Psychiatric Disorders and Weight Change in a Prospective Study of Bariatric Surgery Patients: A 3-Year Follow-Up.
ABSTRACT: To document changes in Axis I psychiatric disorders after bariatric surgery and examine their relationship with postsurgery weight loss.As part of a three-site substudy of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery Research Consortium, 199 patients completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV before Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or laparoscopic adjustable gastric band. At 2 or 3 years after surgery, 165 (83%) patients completed a follow-up assessment (presurgery median body mass index = 44.8 kg/m, median age = 46 years, 92.7% white, 81.1% female). Linear-mixed modeling was used to test change in prevalence of psychiatric disorders over time, report remission and incidence, and examine associations between psychiatric disorders and weight loss.Compared with status presurgery, the prevalence of any Axis I psychiatric disorder was significantly lower at 2 and 3 years after surgery (30.2% versus 16.8% [p = .003] and 18.4% [p = .012], respectively). Adjusting for site, age, sex, race, presurgery body mass index, and surgical procedure, presurgery mood, anxiety, eating or substance use disorders (lifetime or current) were not related to weight change, nor were postsurgery mood or anxiety disorders (p for all > .05). However, having a postsurgery eating disorder was independently associated with less weight loss at 2 or 3 years (? = 6.7%, p = .035).Bariatric surgery was associated with decreases in psychiatric disorders through 3 years after surgery. Postsurgical eating disorders were associated with less weight loss after surgery, adding to the literature suggesting that disordered eating after surgery is related to suboptimal weight loss.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Long-term, longitudinal data are limited on mental disorders after bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVE:To report mental disorders through 7 years postsurgery and examine their relationship with changes in weight and health-related quality of life. SETTING:Three U.S. academic medical centers. METHOD:As a substudy of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery Consortium, 199 adults completed the structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition prior to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or laparoscopic adjustable gastric band. Participants who completed ?1 follow-up through 7 years postsurgery are included (n?=?173; 86.9%). Mixed models were used to examine mental disorders over time, and among the RYGB subgroup (n?=?104), their relationship with long-term (?4 yr) pre- to postsurgery changes in weight and health-related quality of life, measured with the Short Form-36 Health Survey, and with weight regain from nadir. RESULTS:Compared with presurgery (34.7%), the prevalence of having any mental disorder was significantly lower 4 years (21.3%; P < .01) and 5 years (19.2%; P?=?.01), but not 7 years (29.1%; P?=?.27) after RYGB. The most common disorders were not related to long-term weight loss postRYGB. However, independent of weight change, mood and anxiety disorders, both pre- and postRYGB, were significantly related to less improvement in mental (but not physical) health-related quality of life. Having a concurrent mood disorder appeared to be associated with greater weight regain (6.4% of maximum weight lost, 95% confidence interval, -.3 to 13.1), but this was not statistically significant (P?=?.06). CONCLUSIONS:Bariatric surgery does not result in consistent long-term reductions in mental disorders. Mood disorders may impact long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Loss-of-control (LOC) eating is common in adults undergoing bariatric surgery and is associated with poorer weight outcomes. Its long-term course in adolescent bariatric surgery patients and associations with weight outcomes are unclear. METHODS:Adolescents (n = 234; age range = 13-19 years) undergoing bariatric surgery across 5 US sites were assessed for postsurgery follow-up at 6 months and 1, 2, 3, and 4 years. Descriptive statistics and generalized linear mixed models were used to describe the prevalence of LOC eating episodes involving objectively large amounts of food and continuous eating, respectively. Generalized linear mixed models investigated the association of any LOC eating with short- and long-term BMI changes. RESULTS:At baseline, objectively large LOC eating was reported by 15.4% of adolescents, and continuous LOC eating by 27.8% of adolescents. Both forms of LOC eating were significantly lower at all postsurgical time points relative to presurgery (range = 0.5%-14.5%; Ps < .05). However, both behaviors gradually increased from 6-month to 4-year follow-up (Ps < .05). Presurgical LOC eating was not related to percent BMI change over follow-up (P = .79). However, LOC eating at 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow-up was associated with lower percent BMI change from baseline at the next consecutive assessment (Ps < .05). CONCLUSIONS:Although presurgical LOC eating was not related to relative weight loss after surgery, postoperative LOC eating may adversely affect long-term weight outcomes. Rates of LOC eating decreased from presurgery to 6-months postsurgery but increased thereafter. Therefore, this behavior may warrant additional empirical and clinical attention.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Past research suggests self-harm/suicidality are more common among adults who have undergone bariatric surgery than the general population. OBJECTIVES:To compare prevalence of self-harm/suicidal ideation over time and identify presurgery risk factors for postsurgery self-harm/suicidal ideation. SETTING:The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 is a cohort study with presurgery and annual postsurgery assessments conducted at 10 U.S. hospitals. METHODS:Adults with severe obesity undergoing bariatric surgery between March 2006 and April 2009 (n?=?2458). Five-year follow-up is reported. Self-reported history of suicidality assessed retrospectively via the Suicide Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) and self-reported self-harm/suicidal ideation assessed prospectively via the Beck Depression Inventory-Version 1 (BDI-1). RESULTS:The SBQ-R was completed by 1540 participants; 2217 completed the BDI-1 pre- and postsurgery. Over 75% of participants were female, with a median age of 46 years and body mass index of 45.9 kg/m2. Approximately one fourth of participants (395/1534) reported a presurgery history of suicidal thoughts or behavior (SBQ-R). The prevalence of self-harm/suicidal ideation (BDI-1) was 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-6.8) presurgery and 3.8% (95% CI, 2.5-5.1) at year 1 postsurgery (P?=?.06). Prevalence increased over time postsurgery to 6.6% (95% CI, 4.6-8.6) at year 5 (P?=?.001) but was not significantly different than presurgery (P?=?.12). CONCLUSIONS:A large cohort of adults with severe obesity who underwent bariatric surgery had a prevalence of self-harm/suicidal ideation that may have decreased in the first postoperative year but increased over time to presurgery levels, suggesting screening for self-harm/suicidality is warranted throughout long-term postoperative care. Several risk factors were identified that may help with enhanced monitoring.
