N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine inhibits the development of glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis in diabetes-prone mice.
ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is associated with different pathological conditions, including glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes (T2D), however studies had failed to prove the benefits of antioxidants in T2D. AIM:On the assumption that the failure to demonstrate such anti-diabetic effects is a result of sub-optimal or excessive antioxidant dosage, we aimed to clarify the dose-response effect of the antioxidant N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC) on the progression of T2D in-vivo. METHODS:Experiments were conducted on KK-Ay mice and HFD-fed mice given NAC at different concentrations (200-1800 and 60-600 mg/kg/day, respectively). Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed and plasma insulin and lipid peroxidation were measured. Insulin signaling pathway was followed in muscle and liver. Hepatic TG accumulation and mRNA expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism were measured. RESULTS:While 600-1800 mg/kg/day NAC all improved glucose tolerance in KK-Ay mice, only the 1200 mg/kg/day treatment increased insulin sensitivity. Hepatic function was not affected, however; microsteatosis rather than macrosteatosis was observed in NAC-treated mice compared to control. Glucose tolerance was improved in NAC-treated HFD-fed mice as well; the best results obtained with a dose of 400 mg NAC/kg/day. This was followed by lower weight gain and hepatic TG. Plasma lipid peroxidation was not correlated with the glucose-lowering effects of NAC in either model. CONCLUSION:Identification of the optimal dose of NAC and the population that would benefit the most from such intervention is essential in order to apply preventive and/or therapeutic use of NAC and similar agents in the future.
Project description:The glucose lowering properties of Sarcopoterium spinosum, a traditional medicinal plant, were previously validated by us using KK-Ay mice as a genetic model for type 2 diabetes (T2D).To clarify the effects of Sarcopoterium spinosum extract (SSE) on diet-induced glucose intolerance and to investigate SSE effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in target tissues of both high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed and KK-Ay mice.Mice were given SSE (70 mg/day) for 6 weeks. SSE improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed mice as was demonstrated previously in KK-Ay mice. Higher insulin sensitivity was validated by lower serum insulin and activation of the insulin signaling cascade in skeletal muscle and liver of SSE-treated mice in both models. H&E staining of the livers demonstrated lower severity of steatosis in SSE-treated mice. Several model-specific effects of SSE were observed-mRNA expression of proinflammatory genes and CD36 was reduced in SSE-treated KK-Ay mice. Hepatic mRNA expression of PEPCK was also reduced in SSE-treated KK-Ay mice, while other genes involved in carbohydrates and lipid metabolism were not affected. HFD-fed mice treated by SSE had elevated hepatic glycogen stores. Gluconeogenic gene expression was not affected, while GCK expression was increased. HFD-induced hepatic steatosis was not affected by SSE. However, while genes involved in lipid metabolism were downregulated by HFD, this was not found in HFD-fed mice given SSE, demonstrating an expression profile which is similar to that of standard diet-fed mice.Our study supports the insulin sensitizing activity of SSE and suggests that this extract might improve other manifestations of the metabolic syndrome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The global epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a challenging health problem. Lifestyle changes, including nutrition therapy, areimportant for the prevention and management of T2D. Seaweeds contain several bioactive substances with potential health properties and may be a low-cost alternative functional food in the prevention of T2D. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to explore the preventive effects of dried Nordic seaweed species on diabetes in an animal model of T2D. METHOD:Fiftymale KK-Ay mice were randomly assigned to one of four diets: control diet (chow) or diets supplemented with Alaria esculenta (AE), Saccharina latissima (SL), or Palmaria palmata (PP). The effect of the interventions on the progression of T2D was monitored over 10 weeks and evaluated by circulating glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin, glucagon, and lipid levels. RESULTS:The SL group had significantly lower bodyweight, lower HbA1c and insulin levels, as well as higher high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels after the 10-week intervention than the control group. At the end of the study, the control group had significantly higher HbA1c (p < 0.001) than all of the seaweed groups. CONCLUSION:All seaweed groups improved HbA1C compared to control and Saccharinalatissima seaweed had concomitantly beneficial effects on glycemic control and lipid levels in KK-Ay diabetic mice.
Project description:The study examined whether royal jelly (RJ) can prevent obesity and ameliorate hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. This study utilized obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice. RJ (10 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage. Body weight, plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured. mRNA and protein levels were determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Four weeks of RJ administration improved hyperglycemia and partially suppressed body weight gain, although the latter effect did not reach statistical significance. In addition, RJ administration did not improve insulin resistance. RJ administration suppressed the mRNA expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis, in the liver. Simultaneously, RJ administration induced adiponectin (AdipoQ) expression in abdominal fat, adiponectin receptor-1 (AdipoR1) expression in the liver and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) expression, which suppressed G6Pase levels in the livers of KK-Ay mice. pAMPK levels were also increased in skeletal muscle, but glucose transporter-4 (Glut4) translocation was not increased in the RJ supplementation group. The improvement in hyperglycemia due to long-term RJ administration may be because of the suppression of G6Pase expression through the upregulation of AdipoQ and AdipoR1 mRNA and pAMPK protein expressions.
