Time Course Analysis of Skeletal Muscle Pathology of GDE5 Transgenic Mouse.
ABSTRACT: Glycerophosphodiesterase 5 (GDE5) selectively hydrolyses glycerophosphocholine to choline and is highly expressed in type II fiber-rich skeletal muscles. We have previously generated that a truncated mutant of GDE5 (GDE5dC471) that lacks phosphodiesterase activity and shown that transgenic mice overexpressing GDE5dC471 in skeletal muscles show less skeletal muscle mass than control mice. However, the molecular mechanism and pathophysiological features underlying decreased skeletal muscle mass in GDE5dC471 mice remain unclear. In this study, we characterized the skeletal muscle disorder throughout development and investigated the primary cause of muscle atrophy. While type I fiber-rich soleus muscle mass was not altered in GDE5dC471 mice, type II fiber-rich muscle mass was reduced in 8-week-old GDE5dC471 mice. Type II fiber-rich muscle mass continued to decrease irreversibly in 1-year-old transgenic mice with an increase in apoptotic cell. Adipose tissue weight and blood triglyceride levels in 8-week-old and 1-year-old transgenic mice were higher than those in control mice. This study also demonstrated compensatory mRNA expression of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) components, including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?1, ?, and ? subunits) and acetylcholinesterase in type II fiber-rich quadriceps muscles in GDE5dC471 mice. However, we did not observe morphological changes in NMJs associated with skeletal muscle atrophy in GDE5dC471 mice. We also found that HSP70 protein levels are significantly increased in the skeletal muscles of 2-week-old GDE5dC471 mice and in mouse myoblastic C2C12 cells overexpressing GDE5dC471. These findings suggest that GDE5dC471 mouse is a novel model of early-onset irreversible type II fiber-rich myopathy associated with cellular stress.
Project description:Skeletal muscle mass and strength are lost with aging. Phytoecdysteroids, in particular 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), increase protein synthesis in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells and muscle strength in young rats. The objective of this study was to determine whether an extract from <i>Ajuga turkestanica</i> (ATE), enriched in phytoecdysteroids, and 20E affect skeletal muscle mass and fiber size, fiber type, activation of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and the mRNA levels of <i>MAFbx</i>, <i>MuRF-1</i>, and <i>myostatin</i> in sedentary aging mice. Aging male C57BL/6 mice (20 months old) received ATE, 20E, or vehicle (CT) once per day for 28 days or a single acute dose. Treatment did not alter body, muscle, or organ mass; fiber cross-sectional area; or fiber type in the triceps brachii or plantaris muscles. Likewise, protein synthesis signaling markers (i.e., phosphorylation of Akt<sup>Ser473</sup> and p70S6k<sup>Thr389</sup>) measured after either 28 days or acutely were unchanged. Neither ATE nor 20E treatment for 28 days affected the mRNA levels of <i>MAFbx</i>, <i>MuRF-1</i>, and <i>myostatin</i>. In conclusion, these data indicate that phytoecdysteroid treatment does not alter muscle mass or fiber type, nor does it activate protein synthesis signaling in the skeletal muscle of sedentary aging mice.
Project description:Mammalian glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases (GP-PDEs) have been identified recently and shown to be implicated in several physiological functions. This study isolated a novel GP-PDE, GDE5, and showed that GDE5 selectively hydrolyzes glycerophosphocholine (GroPCho) and controls skeletal muscle development. We show that GDE5 expression was reduced in atrophied skeletal muscles in mice and that decreasing GDE5 abundance promoted myoblastic differentiation, suggesting that decreased GDE5 expression has a counter-regulatory effect on the progression of skeletal muscle atrophy. Forced expression of full-length GDE5 in cultured myoblasts suppressed myogenic differentiation. Unexpectedly, a truncated GDE5 construct (GDE5DeltaC471), which contained a GP-PDE sequence identified in other GP-PDEs but lacked GroPCho phosphodiesterase activity, showed a similar inhibitory effect. Furthermore, transgenic mice specifically expressing GDE5DeltaC471 in skeletal muscle showed less skeletal muscle mass, especially type II fiber-rich muscle. These results indicate that GDE5 negatively regulates skeletal muscle development even without GroPCho phosphodiesterase activity, providing novel insight into the biological significance of mammalian GP-PDE function in a non-enzymatic mechanism.
