Insulin enhanced leptin-induced STAT3 signaling by inducing GRP78.
ABSTRACT: Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, centrally regulates energy homeostasis. Overlaps in the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis have been reported between leptin and insulin. However, the effects of insulin on leptin's actions in the central nervous system (CNS) have not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, we found that insulin potentiated leptin's actions through GRP78 in the neuronal cell line, SH-SY5Y-ObRb. Since insulin induces GRP78, we speculated that it may also enhance leptin's actions through this induction. We found that insulin enhanced leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and this effect was ameliorated by the knockdown of GRP78. The role of GRP78 in leptin's actions was also confirmed by impairments in leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in HEK293-ObRb cells in which GRP78 was knocked down. Furthermore, we found that the overexpression of GRP78 enhanced leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. These results suggest that GRP78 plays an important role in leptin's actions. Furthermore, insulin may enhance the leptin-induced activation of STAT3 by inducing GRP78, which may provide an important connection between insulin and leptin in the CNS.
Project description:Activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) requires dimerization that is induced by phosphorylation of Tyr705, but its activity can be further modulated by phosphorylation at Ser727 in a manner that is dependent on cell context and the stimulus used. The role of STAT3 Ser727 phosphorylation in leptin signalling is currently not known. While cells transfected with the signalling-competent long form of the leptin receptor (ObRb) have been used to study leptin signalling, these are likely to be of limited use in studying STAT3 Ser727 phosphorylation due to the importance of cell background in determining the nature of the response. However, we have recently found that J774.2 macrophages endogenously express high levels of ObRb, and using these cells we find that leptin stimulates STAT3 phosphorylation on both Tyr705 and Ser727. The phosphorylation of Ser727 was not affected by rapamycin or the protein kinase C inhibitor H7 [1-(5-isoquinolinylsulphonyl)-2-methylpiperazine dihydrochloride]. While the MEK-1 [mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase)/extracellular-signal-related kinase (ERK) kinase-1] inhibitor PD98059 [(2-amino-3'-methoxyphenyl)oxanaphthalen-4-one] had no effect on leptin-stimulated phosphorylation of STAT3 Tyr705, it greatly attenuated leptin's effects on STAT3 Ser727 phosphorylation. Further, Ob's effect on the DNA binding activity of STAT3 was also greatly reduced at all time points by PD98059. Leptin-induced ERK activation in J774.2 cells shows a biphasic pattern, with an initial reduction in ERK phosphorylation for up to 10 min following leptin stimulation, while at later time points phosphorylation of ERK was increased above basal levels. The increase in ERK activity corresponded with an increase in both phosphorylation of Ser727 and STAT3 DNA binding activity. These data provide the first evidence that ERK-mediated phosphorylation of Ser727 is required for full stimulation of STAT3 by leptin.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin influences the behaviour of a wide range of cell types and is now recognised as a pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory factor. In the vasculature, these effects are mediated in part through its direct leptin receptor (ObRb)-driven actions on endothelial cells (ECs) but the mechanisms responsible for these activities have not been established. In this study we sought to more fully define the molecular links between inflammatory and angiogenic responses of leptin-stimulated human ECs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Immunoblotting studies showed that leptin increased cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression (but not COX-1) in cultured human umbilical vein ECs (HUVEC) through pathways that depend upon activation of both p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38(MAPK)) and Akt, and stimulated rapid phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) on Tyr(1175). Phosphorylation of VEGFR2, p38(MAPK) and Akt, and COX-2 induction in cells challenged with leptin were blocked by a specific leptin peptide receptor antagonist. Pharmacological inhibitors of COX-2, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway and p38(MAPK) abrogated leptin-induced EC proliferation (assessed by quantifying 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, calcein fluorescence and propidium iodide staining), slowed the increased migration rate of leptin-stimulated cells (in vitro wound healing assay) and inhibited leptin-induced capillary-like tube formation by HUVEC on Matrigel. Inhibition of VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase activity reduced leptin-stimulated p38(MAPK) and Akt activation, COX-2 induction, and pro-angiogenic EC responses, and blockade of VEGFR2 or COX-2 activities abolished leptin-driven neo-angiogenesis in a chick chorioallantoic membrane vascularisation assay in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:We conclude that a functional endothelial p38(MAPK)/Akt/COX-2 signalling axis is required for leptin's pro-angiogenic actions and that this is regulated upstream by ObRb-dependent activation of VEGFR2. These studies identify a new function for VEGFR2 as a mediator of leptin-stimulated COX-2 expression and angiogenesis and have implications for understanding leptin's regulation of the vasculature in both non-obese and obese individuals.
