Project description:Tumor cells secrete factors that modulate macrophage activation and polarization into M2 type tumor-associated macrophages, which promote tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. The mechanisms that mediate this polarization are not clear. Macrophages are phagocytic cells that participate in the clearance of apoptotic cells, a process known as efferocytosis. Milk fat globule- EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a bridge protein that facilitates efferocytosis and is associated with suppression of proinflammatory responses. This study investigated the hypothesis that MFG-E8-mediated efferocytosis promotes M2 polarization. Tissue and serum exosomes from prostate cancer patients presented higher levels of MFG-E8 compared with controls, a novel finding in human prostate cancer. Coculture of macrophages with apoptotic cancer cells increased efferocytosis, elevated MFG-E8 protein expression levels, and induced macrophage polarization into an alternatively activated M2 phenotype. Administration of antibody against MFG-E8 significantly attenuated the increase in M2 polarization. Inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation using the inhibitor Stattic decreased efferocytosis and M2 macrophage polarization in vitro, with a correlating increase in SOCS3 protein expression. Moreover, MFG-E8 knockdown tumor cells cultured with wild-type or MFG-E8-deficient macrophages resulted in increased SOCS3 expression with decreased STAT3 activation. This suggests that SOCS3 and phospho-STAT3 act in an inversely dependent manner when stimulated by MFG-E8 and efferocytosis. These results uncover a unique role of efferocytosis via MFG-E8 as a mechanism for macrophage polarization into tumor-promoting M2 cells.
Project description:Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor factor 8 (MFG-E8) regulates innate immune function by modulating cellular signaling, which is less understood. Herein, we aimed to investigate the direct anti-inflammatory role of MFG-E8 in macrophages by pre-treatment with recombinant murine MFG-E8 (rmMFG-E8) followed by stimulation with LPS in RAW264.7 cells and in peritoneal macrophages, isolated from wild-type (WT) or MFG-E8(-/-) mice. RAW264.7 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages treated with rmMFG-E8 significantly downregulated LPS-induced TNF-α mRNA by 25% and 24%, and protein levels by 29% and 23%, respectively (P<0.05). Conversely, peritoneal macrophages isolated from MFG-E8(-/-) mice produced 28% higher levels of TNF-α, as compared to WT mice when treated with LPS. In in vivo, endotoxemia induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg BW), at 4 h after induction, serum level of TNF-α was significantly higher in MFG-E8(-/-) mice (837 pg/mL) than that of WT (570 pg/mL, P<0.05). To elucidate the direct anti-inflammatory effect of MFG-E8, we examined STAT3 and its target gene, SOCS3. Treatment with rmMGF-E8 significantly induced pSTAT3 and SOCS3 in macrophages. Similar results were observed in in vivo treatment of rmMFG-E8 in peritoneal cells and splenic tissues. Pre-treatment with rmMFG-E8 significantly reduced LPS-induced NF-κB p65 contents. These data clearly indicated that rmMFG-E8 upregulated SOCS3 which in turn interacted with NF-κB p65, facilitating negative regulation of TLR4 signaling for LPS-induced TNF-α production. Our findings strongly suggest that MFG-E8 is a direct anti-inflammatory molecule, and that it could be developed as a therapy in attenuating inflammation and tissue injury.
Project description:A prolonged increase in proinflammatory cytokines is associated with osteoporotic and autoimmune bone loss and, conversely, anti-inflammatory pathways are associated with protection against bone loss. