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MFG-E8 Drives Melanoma Growth by Stimulating Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Induced Angiogenesis and M2 Polarization of Tumor-Associated Macrophages.

ABSTRACT: Secretion of the powerful angiogenic factor MFG-E8 by pericytes can bypass the therapeutic effects of anti-VEGF therapy, but the mechanisms by which MFG-E8 acts are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated how this factor acts to promote the growth of melanomas that express it. We found that mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) expressed a substantial amount of MFG-E8. To assess its expression from this cell type, we implanted melanoma cells and MSC derived from wild type (WT) or MFG-E8 deficient [knockout (KO)] into mice and monitored tumor growth. Tumor growth and M2 macrophages were each attenuated in subjects coimplanted with KO-MSC compared with WT-MSC. In both xenograft tumors and clinical specimens of melanoma, we found that MFG-E8 expression was heightened near blood vessels where MSC could be found. Through in vitro assays, we confirmed that WT-MSC-conditioned medium was more potent at inducing M2 macrophage polarization, compared with KO-MSC-conditioned medium. VEGF and ET-1 expression in KO-MSC was significantly lower than in WT-MSC, correlating in vivo with reduced tumor growth and numbers of pericytes and M2 macrophages within tumors. Overall, our results suggested that MFG-E8 acts at two levels, by increasing VEGF and ET-1 expression in MSC and by enhancing M2 polarization of macrophages, to increase tumor angiogenesis. Cancer Res; 76(14); 4283-92. ©2016 AACR.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC5033700 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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