Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Full-Length cDNA of Calmodulin Gene from Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas.
ABSTRACT: The shell of the pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata) mainly comprises aragonite whereas that of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is mainly calcite, thereby suggesting the different mechanisms of shell formation between above two mollusks. Calmodulin (CaM) is an important gene for regulating the uptake, transport, and secretion of calcium during the process of shell formation in pearl oyster. It is interesting to characterize the CaM in oysters, which could facilitate the understanding of the different shell formation mechanisms among mollusks. We cloned the full-length cDNA of Pacific oyster CaM (cgCaM) and found that the cgCaM ORF encoded a peptide of 113 amino acids containing three EF-hand calcium-binding domains, its expression level was highest in the mantle, hinting that the cgCaM gene is probably involved in shell formation of Pacific oyster, and the common ancestor of Gastropoda and Bivalvia may possess at least three CaM genes. We also found that the numbers of some EF hand family members in highly calcified species were higher than those in lowly calcified species and the numbers of these motifs in oyster genome were the highest among the mollusk species with whole genome sequence, further hinting the correlation between CaM and biomineralization.
Project description:Bivalve molluscs have flourished in marine environments, and many species constitute important aquatic resources. Recently, whole genome sequences from two bivalves, the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata, and the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, have been decoded, making it possible to compare genomic sequences among molluscs, and to explore general and lineage-specific genetic features and trends in bivalves. In order to improve the quality of sequence data for these purposes, we have updated the entire P. fucata genome assembly.We present a new genome assembly of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata (version 2.0). To update the assembly, we conducted additional sequencing, obtaining accumulated sequence data amounting to 193× the P. fucata genome. Sequence redundancy in contigs that was caused by heterozygosity was removed in silico, which significantly improved subsequent scaffolding. Gene model version 2.0 was generated with the aid of manual gene annotations supplied by the P. fucata research community. Comparison of mollusc and other bilaterian genomes shows that gene arrangements of Hox, ParaHox, and Wnt clusters in the P. fucata genome are similar to those of other molluscs. Like the Pacific oyster, P. fucata possesses many genes involved in environmental responses and in immune defense. Phylogenetic analyses of heat shock protein70 and C1q domain-containing protein families indicate that extensive expansion of genes occurred independently in each lineage. Several gene duplication events prior to the split between the pearl oyster and the Pacific oyster are also evident. In addition, a number of tandem duplications of genes that encode shell matrix proteins are also well characterized in the P. fucata genome.Both the Pinctada and Crassostrea lineages have expanded specific gene families in a lineage-specific manner. Frequent duplication of genes responsible for shell formation in the P. fucata genome explains the diversity of mollusc shell structures. These duplications reveal dynamic genome evolution to forge the complex physiology that enables bivalves to employ a sessile lifestyle in the intertidal zone.
Project description:The biosynthesis of a calcified shell is critical for the development of oyster larvae. This process can be severely inhibited by CO2-induced ocean acidification, causing mass mortality of oyster larvae. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of such process has not been well explored until now. In the present study, a homolog of chitin synthase (named as Cgchs1) and a homolog of chitinase (named as Cgchit4) were identified from the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The cDNA sequences of Cgchs1 and Cgchit4 were of 813 bp and 2118 bp, encoding a putative polypeptide of 271 amino acids and 706 amino acids, respectively. There were a Chitin_synth_2 domain and a Glyco_18 domain in the inferred amino acid sequences of Cgchs1 and Cgchit4, respectively. Both Cgchs1 and Cgchit4 shared high sequence identity with their homologs in vertebrates. In addition, when oyster larvae were exposed to acidification treatment (pH 7.4), their shell biosynthesis process was seriously restrained. The expression level of Cgchs1 mRNA was significantly suppressed while that of Cgchit4 was dramatically activated upon acidification treatment. Cgchs1 and Cgchit4 are critical enzymes for chitin metabolism, and such changes in their mRNA expression could result in the decrease of chitin content in oyster larvae's shells, which might lead to the failure of shell formation. Therefore, results in the present study suggested that acidified seawater might inhibit the formation of oyster calcified shell by suppressing the biosynthesis of chitin.
