ABSTRACT: Varus knee malalignment caused by medial compartment arthritis results in progressive asymmetric wear of the tibiofemoral joint. This wear can cause progressively painful gonarthrosis. Surgical methods to address varus knee malalignment include lateral closing-wedge proximal tibial osteotomy, medial opening-wedge osteotomy, and arthroplasty. Medial opening-wedge proximal tibial osteotomy is an effective procedure for restoring proper coronal alignment and reducing knee pain. In this technical note, we present a reproducible technique for proximal tibial osteotomy.
Project description:Opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy is an increasingly performed procedure for treatment of varus gonarthrosis and correction of malalignment during meniscal transplantation or cartilage restoration. Precise preoperative planning and meticulous surgical technique are required to achieve an appropriate mechanical axis correction. We describe our technique of arthroscopic and computer-assisted high tibial osteotomy using commonly available total knee arthroplasty navigation software as an intraoperative goniometer. We believe that our technique, by providing intraoperative real-time guidance of the degree of correction that is accurate and reliable, represents a useful tool for the surgeon who uncommonly performs high tibial osteotomy.
Project description:Genu varus malalignment can lead to medial compartment overload and progression of ipsilateral compartment osteoarthritis. To slow this process, a medial opening wedge proximal tibial osteotomy (PTO) can be performed. This type of PTO is indicated in patients with genu varus malalignment and isolated medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee, prior to or concurrent with medial compartment cartilage procedures or meniscal transplants, chronic posterolateral corner deficiency, or chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficiency. When treating ligamentous instability, a PTO can be performed in isolation, with simultaneous ligament reconstruction, or as a staged procedure with the osteotomy first, followed by ligament reconstruction if instability persists. Failure to address malalignment in cases of concurrent ligament reconstruction leads to increased stress on the graft and potential graft failure. One distinct advantage of this procedure is the ability to correct deformities in the sagittal and coronal planes. The purpose of this article was to describe our technique used to perform a medial opening wedge PTO.
Project description:The medial meniscal root tear, a particular meniscal injury at the level of its posterior bone insertion, leads to a loss of impact absorption and load distribution capacity, similar to total meniscectomy. Therefore, its repair is fundamental for knee joint longevity. This type of injury often occurs in middle-aged patients with lower limbs varus malalignment, which results in mechanical overloading of the medial compartment and induces premature cartilage wear out. The success of meniscal root repair, with meniscal bone reinsertion, depends on the correction and realignment of varus deformities greater than 5° for physiological levels. In this situation, corrective tibial osteotomy combined with meniscal repair is indicated. Our goal is to describe the step-by-step technique of the valgus opening wedge tibial osteotomy combined with the arthroscopic reinsertion of the posterior meniscal root in tibia during the treatment of a patient with varus deformity and medial meniscus root tear.
Project description:The coronal plane high tibial osteotomy is a novel technique that is used to treat tibiofemoral malalignment. The authors hypothesize that the coronal plane high tibial osteotomy is (1) efficacious in treating both varus and valgus tibiofemoral malalignment; (2) does not alter the slope of the proximal tibia; and (3) does not alter the relationship between the patella and tibial tubercle. A retrospective review of 25 patients with tibiofemoral malalignment (19 varus/6 valgus) treated with a coronal plane osteotomy with a minimum of 2-year follow-up was performed. A Kaplan-Meyer survival curve was performed using knee arthroplasty and a Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee score <70 as failure criteria. The Insall-Salvati ratio and the proximal tibial slope were measured. A p value of 0.05 was considered significant. At 60-month follow-up, knees with initial varus malalignment had an 84% survival rate using both knee arthroplasty and the HSS score as endpoints. Knees with initial valgus malalignment had an 84 and 60% survival rate using knee arthroplasty and the HSS score as endpoints, respectively. There was no statistically significant change in the Insall-Salvati ratio and proximal tibial slope after coronal plane osteotomy. The coronal plane osteotomy is efficacious in treating varus and valgus tibiofemoral malalignment and does not alter the patellar-tibial tubercle relationship or the posterior tibial slope [case series (level of evidence: IV)].