Project description:Erythropoietin activity, required for erythropoiesis, is not restricted to the erythroid lineage. In light of reports on the metabolic effects of erythropoietin, we examined the effect of erythropoietin signaling on skeletal muscle fiber type development. Skeletal muscles that are rich in slow twitch fibers are associated with increased mitochondrial oxidative activity and corresponding expression of related genes compared to muscle rich in fast twitch fibers. Although erythropoietin receptor is expressed on muscle progenitor/precursor cells and is down regulated in mature muscle fibers, we found that skeletal muscles from mice with high erythropoietin production in vivo exhibit an increase in the proportion of slow twitch myofibers and increased mitochondrial activity. In comparison, skeletal muscle from wild type mice and mice with erythropoietin activity restricted to erythroid tissue have fewer slow twitch myofibers and reduced mitochondrial activity. PGC-1? activates mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and converts the fast myofibers to slow myofibers when overexpressed in skeletal muscle and PGC-1? was elevated by 2-fold in mice with high erythropoietin. In vitro erythropoietin treatment of primary skeletal myoblasts increased mitochondrial biogenesis gene expression including PGC-1? by 2.6-fold, CytC by 2-fold, oxygen consumption rate by 2-fold, and citrate synthase activity by 58%. Erythropoietin also increases AMPK, which induces PGC-1? and stimulates slow oxidative fiber formation. These data suggest that erythropoietin contributes to skeletal muscle fiber programming and metabolism, and increases PGC-1? and AMPK activity during muscle development directly to affect the proportion of slow/fast twitch myofibers in mature skeletal muscle.
Project description:Calorie restriction (CR; reducing calorie intake by ~40% below ad libitum) can increase glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated muscle. Because skeletal muscle is comprised of multiple, heterogeneous fiber types, our primary aim was to determine the effects of CR (initiated at 14 weeks old) and fiber type on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by single fibers of diverse fiber types in 23-26-month-old rats. Isolated epitrochlearis muscles from AL and CR rats were incubated with [3H]-2-deoxyglucose ± insulin. Glucose uptake and fiber type were determined for single fibers dissected from the muscles. We also determined CR-effects on abundance of several key metabolic proteins in single fibers. CR resulted in: (a) significantly (p < .05 to .001) greater glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated type I, IIA, IIB, IIBX, and IIX fibers; (b) significantly (p < .05 to .001) reduced abundance of several mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) and oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) proteins in type I, IIA, and IIBX but not IIB and IIX fibers; and (c) unaltered hexokinase II abundance in each fiber type. These results demonstrate that CR can enhance glucose uptake in each fiber type of rat skeletal muscle in the absence of upregulation of the abundance of hexokinase II or key mitochondrial ETC and OxPhos proteins.
Project description:Skeletal muscle fiber is largely classified into two types: type 1 (slow-twitch) and type 2 (fast-twitch) fibers. Meat quality and composition of fiber types are thought to be closely related. Previous research showed that overexpression of constitutively active peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)?, a nuclear receptor present in skeletal muscle, increased type 1 fibers in mice. In this study, we found that hexane extracts of Yamabushitake mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) showed PPAR? agonistic activity in vitro. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet supplemented with 5% (w/w) freeze-dried Yamabushitake mushroom for 24 hr. After the treatment period, the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were excised. The Yamabushitake-supplemented diet up-regulated the PPAR? target genes Pdk4 and Ucp3 in mouse skeletal muscles in vivo. Furthermore, feeding the Yamabushitake-supplemented diet to mice for 8 weeks resulted in a significant increase in muscle endurance. These results indicate that Yamabushitake mushroom contains PPAR? agonistic ligands and that dietary intake of Yamabushitake mushroom could activate PPAR? in skeletal muscle of mice. Unexpectedly, we observed no significant alterations in composition of muscle fiber types between the mice fed control and Yamabushitake-supplemented diets.
Project description:Changes in satellite cell content play a key role in regulating skeletal muscle growth and atrophy. Yet, there is little information on changes in satellite cell content from birth to old age in humans. The present study defines muscle fiber type-specific satellite cell content in human skeletal muscle tissue over the entire lifespan. Muscle biopsies were collected in 165 subjects, from different muscles of children undergoing surgery (<18 years; n?=?13) and from the vastus lateralis muscle of young adult (18–49 years; n?=?50), older (50–69 years; n?=?53), and senescent subjects (70–86 years; n?=?49). In a subgroup of 51 aged subjects (71?±?6 years), additional biopsies were collected after 12 weeks of supervised resistance-type exercise training. Immunohistochemistry was applied to assess skeletal muscle fiber type-specific composition, size, and satellite cell content. From birth to adulthood, muscle fiber size increased tremendously with no major changes in muscle fiber satellite cell content, and no differences between type I and II muscle fibers. In contrast to type I muscle fibers, type II muscle fiber size was substantially smaller with increasing age in adults (r?=??0.56; P?<?0.001). This was accompanied by an age-related reduction in type II muscle fiber satellite cell content (r?=??0.57; P?<?0.001). Twelve weeks of resistance-type exercise training significantly increased type II muscle fiber size and satellite cell content. We conclude that type II muscle fiber atrophy with aging is accompanied by a specific decline in type II muscle fiber satellite cell content. Resistance-type exercise training represents an effective strategy to increase satellite cell content and reverse type II muscle fiber atrophy.