Project description:Tyrosinase plays an important role in the formation of the shell matrix and melanin synthesis in mollusks shells. A cDNA clone encoding a 47?kDa protein was isolated from the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. The cDNA was 1,957 base pairs long and encodes a 417 residue protein that has extensive sequence identity with tyrosinase (polyphenol oxidase: EC 126.96.36.199). This tyrosinase-like protein, termed PfTy, contains an N-terminal signal sequence and the two copper-binding domain signatures (CuA and CuB), suggesting that PfTy belongs to the ? -subclass of type-3 copper proteins. Enzyme activity of PfTy was examined by a spectrophotometric method using the translation product derived from an S30 T7 high-yield protein expression system. Tyrosinase activity was seen in this recombinant product. RT-PCR analysis showed that PfTy mRNA was expressed in the mantle pallial, but not in the mantle edge. Therefore, PfTy may participate in insoluble shell matrix formation of the nacreous layer. PfTy expression was also observed in the foot, liver, and adductor muscle, suggesting that PfTy participates in the synthesis of melanins, which are effective scavengers of free radicals formed in multiple intracellular oxidative processes. This is the first report of a novel ? -class tyrosinase from the pearl oyster P. fucata.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Marine bivalves undergo complex development processes, such as shell morphology conversion and changes of anatomy and life habits. In this study, the transcriptomes of pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii and Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas at different development stages were analyzed to determine the key molecular events related to shell formation, settlement and metamorphosis. RESULT:According to the shell matrix proteome, biomineralization-related genes exhibited a consensus expression model with the critical stages of shell formation. Differential expression analysis of P. f. martensii, revealed the negative regulation and feedback of extracellular matrixs as well as growth factor pathways involved in shell formation of larvae, similar to that in C. gigas. Furthermore, neuroendocrine pathways in hormone receptors, neurotransmitters and neuropeptide receptors were involved in shell formation, settlement and metamorphosis. CONCLUSION:Our research demonstrated the main clusters of regulation elements related to shell formation, settlement and metamorphosis. The regulation of shell formation and metamorphosis could be coupled forming the neuroendocrine-biomineralization crosstalk in metamorphosis. These findings could provide new insights into the regulation in bivalve development.
Project description:Mollusca is the second largest phylum in nature. The shell of molluscs is a remarkable example of a natural composite biomaterial. Biomineralization and how it affects mollusks is a popular research topic. The BMP-2 signaling pathway plays a canonical role in biomineralization. SMAD4 is an intracellular transmitter in the BMP signaling pathway in mammals, and some genomic data show SMAD4's involvement in BMP signaling in invertebrates, but whether SMAD4 plays a conservative role in pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata, still need to be tested.In this study, we identified a SMAD4 gene (hereafter designated PfSMAD4) in pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. Bioinformatics analysis of PfSMAD4 showed high identity with its orthologs. PfSMAD4 was located in the cytoplasm in immunofluorescence assays and analyses of PfSMAD4 mRNA in tissues and developmental stages showed high expression in ovaries and D-shaped larvae. An RNA interference experiment, performed by PfSMAD4 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) injection, demonstrated inhibition not only of nacre growth but also organic sheet formation with a decrease in PfSMAD4 expression. A knockdown experiment using PfBMP2 dsRNA showed decreased PfBMP2 and PfSMAD4 mRNA and irregular crystallization of the nacreous layer using scanning electron microscopy. In co-transfection experiments, PfBMP2-transactivated reporter constructs contained PfSMAD4 promoter sequences.Our results suggest that PfSMAD4 plays a role in biomineralization and can transduce BMP signals in P. fucata. Our data provides important clues about the molecular mechanisms that regulate biomineralization in pearl oyster.
Project description:Molluscan shells, mainly composed of calcium carbonate, also contain organic components such as proteins and polysaccharides. Shell organic matrices construct frameworks of shell structures and regulate crystallization processes during shell formation. To date, a number of shell matrix proteins (SMPs) have been identified, and their functions in shell formation have been studied. However, previous studies focused only on SMPs extracted from adult shells, secreted after metamorphosis. Using proteomic analyses combined with genomic and transcriptomic analyses, we have identified 31 SMPs from larval shells of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata, and 111 from the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Larval SMPs are almost entirely different from those of adults in both species. RNA-seq data also confirm that gene expression profiles for larval and adult shell formation are nearly completely different. Therefore, bivalves have two repertoires of SMP genes to construct larval and adult shells. Despite considerable differences in larval and adult SMPs, some functional domains are shared by both SMP repertoires. Conserved domains include von Willebrand factor type A (VWA), chitin-binding (CB), carbonic anhydrase (CA), and acidic domains. These conserved domains are thought to play crucial roles in shell formation. Furthermore, a comprehensive survey of animal genomes revealed that the CA and VWA-CB domain-containing protein families expanded in molluscs after their separation from other Lophotrochozoan linages such as the Brachiopoda. After gene expansion, some family members were co-opted for molluscan SMPs that may have triggered to develop mineralized shells from ancestral, nonmineralized chitinous exoskeletons.
