Overexpression of LRIG1 regulates PTEN via MAPK/MEK signaling pathway in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the role of leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domain protein 1 (LRIG1) in the regulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression in esophageal carcinogenesis. LRIG1 was overexpressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines, and the effect of LRIG1 overexpression on the mRNA and protein expression levels of PTEN was evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Furthermore, the effects of LRIG1 overexpression on the cell cycle distribution and apoptosis of ESCC cells were examined by flow cytometry. Various cell signaling pathway inhibitors were used to assess the effects of LRIG1 on downstream signaling in ESCC cell lines. In addition, the association between LRIG1 and PTEN expression was examined in 48 samples from patients with ESCC. LRIG1 overexpression was demonstrated to downregulate PTEN expression in ESCC cell lines, and promote their proliferation and inhibit apoptosis. In addition, LRIG1-mediated suppression of PTEN expression was inhibited by the U0126 inhibitor, which suggests that LRIG1 may inhibit the activation of PTEN signaling molecules by triggering the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/MAPK kinase 1 (MEK) signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that overexpression of LRIG1 significantly and adversely affected the survival of ESCC cells, and that the MAPK/MEK signaling pathway may be responsible for the repression of PTEN expression and function.
Project description:Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a lethal disease due to its high aggressiveness. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D (XPD) in the growth and invasion of ESCC and to elucidate the potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Western blot analysis and RT?qPCR were used to detect the expression level of XPD in ESCC tissue samples and adjacent normal esophageal tissue samples. The pEGFP?N2/XPD plasmid was transfected into human ESCC cell lines (EC9706 and EC109). The proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of EC9706 or EC109 cells were assessed following transfection with the XPD overexpression plasmid. The chemosensitivity of EC9706 or EC109 cells to cisplatin or fluorouracil was evaluated by CCK?8 assay. The expression levels of phosphoinositide 3?kinase (PI3K)/AKT, nuclear factor (NF)??B, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and mitogen?activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway?related genes were detected by RT?qPCR and western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that the expression level of XPD was markedly lower in ESCC tissue samples than in adjacent normal esophageal tissue samples. The pEGFP?N2/XPD plasmid was successfully transfected into EC9706 or EC109 cells, inducing XPD overexpression. A High XPD expression markedly suppressed cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and increased the apoptotic rate of EC9706 and EC109 cells. Furthermore, the overexpression of XPD significantly increased the chemosensitivity of EC9706 and EC109 cells to cisplatin or fluorouracil. Following XPD overexpression, the expression levels of PI3K, p?AKT, c?Myc, Cyclin D1, Bcl?2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)?9 were markedly downregulated, while the expression level of p21 was markedly upregulated. On the whole, the findings of the present study demonstrate that XPD inhibits the growth and invasion of EC9706 and EC109 cells, whilst also enhancing the chemosensitivity of EC9706 and EC109 cells to cisplatin or fluorouracil by regulating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. XPD may thus be an underlying target for ESCC treatment and drug resistance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Esophageal carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies with high cancer-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate a wide variety of cellular processes, and also play an important role in the development and progression of cancers. In a previous microarray study, we demonstrated that miR-130b was upregulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues. However, the biologic functions and the molecular mechanism of miR-130b in ESCC remain to be elucidated. METHODS:qRT-PCR assays were used to quantify miR-130b expression levels in ESCC samples. Novel targets of miR-130b were identified via a bioinformatics search and confirmed using a dual-luciferase reporter system. Western blotting and qRT-PCR assays were used to quantify the expression of the target gene PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) and the downstream effector, Akt. ESCC cells over- or underexpressing miR-130b were analyzed for in vitro biologic functions. RESULTS:High levels of miR-130b were identified in 20 ESCC samples following comparison with adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. We confirmed that miR-130b interacted with the 3'-untranslated region of PTEN, and that an increase in the expression level of miR-130b negatively affected the protein level of PTEN. However, the dysregulation of miR-130b had no obvious impact on PTEN mRNA. As Akt is a downstream effector of PTEN, we explored if miR-130b affected Akt expression, and found that miR-130b indirectly regulated the level of phosphorylated Akt, while total Akt protein remained unchanged. Overexpression of miR-130b increased the proliferation of ESCC cells and enhanced their ability to migrate and invade. In contrast, the proliferation, migration, and invasion of ESCC cells were weakened when miR-130b expression was suppressed, which was reversed by PTEN-targeted siRNA. CONCLUSION:The results indicate that miR-130b plays an oncogenic role in ESCC cells by repressing PTEN expression and Akt phosphorylation, which would be helpful in developing miRNA-based treatments for ESCC.