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor (MFG-E)-8 is a glycoprotein that is proresolving, regulates apoptotic cell clearance, and has been linked to autoimmune disease and skeletal homeostasis. The role of MFG-E8 in the young vs. adult skeleton was determined in mice deficient in MFG-E8 (KO). In vivo, trabecular bone was similar in MFG-E8KO and wild-type (WT) mice at 6 and 16 wk, whereas 22 wk adult MFG-E8KO mice displayed significantly reduced trabecular BV/TV. The number of osteoclasts per bone surface was increased in 22-wk MFG-E8 KO vs. WT mice, and recombinant murine MFG-E8 decreased the number and size of osteoclasts in vitro. Adult MFG-E8KO spleen weight:body weight was increased compared with WT, and flow cytometric analysis showed significantly increased myeloid-derived suppressor cells (CD11bhiGR-1+) and neutrophils (CD11bhiLy6G+) in MFG-E8KO bone marrow, suggesting an inflammatory phenotype. PTH-treated MFG-E8KO mice showed a greater anabolic response (+124% BV/TV) than observed in PTH-treated WT mice (+64% BV/TV). These data give insight into the role of MFG-E8 in the adult skeleton and suggest that anabolic PTH may be a valuable therapeutic approach for autoimmune-associated skeletal disease.-Michalski, M. N., Seydel, A. L., Siismets, E. M., Zweifler, L. E., Koh, A. J., Sinder, B. P., Aguirre, J. I., Atabai, K., Roca, H., McCauley, L. K. Inflammatory bone loss associated with MFG-E8 deficiency is rescued by teriparatide.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:MFG-E8 (also called lactadherin and SED1) is a secreted glycoprotein that has been previously implicated in enhancement of vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent angiogenesis. Major sources of MFG-E8 in vivo and precise mechanisms of MFG-E8 action remain undetermined. The objective of this study was to identify important sources of MFG-E8 in vivo and further elucidate the role(s) of MFG-E8 in the regulation of angiogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS:We used knockout mice and anti-MFG-E8 antibodies to study MFG-E8 function in vivo. In melanomas and in retinas of mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy, MFG-E8 colocalized with pericytes rather than endothelial cells, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor ?+ pericytes/pericyte precursors purified from tumors contained large amounts of MFG-E8 mRNA. Tumor- and retinopathy-associated angiogenesis was diminished in MFG-E8 knockout mice, and pericyte coverage of neovessels was reduced. Inhibition of MFG-E8 production by 10T1/2 cells (surrogate pericyte/pericyte precursors) using small interfering RNAs and short hairpin RNAs, or inhibition of MFG-E8 action with some anti-MFG-E8 antibodies, selectively attenuated migration in vitro. Significantly, the anti-MFG-E8 antibodies that inhibited 10T1/2 cell migration in vitro also inhibited pathological angiogenesis in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:These studies strongly implicate MFG-E8 in pericyte/pericyte precursor function and indicate that MFG-E8-directed therapeutics may merit further development.
Project description:Gene Expression in d5 wound-edge tissues of MFG-E8 WT and MFG-E8 KO mice Affymetrix GeneChip® Mouse Genome 430 array was used to study the gene expression in d5 wound-edge tissues of MFG-E8 WT and MFG-E8 KO mice Gene Expression in d5 wound-edge tissues of MFG-E8 WT and MFG-E8 KO mice
Project description:Our research group recently demonstrated that pericytes are major sources of the secreted glycoprotein and integrin ligand lactadherin (MFG-E8) in B16 melanoma tumors, and that MFG-E8 promotes angiogenesis via enhanced PDGF-PDGFR? signaling mediated by integrin-growth factor receptor crosstalk. However, sources of MFG-E8 and its possible roles in skin physiology are not well characterized. The objective of this study was to characterize the involvement of MFG-E8 in skin wound healing. In the dermis of normal murine and human skin, accumulations of MFG-E8 were found around CD31(+) blood vessels, and MFG-E8 colocalized with PDGFR?(+), ?SMA(+), and NG2(+) pericytes. MFG-E8 protein and mRNA levels were elevated in the dermis during full-thickness wound healing in mice. MFG-E8 was diffusely present in granulation tissue and was localized around blood vessels. Wound healing was delayed in MFG-E8 knockout mice, compared with the wild type, and myofibroblast and vessel numbers in wound areas were significantly reduced in knockout mice. Inhibition of MFG-E8 production with siRNA attenuated the formation of capillary-like structures in vitro. Expression of MFG-E8 in fibrous human granulation tissue with scant blood vessels was less than that in granulation tissue with many blood vessels. These findings suggest that MFG-E8 promotes cutaneous wound healing by enhancing angiogenesis.
