Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Autograft and a Medial Parapatellar Portal.
ABSTRACT: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is one of the most extensively studied surgical procedures in orthopaedics. The importance of this ligament for knee function and stability has been widely studied. For athletes who participate in activities involving cutting, twisting, and running, surgical reconstruction of the ACL has become the standard of care. However, there is much debate regarding the techniques involved in ACL reconstruction, including graft choice, technique of drilling the femoral tunnel, and single- versus double-bundle reconstruction. In recent studies, ACL femoral tunnel drilling via a medial parapatellar or accessory anteromedial portal provides a more anatomic graft placement than transtibial femoral drilling. Long-term outcomes of these techniques have not been widely studied. This article details our technique for ACL reconstruction with bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft and a medial parapatellar portal.
Project description:Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is one of the most commonly performed orthopaedic sports procedures. Two main techniques are used for accomplishing an ACL reconstruction: transtibial and anteromedial portal techniques. The transtibial technique has been criticized for its inability to create an anatomic femoral tunnel given the intrinsic constraint of the tibial tunnel during drilling. However, technical modifications of the transtibial technique can result in anatomic tunnel entrance positioning and a properly oriented graft. This Technical Note presents our technique for anatomic transtibial ACL reconstruction.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The drilling technique used to make a femoral tunnel is critically important for determining outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The 2 most common methods are the transtibial (TT) and anteromedial (AM) techniques.<h4>Purpose</h4>To determine whether graft orientation and placement affect clinical outcomes by comparing clinical and radiological outcomes after single-bundle ACL reconstruction with the AM versus TT technique.<h4>Study design</h4>Systematic review; Level of evidence, 3.<h4>Methods</h4>Articles in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and MEDLINE were searched from inception until April 25, 2020, using the following Boolean operators: transtibial OR trans-tibial AND (anteromedial OR trans-portal OR independent OR three portal OR accessory portal) AND anterior cruciate ligament.<h4>Results</h4>Of 1270 studies retrieved, 39 studies involving 11,207 patients were included. Of these studies, 14 were clinical, 13 were radiological, and 12 were mixed. Results suggested that compared with the TT technique, the AM technique led to significantly improved anteroposterior and rotational knee stability, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores, and recovery time from surgery. A higher proportion of negative Lachman (<i>P</i> = .0005) and pivot-shift test (<i>P</i> = .0001) results, lower KT-1000 arthrometer maximum manual displacement (<i>P</i> = .00001), higher Lysholm score (<i>P</i> = .001), a higher incidence of IKDC grade A/B (<i>P</i> = .05), and better visual analog scale score for satisfaction (<i>P</i> = .00001) were observed with the AM technique compared with the TT technique. The AM drilling technique demonstrated a significantly shorter tunnel length (<i>P</i> = .00001). Significant differences were seen between the femoral and tibial graft angles in both techniques. Low overall complication and revision rates were observed for ACL reconstruction with the AM drilling technique, similar to the TT drilling technique.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In single-bundle ACL reconstruction, the AM drilling technique was superior to the TT drilling technique based on physical examination, scoring systems, and radiographic results. The AM portal technique provided a more reproducible anatomic graft placement compared with the TT technique.
Project description:Pediatric anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears present a technical dilemma for orthopaedic surgeons. Multiple surgical techniques have been described to protect the distal femoral and proximal tibial physes. We present an ACL reconstruction technique performed on a 12-year-old girl with open physes who sustained an ACL tear after a noncontact twisting injury while playing soccer. A hamstring autograft reconstruction was performed by use of a posteromedial portal to drill the femoral tunnel in an all-epiphyseal fashion at the anatomic footprint of the native ACL. This case provides a new surgical technique to achieve anatomic fixation for ACL reconstruction in a skeletally immature individual using a posteromedial portal to drill a physeal-sparing lateral femoral tunnel for anatomic ACL reconstruction. This advancement may make drilling the femoral tunnel less technically challenging compared with other proposed methods while maintaining the lateral wall of the distal femur.