Project description:Background and Objective:Insulin resistance is well known to exhibit essential effects on the progression of diabetes mellitus (DM). Guava leaf was also reported to exhibit anti-diabetic effects including decreasing blood glucose. Therefore, this present study aims to explore the role guava leaf extract (GLE) plays in insulin resistance and its mechanism of action via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Methods:KK-Ay mice is a spontaneous genetic type 2 diabetes mouse model induced by feeding a high fat and high sugar diet. Mice were randomly assigned into three groups: diabetic mice (DM), DM + MET (diabetic mice treated with metformin) and DM + GLE (diabetic mice treated with GLE) groups. After 8 weeks of treatment, body weight and levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin and lipids in plasma were measured. Mice were sacrificed and mRNA and protein expression of insulin receptor substrate1 (IRS1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and serine/threonine kinase protein B (Akt) in livers were measured. Results:GLE markedly reduced body weight, FPG, fasting insulin and insulin resistance index but increased the insulin sensitivity index of diabetic KK-Ay mice. Moreover, GLE upregulated the expression of IRS-1, PI3K and Akt mRNAs in livers of diabetic KK-Ay mice. In addition, GLE also elevated IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, p-PI3K and p-Akt protein expression in their livers. The results of the DM + MET group were similar to those of the DM + GLE group. Conclusion:GLE plays anti-diabetic roles by ameliorating insulin resistance in KK-Ay diabetic mice and this is related to the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of palmitoleic acid (C16:1 n-7) on reducing muscle insulin resistance and preventing beta-cell apoptosis. However, the effect of palmitoleic acid on diabetes remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine the antidiabetic effect of palmitoleic acid in KK-Ay mice, a spontaneous model for studies of obese type 2 diabetes with low insulin sensitivity. METHODS: KK-Ay mice were orally administered vehicle, 300 mg/kg of palmitoleic acid, or 300 mg/kg of palmitic acid (C16:0) on a daily basis for 4 weeks. RESULTS: Palmitoleic acid reduced body weight increase, ameliorated the development of hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia, and improved insulin sensitivity. In addition, hepatic characteristics were significantly affected, as weight of the liver and hepatic triglyceride levels were lower in the palmitoleic acid group when compared to the control (vehicle and palmitic acid groups). Oil red O staining clearly indicated reduced hepatic lipid accumulation in response to palmitoleic acid. Furthermore, palmitoleic acid down-regulated mRNA expressions of proinflammatory adipocytokine genes (TNF? and resistin) in white adipose tissue and lipogenic genes (SREBP-1, FAS, and SCD-1) in liver. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that palmitoleic acid improves hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia by increasing insulin sensitivity, in part owing to suppressing proinflammatory gene expressions and improving hepatic lipid metabolism in diabetic mice.
Project description:Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease. The KK Cg-Ay/J (KK-Ay) mouse is an animal model to study type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) disease. The present study assessed the expression of hematopoietically expressed homeobox (HHEX) protein in liver tissues of different age groups of mice (6, 16 and 42 weeks) by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The results demonstrated a significant decrease in the percentage of HHEX-positive cells in KK-Ay mice as compared with that in KK-?/? control mice. Furthermore, in Taiwan's Han Chinese population, genotypic and allelic frequency distributions of the rs61862780 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the HHEX gene were investigated. The results demonstrated that in the rs61862780 SNP of the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of HHEX, the frequency of the CC genotype was higher in patients (6.0%) than in controls (2.7%), while the TT genotype frequency was about equal. In the same SNP, the frequency of the C allele was higher in patients (21.0%) than in controls (17.3%), while the T allele frequency was about equal. These results may pave the road for exploring the KK-Ay mouse model and the HHEX SNP rs61862780, which was correlated with the susceptibility to T2D in a Chinese population. Based on these findings, an association of HHEX gene expression with pathological features of T2D was indicated.
Project description:Objective:We aimed to characterize the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in two commonly used type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) animal models and explore the preliminary molecular mechanisms underlying DN in two models. Methods:To verify the effect of hyperglycemia on renal tissue, we observed the cell growth inhibition rate by adding different concentration of glucose to cell supernatant. After that, a chemically-induced T2DM model was established by administering streptozotocin (STZ) to Sprague Dawley (SD) rats in combination with high fat feeding. In addition, a spontaneous T2DM model was established by feeding 8 weeks old KK-Ay mice a high-fat diet during a period of over 20 weeks. Animal body weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin tolerance, lipid metabolism, renal function, and renal pathology were periodically measured (once every 2 or 4 weeks) over a duration of 20 weeks. At the 12th week, an Affymetrix gene chip assay was performed on the renal tissues extracted from the T2DM animal models and control animals. Through screening for the differentially expressed genes, some key genes were selected for PCR validation. Results:High level of glucose could inhibit the growth of kidney cells. Besides, KK-Ay mice were found to have high FBG and abnormal insulin tolerance. Renal dysfunction and pathology were observed at the 4th week following the start of model creation, which increased in severity over the length of the experiment. The T2DM SD rats also showed high FBG, abnormal glucose tolerance and abnormal lipid metabolism, but the renal function and renal pathology changed only slightly within 20 weeks. Gene profiling in animal kidneys and subsequent analyses and validation revealed differentially expressed genes and enriched pathways in DN. Conclusion:KK-Ay mice with both high fasting glucose and insulin resistance were more likely to develop diabetic nephropathy than STZ-induced diabetic SD rats with low fasting glucose or only insulin resistance. The KK-Ay mice model showed earlier onset of the typical pathological characteristics associated with T2DM and obvious renal lesions suggestive of kidney damage.
