Psychiatric Disorders and Weight Change in a Prospective Study of Bariatric Surgery Patients: A 3-Year Follow-Up.
ABSTRACT: To document changes in Axis I psychiatric disorders after bariatric surgery and examine their relationship with postsurgery weight loss.As part of a three-site substudy of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery Research Consortium, 199 patients completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV before Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or laparoscopic adjustable gastric band. At 2 or 3 years after surgery, 165 (83%) patients completed a follow-up assessment (presurgery median body mass index = 44.8 kg/m, median age = 46 years, 92.7% white, 81.1% female). Linear-mixed modeling was used to test change in prevalence of psychiatric disorders over time, report remission and incidence, and examine associations between psychiatric disorders and weight loss.Compared with status presurgery, the prevalence of any Axis I psychiatric disorder was significantly lower at 2 and 3 years after surgery (30.2% versus 16.8% [p = .003] and 18.4% [p = .012], respectively). Adjusting for site, age, sex, race, presurgery body mass index, and surgical procedure, presurgery mood, anxiety, eating or substance use disorders (lifetime or current) were not related to weight change, nor were postsurgery mood or anxiety disorders (p for all > .05). However, having a postsurgery eating disorder was independently associated with less weight loss at 2 or 3 years (? = 6.7%, p = .035).Bariatric surgery was associated with decreases in psychiatric disorders through 3 years after surgery. Postsurgical eating disorders were associated with less weight loss after surgery, adding to the literature suggesting that disordered eating after surgery is related to suboptimal weight loss.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Long-term, longitudinal data are limited on mental disorders after bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVE:To report mental disorders through 7 years postsurgery and examine their relationship with changes in weight and health-related quality of life. SETTING:Three U.S. academic medical centers. METHOD:As a substudy of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery Consortium, 199 adults completed the structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition prior to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or laparoscopic adjustable gastric band. Participants who completed ?1 follow-up through 7 years postsurgery are included (n?=?173; 86.9%). Mixed models were used to examine mental disorders over time, and among the RYGB subgroup (n?=?104), their relationship with long-term (?4 yr) pre- to postsurgery changes in weight and health-related quality of life, measured with the Short Form-36 Health Survey, and with weight regain from nadir. RESULTS:Compared with presurgery (34.7%), the prevalence of having any mental disorder was significantly lower 4 years (21.3%; P < .01) and 5 years (19.2%; P?=?.01), but not 7 years (29.1%; P?=?.27) after RYGB. The most common disorders were not related to long-term weight loss postRYGB. However, independent of weight change, mood and anxiety disorders, both pre- and postRYGB, were significantly related to less improvement in mental (but not physical) health-related quality of life. Having a concurrent mood disorder appeared to be associated with greater weight regain (6.4% of maximum weight lost, 95% confidence interval, -.3 to 13.1), but this was not statistically significant (P?=?.06). CONCLUSIONS:Bariatric surgery does not result in consistent long-term reductions in mental disorders. Mood disorders may impact long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Loss-of-control (LOC) eating is common in adults undergoing bariatric surgery and is associated with poorer weight outcomes. Its long-term course in adolescent bariatric surgery patients and associations with weight outcomes are unclear. METHODS:Adolescents (n = 234; age range = 13-19 years) undergoing bariatric surgery across 5 US sites were assessed for postsurgery follow-up at 6 months and 1, 2, 3, and 4 years. Descriptive statistics and generalized linear mixed models were used to describe the prevalence of LOC eating episodes involving objectively large amounts of food and continuous eating, respectively. Generalized linear mixed models investigated the association of any LOC eating with short- and long-term BMI changes. RESULTS:At baseline, objectively large LOC eating was reported by 15.4% of adolescents, and continuous LOC eating by 27.8% of adolescents. Both forms of LOC eating were significantly lower at all postsurgical time points relative to presurgery (range = 0.5%-14.5%; Ps < .05). However, both behaviors gradually increased from 6-month to 4-year follow-up (Ps < .05). Presurgical LOC eating was not related to percent BMI change over follow-up (P = .79). However, LOC eating at 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow-up was associated with lower percent BMI change from baseline at the next consecutive assessment (Ps < .05). CONCLUSIONS:Although presurgical LOC eating was not related to relative weight loss after surgery, postoperative LOC eating may adversely affect long-term weight outcomes. Rates of LOC eating decreased from presurgery to 6-months postsurgery but increased thereafter. Therefore, this behavior may warrant additional empirical and clinical attention.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Past research suggests self-harm/suicidality are more common among adults who have undergone bariatric surgery than the general population. OBJECTIVES:To compare prevalence of self-harm/suicidal ideation over time and identify presurgery risk factors for postsurgery self-harm/suicidal ideation. SETTING:The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 is a cohort study with presurgery and annual postsurgery assessments conducted at 10 U.S. hospitals. METHODS:Adults with severe obesity undergoing bariatric surgery between March 2006 and April 2009 (n?