Project description:Suspensory femoral graft fixation has been a popular and reliable method in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Some authors have introduced suspensory femoral fixation in posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction using inside-out (IO) technique. The use of IO technique for femoral tunnel preparation could significantly sharpen the critical corner, which might result in graft failure. A retrograde drilling pin that recently has been popular in ACL reconstruction allows "no incision" in the outside-in (OI) technique for the creation of a femoral socket. Here we describe the suspensory femoral fixation using a retro-socket technique in single-bundle PCL reconstruction. By using this technique, it is possible to create a retrograde femoral socket for suspensory femoral fixation in an OI manner in a desirable direction and reduce angulation of the graft in the entry area of the femoral tunnel.
Project description:Improper femoral tunnel placement in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a significant problem and may be a cause of ACL graft failure and abnormal kinematics, which may lead to late degenerative changes after reconstruction. Recently, there has been concern that the transtibial approach may contribute to nonanatomic placement of the femoral tunnel, resulting in abnormal knee kinematics. Tibial-independent techniques can provide more anatomic placement of the ACL graft, but these can be technically demanding. This technical note describes the senior author's technique to directly identify the femoral ACL remnant and use the center of the femoral ACL footprint and retrograde drilling to create an anatomic femoral socket for single-bundle reconstruction. This technique provides femoral tunnel placement based on identification of a patient-specific ACL footprint instead of averaged anatomic measurements from large groups. This technique has been shown to produce anatomic ACL graft position and orientation and restore more normal knee kinematics.
Project description:Although the transtibial (TT) technique for single-bundle (SB) arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has been widely used, surgeons often disadvantageously create the femoral bone tunnel at the arthroscopically noon position, which is alleged the “ACL isometric point,” when the femoral bone tunnel could be created behind the resident’s ridge with TT-SB ACL reconstruction by paying attention to the location of the tibial tunnel inlet and the angle of tibial tunnel. This alternative approach preserves ACL remnant tissue, which might contribute to better postoperative remodeling and regeneration of proprioceptive mechanoreceptors. This technique reduces surgical invasiveness and can enhance postoperative graft remodeling and proprioceptive recovery. To successfully use the devices required for this procedure, surgeons must understand the proper techniques. Hence, this technical note aims to demonstrate TT-SB ACL reconstruction with remnant tissue preservation. Technique Video Video 1 Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is carried out under regional or general anesthesia without a pneumatic tourniquet. The patient is placed in a supine position with the operative knee held in the leg drop position at 90° flexion. Standard anterolateral and anteromedial portals are made. After routine arthroscopic observation, the ACL remnant tissue is pulled with a probe and confirmed to be Crain type 3. The proximal end of the remnant femoral stump located behind the resident’s ridge is minimally debrided using a shaver, and a thermal device is used to create the femoral bone tunnel. During this procedure, careful attention should be made to the ACL remnant tissue so that it is not injured and to preserve the continuity and maximize the amount of ACL remnant tissue. Anatomic insertion of the femoral anteromedial bundle (AMB) is identified behind the resident’s ridge via the anteromedial portal. Then, a longitudinal slit is made at the center of the tibial ACL remnant tissue, into which the tibial ACL guide is inserted. The center of the tibial bone tunnel is placed at the AMB footprint from the lateral to the medial tibial spine. The center of the AMB insertion is defined according to 3 surrounding landmarks, namely, the anterior ridge, lateral groove, and intertubercular fossa, and bony prominences corresponding to the ACL tibial footprint are identified. The coronal angle relative to the tibial axis averages 25.5°, and the sagittal angle relative to the tibial axis was averages 52.3°. Then, a tibial tunnel with a diameter of 8.5 to 9 mm is made. The femoral bone tunnel insert is positioned inferior to the “over-the-top” position. The 6-mm femoral aimer is inserted through the tibial tunnel to prevent posterior wall blowout with varus and internal rotation of the tibia, thus resulting in a figure-four position. Hence, the femoral bone tunnel is created lower and deeper, thus placing it behind the resident’s ridge. The 2.4-mm guide pin insertion point is confirmed via anteromedial portal considering the location behind the resident’s ridge. Then, 4.5-mm arthroscopic drilling accompanied by an 8-mm over drilling is performed to create a socket-shaped tunnel. When the femoral tunnel cannot be created behind the resident’s ridge, surgeons should consider creating a femoral tunnel using the outside-in technique or transportal technique. The length of the femoral bone tunnel is measured using a depth gage and the length of suspensory fixation device is calculated. A hamstring graft is introduced into the joint cavity through the tibial tunnel and ACL remnant tissue and then placed in the femoral socket.