Project description:The present study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycemic activity and potential mechanisms of action of a flavonoid-rich extract from <i>Sophora davidii</i> (Franch.) Skeels (SD-FRE) through <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> studies. Four main flavonoids of SD-FRE namely apigenin, maackiain, leachianone A and leachianone B were purified and identified. <i>In vitro</i>, SD-FRE significantly promoted the translocation and expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in L6 cells, which was significantly inhibited by Compound C (AMPK inhibitor), but not by Wortmannin (PI3K inhibitor) or Gö6983 (PKC inhibitor). These results indicated that SD-FRE enhanced GLUT4 expression and translocation to the plasma membrane via the AMPK pathway and finally resulted in an increase of glucose uptake. <i>In vivo</i>, using a spontaneously type 2 diabetic model, KK-Ay mice received intragastric administration of SD-FRE for 4 weeks. As a consequence, SD-FRE significantly alleviated the hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia in these mice. Hepatic steatosis, islet hypertrophy and larger adipocyte size were observed in KK-Ay mice. However, these pathological changes were effectively relieved by SD-FRE treatment. SD-FRE promoted GLUT4 expression and activated AMPK phosphorylation in insulin target tissues (muscle, adipose tissue and liver) of KK-Ay mice, thus facilitating glucose utilization to ameliorate insulin resistance. Regulation of ACC phosphorylation and PPAR? were also involved in the antidiabetic effects of SD-FRE. Taken together, these findings indicated that SD-FRE has the potential to alleviate type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Purpose:Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a metabolic disorder that can progress to a serious chronic disease and frequently develops in obese individuals in association with various pathogenic complications that shorten the lifespan of these patients. The liver is an important organ regulating lipid metabolism, which is damaged in both obesity and T2D; however, the specific pathways involved in these pathogenic effects remain unclear. Establishing a suitable animal model that effectively mimics the human biological condition is a critical factor to allow for precise identification of T2D-related genes. Methods:The KK.Cg-Ay mouse strain is one such model that has offered insight into obesity-related T2D pathogenesis. To comprehensively assess the association between obesity and T2D, in the present study, we performed microarray analysis on liver tissue samples of KK.Cg-Ay and KK-?/? wild-type mice to examine differences in gene expression and methylation patterns and their related biological processes and pathways. Results:We found that inflammation accompanied by abnormal lipid metabolism led to the spontaneous mechanism of obesity-induced diabetes, resulting in differential expression of some genes related to the terms of insulin resistance and glucose tolerance. Surprisingly, disruption of steroid biosynthesis strongly facilitated the diabetic pathogenesis. To support these findings, we highlighted some candidate genes and determined their relationships in biological networks of obesity-induced T2D. Conclusion:These findings provide valuable reference data that can facilitate further detailed investigations to elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of obesity-induced diabetes in mice, which can be associated with the human condition to inform new prevention and treatment strategies.
Project description:Podocyte injuries are associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Apelin, an adipocyte-derived peptide, has been reported to be a promoting factor for DN. In this study, we aim to determine whether apelin promotes progression of DN by inducing podocyte dysfunction. kk-Ay mice were used as models for DN. Apelin and its antagonist, F13A were intraperitoneally administered for 4 weeks, respectively. Renal function and foot process proteins were analysed to evaluate the effects of apelin on kk-Ay mice and podocytes. Apelin increased albuminuria and decreased podocyte foot process proteins expression in kk-Ay mice, which is consistent with the results that apelin receptor (APLNR) levels increased in glomeruli of patients or mice with DN. In cultured podocytes, high glucose increased APLNR expression and apelin administration was associated with increased permeability and decreased foot process proteins levels. All these dysfunctions were associated with decreased 26S proteasome activities and increased polyubiquitinated proteins in both kk-Ay mice and cultured podocytes, as demonstrated by 26S proteasome activation with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) or oleuropein. These effects seemed to be related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as apelin increased C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and peiF? levels while cAMP or oleuropein reduced it in high glucose and apelin treated podocytes. These results suggest that apelin induces podocyte dysfunction in DN through ER stress which was induced by decreased proteasome activities in podocytes.