Project description:Background:Tripartite motif?containing 27 (TRIM27) belongs to the TRIM protein family, which is closely related to the progression of some certain human cancers. Nevertheless, the biological function of TRIM27 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still not clear. The aim of present research is to examine the function of TRIM27 in ESCC cells. Methods:In the present study, RNA interference (RNAi) and lentiviral vector were used to knockdown and overexpression of TRIM27 in ESCC cells respectively. qRT-PCR and western blot were used to examine the expression of TRIM27 in ESCC cells. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was performed to determine the proliferation of cells. Results:Our analyses indicated that TRIM27 was a pro-proliferation factor in ESCC cells. Moreover, overexpression of TRIM27 deeply suppressed the apoptosis of ESCC cells and accelerated its glucose uptake. In addition, an AKT inhibitor LY294002 was used to determine the connection between TRIM27 and AKT in ESCC cells. Our results demonstrated that TRIM27 has involved in the PI3/AKT signaling pathway. Moreover, TRIM27 interacted with PTEN and mediated its poly-ubiquitination in ESCC cells. Importantly, the glycolysis inhibitor 3-BrPA also inhibited the effect of TRIM27 on ESCC cells. Hence, TRIM27 also participated in the regulation of energy metabolism in ESCC cells. Conclusions:This research not only gained a deep insight into the biological function of TRIM27 but also elucidated its potential target and signaling pathway in human ESCC cells.
Project description:Metastasis is the most lethal hallmark of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The aim of the study is to identify key signaling pathways that control metastasis in ESCC. Highly invasive ESCC sublines (designated I3 cells) were established through three rounds of selection of cancer cells invading through matrigel-coated chambers. Gene expression profile of one of the I3 sublines was compared with that of its parental cell line using cDNA microarray analysis. Gene ontology and pathway analyses of the differentially expressed genes (both upregulated and downregulated) indicated that genes associated with cellular movement and the AKT pathway were associated with increased cancer cell invasiveness. Western blot analysis confirmed increased phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), N-cadherin and decreased E-cadherin expression in the I3 cells. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the clinical significance of p-AKT expression in ESCC, and the results showed higher p-AKT nuclear expression in lymph node metastases when compared with primary carcinoma. Inactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway with specific inhibitors, or with PTEN overexpression, resulted in reversed cadherin switching and inhibited cancer cell motility. Inhibition of the pathway by treatment with wortmannin markedly suppressed experimental metastasis in nude mice. Our data demonstrated the importance of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in ESCC metastasis and support PI3K/AKT as a valid therapeutic target in treatment of metastatic ESCC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in oncogenesis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). miR-134 is reported to have a tumour-suppressive role but its role in ESCC is not known. The present study was designed to examine whether miR-134 inhibits ESCC development and further explored relevant underlying mechanisms. METHODS:Differentially expressed genes related to ESCC were identified from microarray gene expression profiles. Immunohistochemical staining and RT-qRCR assays identified elevated PLXNA1 expression levels and low miR-134. The relationship between miR-134 and PLXNA1 was predicted and further verified by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. The expression levels of miR-134 and PLXNA1 in ESCC cells were modified by miR-134 mimic/inhibitor and siRNA against PLXNA1, respectively. Thereafter, the expression of MAPK signalling pathway-related proteins, as well as the viability, migration, invasion, cell cycle and cell apoptosis of ESCC cells was investigated. FINDINGS:The results showed that miR-134 could block the MAPK signalling pathway by downregulating PLXNA1. When miR-134 was overexpressed or PLXNA1 was silenced, cell apoptosis was enhanced, the cell cycle was retarded, and the cell proliferation, migration and invasion were suppressed. In vivo experiments confirmed that miR-134 overexpression or PLXNA1 silencing restrained tumour growth and lymph node metastasis. INTERPRETATION:These findings demonstrate that cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumour metastasis of ESCC can be suppressed by overexpression of miR-134 through downregulating PLXNA1, which subsequently blocks the MAPK signalling pathway. These results provide new potential targets and strategies for the treatment of ESCC.