Project description:To investigate whether differences in muscle fiber types affect early-stage fat accumulation, under high fat diet challenge in mice.Twelve healthy male C57BL/6 mice experienced with short-term (6 weeks) diet treatment for the evaluation of early pattern changes in muscular fat. The mice were randomly divided into two groups: high fat diet (n = 8) and normal control diet (n = 4). Extra- and intra-myocellular lipid (EMCL and IMCL) in lumbar muscles (type I fiber predominant) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle (type II fiber predominant) were determined using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Correlation of EMCL, IMCL and their ratio between TA and lumbar muscles was evaluated.EMCL increased greatly in both muscle types after high fat diet. IMCL in TA and lumbar muscles increased to a much lower extent, with a slightly greater increase in TA muscles. EMCLs in the 2 muscles were positively correlated (r = 0.84, p = 0.01), but IMCLs showed a negative relationship (r = -0.84, p = 0.01). In lumbar muscles, high fat diet significantly decreased type I fiber while it increased type II fiber (all p≤0.001). In TA muscle, there was no significant fiber type shifting (p>0.05).Under short-time high fat diet challenge, lipid tends to initially accumulate extra-cellularly. In addition, compared to type II dominant muscle, Type I dominant muscle was less susceptible to IMCL accumulation but more to fiber type shifting. These phenomena might reflect compensative responses of skeletal muscle to dietary lipid overload in order to regulate metabolic homeostasis.
Project description:The master posttranscriptional regulator HuR promotes muscle fiber formation in cultured muscle cells. However, its impact on muscle physiology and function in vivo is still unclear. Here, we show that muscle-specific HuR knockout (muHuR-KO) mice have high exercise endurance that is associated with enhanced oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. muHuR-KO mice exhibit a significant increase in the proportion of oxidative type I fibers in several skeletal muscles. HuR mediates these effects by collaborating with the mRNA decay factor KSRP to destabilize the PGC-1? mRNA. The type I fiber-enriched phenotype of muHuR-KO mice protects against cancer cachexia-induced muscle loss. Therefore, our study uncovers that under normal conditions HuR modulates muscle fiber type specification by promoting the formation of glycolytic type II fibers. We also provide a proof-of-principle that HuR expression can be targeted therapeutically in skeletal muscles to combat cancer-induced muscle wasting.
Project description:Individual skeletal muscles in the animal body are heterogeneous, as each is comprised of different fiber types. Type I muscle fibers are rich with mitochondria, and have high oxidative metabolisms while type IIB fibers have few mitochondria and high glycolytic metabolic capacity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1? (PGC-1?), a transcriptional co-activator that regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and respiratory function, is implicated in muscle fiber-type switching. Over-expression of PGC-1? in transgenic mice increased the proportion of red/oxidative type I fiber. During pig muscle growth, an increased number of type I fibers can give meat more red color. To explore the roles of PGC-1? in regulation of muscle fiber type conversion, we generated skeletal muscle-specific PGC-1? transgenic mice and pig. Ectopic over-expression of PGC-1? was detected in both fast and slow muscle fibers. The transgenic animals displayed a remarkable amount of red/oxidative muscle fibers in major skeletal muscle tissues. Skeletal muscles from transgenic mice and pigs have increased expression levels of oxidative fiber markers such as MHC1, MHC2x, myoglobin and Tnni1, and decreased expressions of glycolytic fiber genes (MHC2a, MHC2b, CASQ-1 and Tnni2). The genes responsible for the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, cytochrome coxidase 2 and 4, and citrate synthase were also increased in the transgenic mice and pigs. These results suggested that transgenic over-expressed PGC-1? significantly increased muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, resulting in qualitative changes from glycolytic to oxidative energy generation. The transgenic animals also had elevated levels of PDK4 and PPAR? proteins in muscle tissue, which can lead to increased glycogen deposition and fatty acid oxidation. Therefore, the results support a significant role of PGC-1? in conversion of fast glycolytic fibers to slow and oxidative fiber through enhanced mitochondrial respiration and fatty acid oxidation, and transgenic over-expression of PGC-1? in skeletal muscle leads to more red meat production in pigs.
Project description:The fiber specificity of skeletal muscle abnormalities in chronic heart failure (CHF) has not been defined. We show here that transgenic mice (8 weeks old) with cardiac-specific overexpression of calsequestrin developed CHF (50.9% decrease in fractional shortening and 56.4% increase in lung weight, P<0.001), cachexia (37.8% decrease in body weight, P<0.001), and exercise intolerance (69.3% decrease in running distance to exhaustion, P<0.001) without a significant change in muscle fiber-type composition. Slow oxidative soleus muscle maintained muscle mass, whereas fast glycolytic tibialis anterior and plantaris muscles underwent atrophy (11.6 and 13.3%, respectively; P<0.05). In plantaris muscle, glycolytic type IId/x and IIb, but not oxidative type I and IIa, fibers displayed significant decreases in cross-sectional area (20.3%, P<0.05). Fast glycolytic white vastus lateralis muscle showed sarcomere degeneration and decreased cytochrome c oxidase IV (39.5%, P<0.01) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1alpha protein expression (30.3%, P<0.01) along with a dramatic induction of the MAFbx/Atrogin-1 mRNA. These findings suggest that exercise intolerance can occur in CHF without fiber type switching in skeletal muscle and that oxidative phenotype renders myofibers resistant to pathological insults induced by CHF.