Project description:There is growing evidence that anatomic placement of the femoral tunnel in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction confers biomechanical advantages over the traditional tunnel position. The anteromedial portal technique for anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has many well-described technical challenges. This article describes the translateral all-inside technique, which produces anatomic femoral tunnel placement using direct measurement of the medial wall of the lateral femoral condyle and outside-in drilling. All work is carried out through the lateral portal with all viewing through the medial portal. Thus there is no need for an accessory medial portal or hyperflexion of the knee during femoral socket preparation. A single quadrupled hamstring graft is used with cortical fixation at both the femoral and tibial tunnels.
Project description:In an effort to better restore normal joint function and kinematics, recent emphasis has been placed on surgical techniques that provide a more anatomic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). With femoral tunnel placement shown to play a vital role in the biomechanics, stability, and clinical outcomes after ACL reconstruction, approaches that better approximate the ACL's native femoral origin have been adopted. The independent anteromedial portal technique is thought to better position the femoral tunnel within the native ACL footprint and leave the graft more posteroinferior on the wall of the lateral femoral condyle than the more traditional transtibial approach. This article outlines the surgical technique for an anteromedial portal ACL reconstruction with a tibialis anterior allograft fixed with the Mitek Femoral and Tibial Intrafix sheath and screw system (DePuy Synthes, Raynham, MA).
Project description:Significant controversy exists regarding the optimal surgical technique for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in adolescents with 1 to 3 years of skeletal growth remaining. Graft choice and physeal injury remain primary concerns given significantly elevated rates of failure of hamstring autograft reconstructions in this population, as well as risks of leg-length discrepancy and growth axis deviation. Traditional (more vertical) transtibial drilling of the femoral tunnel can reduce risks of physeal injury but has been shown to have less accuracy restoring the native femoral ACL footprint and associated incomplete knee stabilization. On the other hand, anteromedial and outside-in drilling yields improvements in the tunnel location and biomechanics but at the cost of a more oblique trajectory and greater risk of physeal injury. A hybrid transtibial pin technique using a Pathfinder guide facilitates femoral drilling with the "best of both worlds," allowing for reproduction of the native ACL footprint and a more physeal-respecting femoral tunnel. When combined with an all-soft tissue quadriceps tendon autograft and suspensory fixation, the hybrid transtibial method yields a reliable, safe, and robust construct with promising results for the young athlete. We describe our preferred graft harvest, tunnel drilling, and fixation techniques to minimize physeal risks and optimize outcomes.
Project description:A double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction associated with an anterolateral ligament (ALL) reconstructions is performed. The semitendinosus and gracilis are harvested. At knee maximum flexion, the anteromedial (AM) femoral tunnel is performed in the AM footprint area. Through the anterolateral portal, the tip of the outside-in femoral guide is placed in the posterolateral footprint area. The guide sleeve is pushed onto the lateral femoral cortex at the ALL attachment. At 110° knee flexion, the posterolateral-ALL tunnel is performed. The tibial ACL tunnel is performed as usual. The tibial guide is placed between the ALL tibial attachment and the tibial ACL tunnel entrance to perform the ALL tibial tunnel. The gracilis graft is introduced from caudal to cranial, achieving fixation with a 6-mm diameter screw (outside-in). The AM femoral fixation is achieved with a suspension device. ACL tibial graft fixation is achieved with a screw. Afterward, the gracilis is passed under the fascia lata to the tibial entry point. A 6-mm diameter screw is placed from the external cortex into the tibial ALL tunnel. The biomechanical advantage of the double-bundle ACL reconstruction with the biomechanical advantage of the ALL anatomic reconstruction is achieved.