Project description:N-myc down-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) has been shown to regulate tumor growth and metastasis in various malignant tumors and also to be dysregulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Here, we show that NDRG1 overexpression (91.9%, 79/86) in ESCC tumor tissues is associated with poor overall survival of esophageal cancer patients. When placed in stable transfectants of the KYSE 30 ESCC cell line generated by lentiviral transduction with the ectopic overexpression of NDRG1, the expression of transducin-like enhancer of Split 2 (TLE2) was decreased sharply, however ?-catenin was increased. Mechanistically, NDRG1 physically associates with TLE2 and ?-catenin to affect the Wnt pathway. RNA interference and TLE2 overexpression studies demonstrate that NDRG1 fails to active Wnt pathway compared with isogenic wild-type controls. Strikingly, NDRG1 overexpression induces the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) through activating the Wnt signaling pathway in ESCC cells, decreased the expression of E-cadherin and enhanced the expression of Snail. Our study elucidates a mechanism of NDRG1-regulated Wnt pathway activation and EMT via affecting TLE2 and ?-catenin expression in esophageal cancer cells. This indicates a pro-oncogenic role for NDRG1 in esophageal cancer cells whereby it modulates tumor progression.
Project description:Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is one of leading causes of cancer-related deaths in Chaoshan region a high-risk region for esophageal cancer. Extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) usually play an important role in cell proliferation and differentiation. However, accumulating evidence has shown that the ERK was aberrantly expressed in cancers and correlated with STAT1 depression.The activated ERK downregulates STAT1 expression in ESCC cell lines and U0126 increases expression of STAT1. Our immunohistochemistry result also confirms that the expression of ERK inversely correlated with that of STAT1 in ESCC tumors. In addition, a significantly higher expression of ERK/p-ERK was found in ESCC tissues in comparison with case-matched normal esophageal tissues (p < 0.05). Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that ERK expression was paralleled with the differentiation and clinical stage. In 74 patients with follow-up data, those with ERKlow tumors survived significantly longer than those with ERKhigh tumors (p = 0.04); patients with ERKlow/STAT1high tumors had the longest survival (p = 0.001).To investigate whether ERK can mediated STAT1 expression in ESCC, we used the MEK plasmid and U0126, a MEK inhibitor, to treat the cell. To further confirm our in-vitro study, we detected the ERK, p-ERK and STAT1 expression in 131 ESCC cases and 22 case-matched normal esophageal tissues adjacent to the tumors specimens.These findings provide pathological evidence that ERK/p-ERK is negatively correlated with STAT1 in ESCC. Our data suggests that inhibition of ERK and/or restoration of STAT1 expression maybe useful therapeutic strategies for ESCC.
Project description:Radiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients is limited by resistance to ionizing radiation (IR). However, the roles and mechanisms of microRNAs in radioresistance are obscure. Here, we investigated that microRNA-205 (miR-205) was upregulated in radioresistant (RR) ESCC cells compared with the parental cells. Overexpression of miR-205 promoted colony survival post-IR, whereas depletion of miR-205 sensitized ESCC cells to IR in vitro and in vivo. Further, we demonstrated that miR-205 promoted radioresistance by enhancing DNA repair, inhibiting apoptosis and activating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Mechanistically, miR-205, upregulated post-IR, was demonstrated to be activated by Sp1 in parallel with its host gene, miR-205HG, both of which showed a perfect correlation. We also identified and validated phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), as a target of miR-205 that promoted radioresistance via PI3K/AKT pathway. Lastly, increased miR-205 expression was closely associated with decreased PTEN expression in ESCC tissues and miR-205 expression predicted poor prognosis in patients with ESCC. Taken together, these findings identify miR-205 as a critical determinant of radioresistance and a biomarker of prognosis. The Sp1-mediated transcriptional activation of miR-205 promotes radioresistance through PTEN via PI3K/AKT pathway in ESCC. Inhibition of miR-205 expression may be a new strategy for radiotherapy in ESCC.