Project description:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common inflammatory diseases resulting from habitual smoking. Impaired clearance of apoptotic cell by airway macrophages contributes to lung inflammation. Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8), as a link between apoptotic cells and phagocytes, facilitates clearance of apoptotic cells and attenuates inflammation. We sought to investigate altered expression and potential role of MFG-E8 in COPD. In this study, apoptosis was increased and the level of MFG-E8 was decreased while HMGB1 expression was increased in lung tissues of CS-exposed mice. Compared with CS-exposed WT mice, more apoptotic cells were accumulated in lung tissues of CS-exposed MFG-E8 deficiency mice. Exposure of a range of macrophages to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) resulted in decreased MFG-E8 expression. Administration of rmMFG-E8 ameliorated phagocytic ability of RAW264.7 cells and suppressed inflammatory response induced by CS-exposure. 10% CSE stimulation suppressed Rac1 membrane localization in RAW264.7 cells which was restored by administration of rmMFG-E8. MFG-E8 deficiency diminished uptake of apoptotic thymocytes by peritoneal macrophages upon CSE exposure. Overall, the findings in current work provide a novel target for diagnosing and treating COPD.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Pericytes/pericyte precursors produce milk fat globule-associated protein with epidermal growth factor and factor VIII-like domains (MFG-E8) in vivo, and this ?(v) integrin ligand enhances angiogenesis in tumors and in oxygen-induced retinopathy in mice. Inhibition of MFG-E8 production or function attenuates platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced migration of pericyte/pericyte precursor-like 10T1/2 cells in vitro. Herein, we describe mechanisms by which MFG-E8 modulates PDGF-BB:PDGF receptor ? (PDGFR?) signaling in 10T1/2 cells. METHODS AND RESULTS:Small interfering RNA depletion of MFG-E8 from 10T1/2 cells or antibody inhibition of MFG-E8 action enhanced PDGF-BB-dependent degradation of PDGFR? and attenuated signaling. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed transient association of MFG-E8 with PDGFR? in PDGF-BB-treated 10T1/2 cells and reduced PDGFR?-focal adhesion kinase association in MFG-E8-depleted cells. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that MFG-E8 binding to 10T1/2 cells was RGD motif and ?(v) dependent but PDGF-BB treatment independent, whereas colocalization of MFG-E8 with PDGFR? was enhanced by PDGF-BB. Ubiquitination of PDGFR? was also increased in MFG-E8 small interfering RNA-transfected cells. CONCLUSION:Integrin ?(v)-bound MFG-E8 associates with PDGFR? and focal adhesion kinase after PDGF-BB treatment, results in cell surface retention of PDGFR?, delays receptor degradation, potentiates downstream signaling, and enhances migration of 10T1/2 cells. MFG-E8 may promote angiogenesis, in part, via cell autonomous actions on pericytes or pericyte precursors that result in enhanced PDGF-BB:PDGFR? signaling mediated via integrin-growth factor receptor cross-talk.
Project description:Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a peripheral glycoprotein that acts as a bridging molecule between the macrophage and apoptotic cells, thus executing a pivotal role in the scavenging of apoptotic cells from affected tissue. We have previously reported that apoptotic cell clearance activity or efferocytosis is compromised in diabetic wound macrophages. In this work, we test the hypothesis that MFG-E8 helps resolve inflammation, supports angiogenesis, and accelerates wound closure. MFG-E8(-/-) mice displayed impaired efferocytosis associated with exaggerated inflammatory response, poor angiogenesis, and wound closure. Wound macrophage-derived MFG-E8 was recognized as a critical driver of wound angiogenesis. Transplantation of MFG-E8(-/-) bone marrow to MFG-E8(+/+) mice resulted in impaired wound closure and compromised wound vascularization. In contrast, MFG-E8(-/-) mice that received wild-type bone marrow showed improved wound closure and improved wound vascularization. Hyperglycemia and exposure to advanced glycated end products inactivated MFG-E8, recognizing a key mechanism that complicates diabetic wound healing. Diabetic db/db mice suffered from impaired efferocytosis accompanied with persistent inflammation and slow wound closure. Topical recombinant MFG-E8 induced resolution of wound inflammation, improvements in angiogenesis, and acceleration of closure, upholding the potential of MFG-E8-directed therapeutics in diabetic wound care.
Project description:Sustained activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) impair wound healing of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). Our previous study reported that milk fat globule epidermal growth factor VIII (MFG-E8) attenuates tissue damage in systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the functional effect of MFG-E8 on "NLRP3 inflammasome-NETs" inflammatory loop in wound healing of diabetes is not completely elucidated. In this study, neutrophils from DFU patients are susceptible to undergo NETosis, releasing more NETs. The circulating levels of NET components neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3 and inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18 were significantly elevated in DFU patients compared with healthy controls or diabetic patients, in spite of higher levels of MFG-E8 in DFU patients. In Mfge8 -/- diabetic mice, skin wound displayed exaggerated inflammatory response, including leukocyte infiltration, excessive activation of NLRP3 inflammasome (release of higher IL-1?, IL-18, and TNF-?), largely lodged NETs, resulting in poor angiogenesis and wound closure. When stimulated with high-dose glucose or IL-18, MFG-E8-deficient neutrophils release more NETs than WT neutrophils. After administration of recombinant MFG-E8, IL-18-primed NETosis of WT or Mfge8 -/- neutrophils was significantly inhibited. Furthermore, NET and mCRAMP (component of NETs, the murine equivalent of cathelicidin LL-37 in human)-mediated activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and production of IL-1?/IL-18 were significantly elevated in Mfge8 -/- macrophages compared with WT macrophages, which were also significantly dampened by the administration of rmMFG-E8. Therefore, our study demonstrated that as inhibitor of the "NLRP3 inflammasome-NETs" inflammatory loop, exogenous rMFG-E8 improves angiogenesis and accelerates wound healing, highlighting possible therapeutic potential for DFUs.