Project description:Lipodystrophy is characterized by the complete or partial absence of adipose tissue, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and leptin deficiency. Here, we show that low-dose central leptin corrects the insulin resistance and fatty liver of lipodystrophic aP2-nSREBP-1c mice, while the same dose given peripherally does not. Central leptin also repressed stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) RNA and enzymatic activity, which were increased in livers of lipodystrophic mice. aP2-nSREBP-1c mice homozygous for an SCD-1 deletion had markedly reduced hepatic steatosis, increased saturated fatty acids, decreased acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity, and decreased malonyl-CoA levels in the liver. Despite the reduction in hepatic steatosis, these mice remained diabetic. A leptin dose-response curve showed that subcutaneous leptin improved hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in aP2-nSREBP-1c mice at doses that did not substantially alter hepatic steatosis or hepatic SCD enzymatic activity. Leptin treatment at this dose improved insulin-stimulated insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2) phosphorylation, IRS-2-associated PI3K activity, and Akt activity in liver. Together, these data suggest that CNS-mediated repression of SCD-1 contributes to leptin's antisteatotic actions. Intracerebroventricular leptin improves glucose homeostasis by improving insulin signal transduction in liver, but in this case the effect appears to be independent of SCD-1.
Project description:Leptin receptors play critical roles in mediating leptin's pleiotropic effects on mammalian physiology. To date, six splice variants of the leptin receptor gene have been identified [1-3]. These splice variants have identical extracellular leptin binding motifs but different intracellular C termini. The finding that mutations specifically ablating the function of ObRb cause obesity has established a critical role for this isoform in leptin signaling [1,7]. ObRa is the most abundant splicing isoform with a broad tissue distribution , and it has been proposed to play roles in regulating leptin bioavailability, CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) transport and function by forming heterodimers with ObRb and also activating signal transduction via JAK2 in-vitro [5-10]. To assess the in-vivo role of ObRa, we generated an ObRa KO mouse by deleting the ObRa-specific exon 19a. Homozygous mutant mice breed normally and are indistinguishable from wild-type mice on regular chow diet, but show a slightly increased basal plasma leptin, a slight improvement of their GTT and a slightly reduced response to systemic leptin administration. These mice also show a modest but statistically significant increase in weight when placed on a high fat diet with a slightly reduced CSF/plasma ratio of leptin. These data suggest that ObRa plays a role in mediating some of leptin's effects but that the phenotypic consequences are modest compared to a deletion of ObRb.
Project description:Leptin is a circulating hormone that plays a critical role in regulating energy expenditure and food intake. Evidence to suggest the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the development of obesity is increasing. To adapt against ER stress, cells trigger the unfolded protein response (UPR). The 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) is an ER chaperone that protects cells against ER stress by inducing protein folding. In the present study, we hypothesized that leptin may activate UPR and protect against ER stress associated with obesity. SH-SY5Y, a human neuroblastoma cell line stably transfected with the Ob-Rb leptin receptor (SH-SY5Y-ObRb), was treated with leptin. We demonstrated that leptin induced GRP78 expression. We then validated the mechanism responsible for the leptin-induced expression of GRP78. Interestingly, leptin-induced GRP78 expression was not dependent on IRE1-XBP1 pathway. On the other hand, the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, and mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, inhibited the leptin-induced expression of GRP78. These results suggested that the leptin-induced expression of GRP78 may be dependent on the PI3K-mTOR pathway. Leptin specifically induced GRP78 because the induction of the ER-apoptotic marker, CHOP, was not detected in leptin-treated cells. Therefore, leptin may upregulate the expression of GRP78, thereby protecting against ER stress associated with obesity.
Project description:Brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1c) is implicated in CNS control of food intake. In this article, we explore the role of hypothalamic CPT-1c in leptin's anorexigenic actions. We first show that adenoviral overexpression of CPT-1c in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of rats increases food intake and concomitantly up-regulates orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Bsx (a transcription factor of NPY). Then, we demonstrate that this overexpression antagonizes the anorectic actions induced by central leptin or compound cerulenin (an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase). The overexpression of CPT-1c also blocks leptin-induced down-regulations of NPY and Bsx. Furthermore, the anorectic actions of central leptin or cerulenin are impaired in mice with brain CPT-1c deleted. Both anorectic effects require elevated levels of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Arc) malonyl-CoA, a fatty acid-metabolism intermediate that has emerged as a mediator in hypothalamic control of food intake. Thus, these data suggest that CPT-1c is implicated in malonyl-CoA action in leptin's hypothalamic anorectic signaling pathways. Moreover, ceramide metabolism appears to play a role in leptin's central control of feeding. Leptin treatment decreases Arc ceramide levels, with the decrease being important in leptin-induced anorectic actions and down-regulations of NPY and Bsx. Of interest, our data indicate that leptin impacts ceramide metabolism through malonyl-CoA and CPT-1c, and ceramide de novo biosynthesis acts downstream of both malonyl-CoA and CPT-1c in mediating their effects on feeding and expressions of NPY and Bsx. In summary, we provide insights into the important roles of malonyl-CoA, CPT-1c, and ceramide metabolism in leptin's hypothalamic signaling pathways.