Project description:Background:MTH1 and NUDT5 effectively degrade nucleotides containing 8-oxoguanine. MTH1 and NUDT5 have been linked to the malignancy of multiple cancers. However, their functions in tumor growth and metastasis in esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC) remain obscure. Our present study aims to explore their prognostic value in ESCC and investigate their function in MTH1 or NUDT5-knockout tumor cells. Methods:MTH1 and NUDT5 protein expression in ESCC adjacent normal tissues and tumor tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry staining. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to assess the association between their expression and overall survival (OS) in ESCC patients. Univariate and Multivariate Cox regression analyses were generated to determine the correlation between these protein expression and OS of ESCC patients. Protein expression in ESCC cell lines were measured by Western blotting. To explore the potential effects of the MTH1 and NUDT5 protein in ESCC, cell models with MTH1 or NUDT5 depletion were established. CCK-8, cell cycle, Western blotting, migration and invasion assays were performed. Results:Our present study demonstrated that the levels of MTH1 and NUDT5 were upregulated in ESCC cell lines and ESCC tissues, the expression of MTH1 and NUDT5 in ESCC tissues was significantly higher than in adjacent non-tumorous, and higher levels of MTH1 and NUDT5 predicted a worse prognosis in patients with ESCC. MTH1 and NUDT5 are novel biomarkers of the progression of ESCC and a poor prognosis. We also found for the first time that the high expression of NUDT5 independently predicted lower OS in patients with ESCC (hazard ratio (HR) 1.751; 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.056-2.903]; p = 0.030). In addition, the depletion of MTH1 and NUDT5 strongly suppressed the proliferation of ESCC cells and significantly delayed the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, we found that MTH1 and NUDT5 silencing inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition mainly by the MAPK/MEK/ERK dependent pathway, which in turn significantly decreased the cell migration and invasion of ESCC cells. Our results suggested that the overexpression of MTH1 and NUDT5 is probably involved in the tumor development and poor prognosis of ESCC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most difficult subtype of esophageal cancer to treat due to the paucity of effective targeted therapy. ESCC is believed to arise from cancer stem cells (CSCs) that contribute to metastasis and chemoresistance. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, the prognosis of ESCC patients remains poor. METHODS:In this study, we applied western blot, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, RNA-Seq analysis, luciferase reporter assay, Chip-qPCR, bioinformatics analysis, and a series of functional assays to show the potential role of LEF1 in regulating esophageal CSCs. RESULTS:We found that the overexpression of LEF1 was associated with aberrant clinicopathological characteristics and the poor prognosis of ESCC patients. In addition, the elevated expression of LEF1 and OV6 was significantly associated with aberrant clinicopathological features, and poor patient prognosis. Moreover, the overexpression of LEF1 was observed in esophageal CSCs purified by the magnetic sorting of adherent and spheroidal ESCC cells. The increased level of LEF1 in CSCs facilitated the expression of CSC markers, stem cell-like properties, resistance to chemotherapy, and tumorigenicity and increased the percentage of CSCs in ESCC samples. Conversely, the knockdown of LEF1 significantly diminished the self-renewal properties of ESCC. We showed that LEF1 played an important mechanical role in activating the TGF-β signaling pathway by directly binding to the ID1 gene promoter. A positive association between LEF1 and ID1 expression was also observed in clinical ESCC samples. CONCLUSION:Our results indicate that the overexpression of LEF1 promotes a CSC-like phenotype in and the tumorigenicity of ESCC by activating the TGF-β signaling pathway. The inhibition of LEF1 might therefore be a novel therapeutic target to inactivate CSCs and inhibit tumor progression.