/101) and 47.52% (48/101), respectively (?2=0.000598, P=0.98). Compared with ddPCR, the overall sensitivity and specificity of NGS assays was 95.83% (46/48) and 98.11% (52/53), respectively. The findings indicated that the positive mutation rate of EGFR tested by NGS was significantly lower than that by Sanger sequencing, but the difference between ddPCR and NGS was not statistically significant. The high degree of agreement of reportable variants is proposed in both NGS and ddPCR analysis, suggesting the performance of NGS assays in routine clinical detection may be useful in determining the treatment decisions in NSCLC patients.