BackgroundStudies of angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion (ACE I/D) polymorphisms and the risks of knee osteoarthritis (OA) have yielded conflicting results.
ObjectiveTo determine the association between ACE I/D and knee OA, we conducted a combined case-control study and meta-analysis.
MethodsFor the case-control study, 447 knee OA cases and 423 healthy controls were recruited between March 2010 and July 2011. Knee OA cases were defined using the Kellgren-Lawrence grading system, and the ACE I/D genotype was determined using a standard polymerase chain reaction. The association between ACE I/D and knee OA was detected using allele, genotype, dominant, and recessive models. For the meta-analysis, PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched for prospective observational studies published up until August 2015. Studies of ACE I/D and knee OA with sufficient data were selected. Pooled results were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the D versus I allele with regard to knee OA risk.
ResultsWe found no significant association between the D allele and knee OA [OR: 1.09 (95% CI: 0.76-1.89)] in the present case-control study, and the results of other genetic models were also nonsignificant. Five current studies were included, and there were a total of six study populations after including our case-control study (1165 cases and 1029 controls). In the meta-analysis, the allele model also yielded nonsignificant results [OR: 1.37 (95% CI: 0.95-1.99)] and a high heterogeneity (I2: 87.2%).
ConclusionsThe association between ACE I/D and knee OA tended to yield negative results. High heterogeneity suggests a complex, multifactorial mechanism, and an epistasis analysis of ACE I/D and knee OA should therefore be conducted.
SUBMITTER: Lin C