Project description:Studies on the impact of presurgery weight loss and lifestyle preparation on outcomes following bariatric surgery are needed.To evaluate whether a presurgery behavioral lifestyle intervention improves weight loss through a 24-month postsurgery period.Bariatric Center of Excellence at a large, urban medical center.Candidates for bariatric surgery were randomized to a 6-month behavioral lifestyle intervention or to 6 months of usual presurgical care. The lifestyle intervention consisted of 8 weekly face-to-face sessions, followed by 16 weeks of face-to-face and telephone sessions before surgery; the intervention also included 3 monthly telephone contacts after surgery. Assessments were conducted 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery.Participants who underwent surgery (n = 143) were 90.2% female and 86.7% White. Average age was 44.9 years, and average body mass index was 47.5 kg/m(2) at study enrollment. At follow-up, 131 (91.6%), 126 (88.1%), 117 (81.8%) patients participated in the 6-, 12-, and 24-month assessments, respectively. Percent weight loss from study enrollment to 6 and 12 months after surgery was comparable for both groups, but at 24 months after surgery, the lifestyle group had significantly smaller percent weight loss compared with the usual care group (26.5% versus 29.5%, respectively, P = .02).Presurgery lifestyle intervention did not improve weight loss at 24 months after surgery. The findings from this study raise questions about the utility and timing of adjunctive lifestyle interventions for bariatric surgery patients.
Project description:The variability and durability of improvements in pain and physical function following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) are not well described.To report changes in pain and physical function in the first 3 years following bariatric surgery, and to identify factors associated with improvement.The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 is an observational cohort study at 10 US hospitals. Adults with severe obesity undergoing bariatric surgery were recruited between February 2005 and February 2009. Research assessments were conducted prior to surgery and annually thereafter. Three-year follow-up through October 2012 is reported.Bariatric surgery as clinical care.Primary outcomes were clinically meaningful presurgery to postsurgery improvements in pain and function using scores from the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) (ie, improvement of ?5 points on the norm-based score [range, 0-100]) and 400-meter walk time (ie, improvement of ?24 seconds) using established thresholds. The secondary outcome was clinically meaningful improvement using the Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (ie, improvement of ?9.7 pain points and ?9.3 function points on the transformed score [range, 0-100]).Of 2458 participants, 2221 completed baseline and follow-up assessments (1743 [78.5%] were women; median age was 47 years; median body mass index [BMI] was 45.9; 70.4% underwent RYGB; 25.0% underwent LAGB). At year 1, clinically meaningful improvements were shown in 57.6% (95% CI, 55.3%-59.9%) of participants for bodily pain, 76.5% (95% CI, 74.6%-78.5%) for physical function, and 59.5% (95% CI, 56.4%-62.7%) for walk time. Additionally, among participants with severe knee or disability (633), or hip pain or disability (500) at baseline, approximately three-fourths experienced joint-specific improvements in knee pain (77.1% [95% CI, 73.5%-80.7%]) and in hip function (79.2% [95% CI, 75.3%-83.1%]). Between year 1 and year 3, rates of improvement significantly decreased to 48.6% (95% CI, 46.0%-51.1%) for bodily pain and to 70.2% (95% CI, 67.8%-72.5%) for physical function, but improvement rates for walk time, knee and hip pain, and knee and hip function did not (P for all ?.05). Younger age, male sex, higher income, lower BMI, and fewer depressive symptoms presurgery; no diabetes and no venous edema with ulcerations postsurgery (either no history or remission); and presurgery-to-postsurgery reductions in weight and depressive symptoms were associated with presurgery-to-postsurgery improvements in multiple outcomes at years 1, 2, and 3.Among a cohort of participants with severe obesity undergoing bariatric surgery, a large percentage experienced improvement, compared with baseline, in pain, physical function, and walk time over 3 years, but the percentage with improvement in pain and physical function decreased between year 1 and year 3.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00465829.