Project description:Marine bivalves secrete calcified shells to protect their soft bodies from predation and damages, which is of great importance for their survival, and for the safety of the coastal ecosystem. In recent years, larval shell formation of marine bivalves has been severely affected by ocean acidification (OA), and previous study indicated that OA might affect such process by disrupting endogenous energy metabolism. Developmental stages from trochophore to D-shape larvae are extremely important for initial shell formation in oyster since a calcified shell was formed to cover the chitin one. In the present study, metabolomic and transcriptomic approaches were employed to investigate the energy metabolism of oyster larvae during initial shell (prodissoconch I, PDI shell) formation and under experimental OA treatment. Totally 230 chemical compounds were identified from the present dataset, most of which were highly expressed in the "middle" stage (early D-shape larvae) which was critical for PDI shell formation since a calcified shell was formed to cover the chitin one. Several compounds such as glucose, glutarylcarnitine (C5), ?-hydroxyisovaleroylcarnitine, 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA), myristoleate (14:1n5) and palmitoleate (16:1n7) were identified, which were involved in energy metabolic processes including amino acid oxidation, glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and fatty acid metabolism. In addition, mRNA expressions of genes related to protein metabolism, glycolysis, lipid degradation, calcium transport and organic matrix formation activities were significantly down-regulated upon experimental OA. These results collectively suggested that formation of the initial shell in oyster larvae required endogenous energy coming from amino acid oxidation, glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and fatty acid metabolism. These metabolic activities could be severely inhibited by experimental OA, which might alter the allocation of endogenous energy. Insufficient endogenous energy supply then suppressed the mobilization of calcium and resulted in a failure or delay in PDI shell formation.
Project description:Mollusks shell formation is mediated by matrix proteins and many of these proteins have been identified and characterized. However, the mechanisms of protein control remain unknown. Here, we report the ubiquitylation of matrix proteins in the prismatic layer of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata. The presence of ubiquitylated proteins in the prismatic layer of the shell was detected with a combination of western blot and immunogold assays. The coupled ubiquitins were separated and identified by Edman degradation and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Antibody injection in vivo resulted in large amounts of calcium carbonate randomly accumulating on the surface of the nacreous layer. These ubiquitylated proteins could bind to specific faces of calcite and aragonite, which are the two main mineral components of the shell. In the in vitro calcium carbonate crystallization assay, they could reduce the rate of calcium carbonate precipitation and induce the calcite formation. Furthermore, when the attached ubiquitins were removed, the functions of the EDTA-soluble matrix of the prismatic layer were changed. Their potency to inhibit precipitation of calcium carbonate was decreased and their influence on the morphology of calcium carbonate crystals was changed. Taken together, ubiquitylation is involved in shell formation. Although the ubiquitylation is supposed to be involved in every aspect of biophysical processes, our work connected the biomineralization-related proteins and the ubiquitylation mechanism in the extracellular matrix for the first time. This would promote our understanding of the shell biomineralization and the ubiquitylation processes.
Project description:In this study, we analyzed the combined effect of microalgal concentration and temperature on the shell growth of the bivalve Pinctada margaritifera and the molecular mechanisms underlying this biomineralization process. Shell growth was measured after two months of rearing in experimental conditions, using calcein staining of the calcified structures. Molecular mechanisms were studied though the expression of 11 genes encoding proteins implicated in the biomineralization process, which was assessed in the mantle. We showed that shell growth is influenced by both microalgal concentration and temperature, and that these environmental factors also regulate the expression of most of the genes studied. Gene expression measurement of shell matrix protein thereby appears to be an appropriate indicator for the evaluation of the biomineralization activity in the pearl oyster P. margaritifera under varying environmental conditions. This study provides valuable information on the molecular mechanisms of mollusk shell growth and its environmental control.
Project description:Kinase-family with sequence similarity 20, member C (Fam20C) is a protein kinase, which can phosphorylate biomineralization related proteins in vertebrate animals. However, the function of Fam20C in invertebrate animals especially the role in biomineralization is still unknown. Herein, we cloned the cDNA of fam20C from the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata. It is showed that the expression of fam20C in the mantle edge was much higher than other tissues. In situ hybridization showed that fam20C was expressed mostly in the outer epithelial cells of the middle fold, indicating it may play important roles in the shell formation. Besides, fam20C expression increased greatly in the D-shape stage of pearl oyster development, when the shell was first formed. During the shell repair process, the expression level of fam20C increased 1.5 times at 6?h after shell notching. Knockdown of fam20C in vivo by RNA interference resulted in abnormally stacking of calcium carbonate crystals at the edges of nacre tablets, showing direct evidence that fam20C participates in the shell formation. This study provides an insight into the role of kinase protein in the shell formation in mollusk and broaden our understanding of biomineralization mechanism.