Project description:Coronal limb malalignment is a significant contributor to asymmetric joint wear, gait abnormalities, and the development and progression of degenerative joint disease. Osteotomies about the knee were developed to realign the mechanical axis of the limb to unload the affected compartment. Valgus malalignment is less common than varus malalignment, but can contribute to a variety of clinical conditions, including lateral compartment cartilage defects and arthritis, lateral patellofemoral instability, and medial collateral ligament laxity. In this article, we describe our preferred operative technique for a lateral opening wedge varus-producing distal femoral osteotomy to correct mild to moderate valgus malalignment.
Project description:The barrel vault tibial osteotomy performed for knee varus osteoarthritis avoids the complications of the opening wedge osteotomy and minimizes the potential complications of the lateral closing wedge osteotomy. It allows correction of large varus deformities in knee medial compartment osteoarthritis.
Project description:A hemi-closing-wedge and hemi-opening-wedge, inverted V-shaped high tibial osteotomy with local bone graft has been reported to be an effective surgical procedure for medial osteoarthritis of the knee. In this procedure, an inverted V-shaped osteotomy is made and a thin wedged bone block is resected from the lateral side and implanted in the medial opening space created after valgus correction. This procedure can provide sufficient valgus correction of the knee with severe varus deformity more easily than can closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy. The inverted V-shaped osteotomy does not change the posterior tibial slope, the patellar height, or the length of the lower limb at all because the center of tibial alignment correction by the inverted V-shaped osteotomy is located near the center of rotation of angulation of the lower-limb deformity. We recently modified this procedure by performing biplanar osteotomy, developing useful cutting guides, and fixing the tibia with a lateral locking compression plate. The surgical technique is described to enable the reproducible creation of the hemi-closing-wedge and hemi-opening-wedge, inverted V-shaped osteotomy with the locking plate for medial osteoarthritic knees with moderate or severe varus deformity.
Project description:Objective:To evaluate the microfracture intervention with tibial valgus osteotomy associated in the treatment of varus gonarthrosis. Methods:From November 2005 to May 2013, 129 patients with medial gonarthrosis, varus deformity (8°-12°), and range of movement greater than 90° were evaluated. Patients with advanced gonarthrosis (Alhbäck 3, 4, and 5), Outerbridge lesion inferior to IV, previous knee surgery, body mass index greater than 35 kg/m2, and/or cruciate ligament injuries were not included. All patients were treated with videoarthroscopy followed by tibial valgus osteotomy. In the group osteotomy associated with microfracture (n = 56, mean age = 39.3), tibial valgus osteotomy and microfracture techniques to address chondral defects were used. In the isolated osteotomy group (n = 73, mean age = 41.4), only this procedure was performed. Post-surgical follow-up was 24 months, with four evaluations in the first 6 months, proceeding to biannual twice-a-year evaluation in the subsequent period. The Lysholm scale was used for functional monitoring. Results:There was a significant improvement in the pain, limping, and squatting domains of the Lysholm scale but only in the isolated osteotomy group. A greater variance of results was observed in the osteotomy group associated to microfracture, in addition to an increased risk of functional deterioration (OR = 8.64). Conclusion:The association of microfractures and tibial valgus osteotomy was correlated to lower functional outcomes than tibial valgus osteotomy alone, and may be related to the risk of worsening in the first two postoperative years.
Project description:High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a useful alternative in the treatment of symptomatic varus malalignment. However, among its drawbacks is the tendency to decrease patellar height and increase the posterior tibial slope. The increased tibial slope increases anterior cruciate ligament tension and may compromise its function. On the other hand, patella baja often causes anterior knee pain and, over time, may favor degeneration of the patellofemoral joint. The aim of this study is to describe a technical modification of the standard open-wedge HTO. It consists of a double inverted L-shaped cut, which includes the anterior tibial tuberosity in the proximal fragment, to avoid any alteration of patellar height and control the eventual increase of the posterior tibial slope.
Project description:Valgus malalignment can be corrected with a medial closing-wedge proximal tibia osteotomy in patients with symptomatic lateral compartment disease. Advantages of this technique include the inherent stability of the closing wedge with direct bone contact and reliable healing that enables early weight bearing and shorter recovery time. In addition, a tibial-based osteotomy alters joint contact forces in both flexion and extension versus femoral-based osteotomies. The purpose of this article is to present a reproducible technique for medial closing-wedge proximal tibia osteotomy and review the indications, preoperative planning, rationale, and clinical outcomes.