Project description:Limited evidence suggests bariatric surgery may not reduce opioid analgesic use, despite improvements in pain.To determine if use of prescribed opioid analgesics changes in the short and long term after bariatric surgery and to identify factors associated with continued and postsurgery initiated use.Ten U.S. hospitals.The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 is an observational cohort study. Assessments were conducted presurgery, 6 months postsurgery, and annually postsurgery for up to 7 years until January 2015. Opioid use was defined as self-reported daily, weekly, or "as needed" use of a prescribed medication classified as an opioid analgesic.Of 2258 participants with baseline data, 2218 completed follow-up assessment(s) (78.7% were female, median body mass index: 46; 70.6% underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass). Prevalence of opioid use decreased after surgery from 14.7% (95% CI: 13.3-16.2) at baseline to 12.9% (95% CI: 11.5-14.4) at month 6 but then increased to 20.3%, above baseline levels, as time progressed (95% CI: 18.2-22.5) at year 7. Among participants without baseline opioid use (n = 1892), opioid use prevalence increased from 5.8% (95% CI: 4.7-6.9) at month 6 to 14.2% (95% CI: 12.2-16.3) at year 7. Public versus private health insurance, more pain presurgery, undergoing subsequent surgeries, worsening or less improvement in pain, and starting or continuing nonopioid analgesics postsurgery were significantly associated with higher risk of postsurgery initiated opioid use.After bariatric surgery, prevalence of prescribed opioid analgesic use initially decreased but then increased to surpass baseline prevalence, suggesting the need for alternative methods of pain management in this population.
Project description:Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for morbid obesity and its associated metabolic complications. To ensure long-term postoperative success, patients must be prepared to adopt comprehensive lifestyle changes. This review summarizes the current evidence and expert opinions with regard to nutritional care in the perioperative and long-term postoperative periods. A literature search was performed with the use of different lines of searches for narrative reviews. Nutritional recommendations are divided into 3 main sections: 1) presurgery nutritional evaluation and presurgery diet and supplementation; 2) postsurgery diet progression, eating-related behaviors, and nutritional therapy for common gastrointestinal symptoms; and 3) recommendations for lifelong supplementation and advice for nutritional follow-up. We recognize the need for uniform, evidence-based nutritional guidelines for bariatric patients and summarize recommendations with the aim of optimizing long-term success and preventing complications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Data from a US multicenter longitudinal study of bariatric surgery were used to compare weight change (primary outcome) and comorbidities (secondary outcome) in patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy versus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. METHODS:This study includes participants who underwent sleeve gastrectomy and matched participants who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass from the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2) study. Adults undergoing initial bariatric surgical procedures between 2006 and 2009 were enrolled. Participants who underwent sleeve gastrectomy were high-risk or superobese and intended to have a second-stage procedure. Mixed models were used to evaluate percent weight change from baseline through 7 years, and diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension prevalence through 5 years. RESULTS:Fifty-seven of 59 participants who underwent sleeve gastrectomy were matched one to one. Most were female (68%) and white (81%), and had a median age of 49 (37-56) years and median body mass index of 56.4 (35.5-76.8) kg/m2 presurgery. Weight loss was significantly less 1 to 7 years after sleeve gastrectomy versus matched Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (eg, year 7 mean weight loss was 23.6% vs 30.4%, respectively; P?=?.001). For both surgical groups, prevalence of diabetes, low high-density lipoprotein, and hypertension were significantly (P < .05) lower 5 years postsurgery versus baseline. CONCLUSION:Higher-risk or super-obese participants after sleeve gastrectomy lost less weight than did matched Roux-en-Y gastric bypass counterparts throughout 7 years. Both groups exhibited improvements in comorbidities from presurgery through 5 years.
Project description:To evaluate change in sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) over 3 years following bariatric surgery.A subset of participants in an observational study (n?=?473 of 2,458; 79% female, median body mass index 45 kg m(-2) ) wore an activity monitor presurgery and at 1-3 annual postsurgery assessments.Over the first year, on average, sedentary time decreased from 573 (95% CI: 563-582) to 545 (95% CI: 534-555) min days(-1) and moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) increased from 77 (95% CI: 71-84) to 106 (95% CI: 98-116) min week(-1) , or 7 (95% CI: 5-10) to 24 (95% CI: 18-29) min week(-1) in MVPA bouts ?10 min. There were no changes in these parameters from years 1 to 3 (P for all?>?0.05). The percentage of participants achieving ?150 min week(-1) of bout-related MVPA was not different at year 3 [6.5% (95% CI: 3.1-12.7)] vs. presurgery [3.4% (95% CI: 1.8-5.0); P?=?0.45]. Most participants followed SB and PA trajectories that paralleled mean change and were consistent with their presurgery position in relation to the group.On average, bariatric surgical patients make small reductions in SB and increases in PA during the first postsurgery year, which are maintained through 3 years. Still, postsurgery PA levels fall short of PA guidelines for general health or weight control.