Project description:The interaction of leptin with its hepatic longest receptor (OBRb) promotes the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), protecting the liver from lipid accumulation. However, leptin signalling is disrupted in hepatic steatosis, causing leptin resistance. One promising strategy to combat this problem is the use of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols. Since resveratrol (RSV) is a modulator of lipid homeostasis in the liver, we investigated whether treatment with different doses of RSV restores appropriate leptin action and fat accumulation in palmitate-induced steatotic human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Both RSV metabolism and the expression of molecules implicated in leptin signalling were analysed. RSV at a 10 ?M concentration was entirely metabolized to resveratrol-3-sulfate after 24 and counteracted leptin resistance by increasing the protein levels of OBRb. In addition, RSV downregulated the expression of lipogenic genes including fatty acid synthase (Fas) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (Scd1) without any significant change in Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) enzymatic activity. These results demonstrate that RSV restored leptin sensitivity in a cellular model of hepatic steatosis in a SIRT1-independent manner.
Project description:Leptin acts in the brain to regulate food intake and energy expenditure. Leptin also increases renal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure. The divergent signaling capacities of the leptin receptor (ObRb) mediate the stimulation of various intracellular pathways that are important for leptin control of physiological processes. We evaluated the cardiovascular and sympathetic consequences of disrupting the signal emanating from tyrosine985 of ObRb. For this, we used Lepr(L985) (l/l) mice, which carry a loss of function mutation replacing tyrosine985 of ObRb with leucine. Body weight of l/l mice was not significantly different from wild-type controls. In contrast, radiotelemetry measurements revealed that the l/l mice had higher arterial pressure and heart rate as compared with controls. Ganglionic blockade caused a greater arterial pressure fall in the l/l mice relative to controls. In addition, leptin treatment induced a larger increase in arterial pressure and heart rate in the l/l versus wild-type mice. Finally, we compared the response of renal and brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity to intracerebroventricular injection of leptin (2 ?g) between l/l and control mice. Leptin-induced increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity was greater in l/l mice relative to controls. In contrast, the brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity response to leptin was attenuated in the l/l mice relative to controls. These data indicate that selective loss of leptin receptor signaling emanating from tyrosine985 enhances the cardiovascular and renal sympathetic effects of leptin. These findings provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying leptin's effects on the sympathetic cardiovascular function and arterial pressure.
Project description:Leptin and insulin are major signals to the hypothalamus to regulate energy homoeostasis and body adiposity. IR (insulin receptors) and leptin receptors (long isoform, ObRb) share a number of signalling cascades, such as JAK2/STAT-3 (Janus kinase 2/signal transduction and activator of transcription 3) and PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase); the cross-talk between IR and ObRb have been described previously in non-neuronal cells. Differentiated human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells express endogenous ObR and IR, and respond to leptin and insulin with stimulation of STAT-3 and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) phosphorylation, and PI3K activity. Insulin or leptin pre-treatment of SH-SY5Y cells increased basal STAT-3 phosphorylation, but abolished the acute effect of these hormones, and, interestingly, leptin pre-treatment abolished insulin effect and vice versa. Similar results were obtained for MAPK phosphorylation, but leptin or insulin pre-treatment did not completely abolish the acute effect of insulin or leptin. We have also showed that insulin and leptin are able to activate PI3K through IRS-1 (insulin receptor substrate 1) and IRS-2 respectively. Furthermore, leptin or insulin pre-treatment increased basal PI3K activity and IRS-1 or IRS-2 association with p85 and abolished acute insulin or leptin effect, in addition to the down-regulation of IRS-1 and IRS-2. Finally, insulin pre-treatment reduced leptin binding by approx. 60%, and leptin pre-treatment reduced the expression of insulin receptor by 40% in SH-SY5Y cells, which most likely accounts for the cross down-regulation of leptin and insulin receptors. These results provide evidence to suggest cross down-regulation of leptin and insulin receptors at both receptor and downstream signalling levels. This finding may contribute to the understanding of the complex relationship between leptin resistance and insulin resistance at the neuronal level.
Project description:Mice lacking the RII? regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) display reduced adiposity and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Here we show that RII? knockout (KO) mice have enhanced sensitivity to leptin's effects on both feeding and energy metabolism. After administration of a low dose of leptin, the duration of hypothalamic JAK/STAT3 signalling is increased, resulting in enhanced POMC mRNA induction. Consistent with the extended JAK/STAT3 activation, we find that the negative feedback regulator of leptin receptor signalling, Socs3, is inhibited in the hypothalamus of RII? KO mice. During fasting, RII?-PKA is activated and this correlates with an increase in CREB phosphorylation. The increase in CREB phosphorylation is absent in the fasted RII? KO hypothalamus. Selective inhibition of PKA activity in AgRP neurons partially recapitulates the leanness and resistance to diet-induced obesity of RII? KO mice. Our findings suggest that RII?-PKA modulates the duration of leptin receptor signalling and therefore the magnitude of the catabolic response to leptin.