=?2458). Five-year follow-up is reported. Self-reported history of suicidality assessed retrospectively via the Suicide Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) and self-reported self-harm/suicidal ideation assessed prospectively via the Beck Depression Inventory-Version 1 (BDI-1). RESULTS:The SBQ-R was completed by 1540 participants; 2217 completed the BDI-1 pre- and postsurgery. Over 75% of participants were female, with a median age of 46 years and body mass index of 45.9 kg/m2. Approximately one fourth of participants (395/1534) reported a presurgery history of suicidal thoughts or behavior (SBQ-R). The prevalence of self-harm/suicidal ideation (BDI-1) was 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-6.8) presurgery and 3.8% (95% CI, 2.5-5.1) at year 1 postsurgery (P?=?.06). Prevalence increased over time postsurgery to 6.6% (95% CI, 4.6-8.6) at year 5 (P?=?.001) but was not significantly different than presurgery (P?=?.12). CONCLUSIONS:A large cohort of adults with severe obesity who underwent bariatric surgery had a prevalence of self-harm/suicidal ideation that may have decreased in the first postoperative year but increased over time to presurgery levels, suggesting screening for self-harm/suicidality is warranted throughout long-term postoperative care. Several risk factors were identified that may help with enhanced monitoring.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To identify patient behaviors and characteristics related to weight regain after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB).<h4>Background</h4>There is considerable variation in the magnitude of weight regain after RYGB, highlighting the importance of patient-level factors.<h4>Methods</h4>A prospective cohort study of adults who underwent bariatric surgery in 6 US cities between 2006 and 2009 included presurgery, and 6-month and annual assessments for up to 7 years. Of 1573 eligible participants, 1278 (81%) with adequate follow-up were included (80% female, median age 46 years, median body mass index 46 kg/m). Percentage of maximum weight lost was calculated each year after weight nadir.<h4>Results</h4>Weight was measured a median of 8 (25th-75th percentile, 7-8) times over a median of 6.6 (25th-75th percentile, 5.9-7.0) years. β coefficients, that is, the mean weight regain, compared with the reference, and 95% confidence interval, are reported. Postsurgery behaviors independently associated with weight regain were: sedentary time [2.9% (1.2-4.7), for highest vs lowest quartile], eating fast food [0.5% (0.2-0.7) per meal/wk], eating when feeling full [2.9% (1.2-4.5)], eating continuously [1.6% (0.1-3.1)], binge eating and loss-of-control eating [8.0% (5.1-11.0) for binge eating; 1.6 (-0.1 to 3.3) for loss of control, vs neither], and weighing oneself <weekly [4.2% (2.9-5.4)]. Postsurgery characteristics independently associated with greater weight regain included: younger age, venous edema, poorer physical function, and more depressive symptoms.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Several behaviors and characteristics associated with greater weight regain were identified, which inform integrated healthcare approaches to patient care and identify high-risk patients to improve long-term weight loss maintenance after RYGB.
Project description:Studies on the impact of presurgery weight loss and lifestyle preparation on outcomes following bariatric surgery are needed.To evaluate whether a presurgery behavioral lifestyle intervention improves weight loss through a 24-month postsurgery period.Bariatric Center of Excellence at a large, urban medical center.Candidates for bariatric surgery were randomized to a 6-month behavioral lifestyle intervention or to 6 months of usual presurgical care. The lifestyle intervention consisted of 8 weekly face-to-face sessions, followed by 16 weeks of face-to-face and telephone sessions before surgery; the intervention also included 3 monthly telephone contacts after surgery. Assessments were conducted 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery.Participants who underwent surgery (n = 143) were 90.2% female and 86.7% White. Average age was 44.9 years, and average body mass index was 47.5 kg/m(2) at study enrollment. At follow-up, 131 (91.6%), 126 (88.1%), 117 (81.8%) patients participated in the 6-, 12-, and 24-month assessments, respectively. Percent weight loss from study enrollment to 6 and 12 months after surgery was comparable for both groups, but at 24 months after surgery, the lifestyle group had significantly smaller percent weight loss compared with the usual care group (26.5% versus 29.5%, respectively, P = .02).Presurgery lifestyle intervention did not improve weight loss at 24 months after surgery. The findings from this study raise questions about the utility and timing of adjunctive lifestyle interventions for bariatric surgery patients.
Project description:Bariatric surgery is often the preferred method to resolve obesity and diabetes, with ∼800,000 cases worldwide yearly and high outcome variability. The ability to predict the long-term body mass index (BMI) change following surgery has important implications for individuals and the health care system in general. Given the tight connection between eating habits, sugar consumption, BMI, and the gut microbiome, we tested whether the microbiome before any treatment is associated with different treatment outcomes, as well as other intakes (high-density lipoproteins [HDL], triglycerides, etc.). A projection of the gut microbiome composition of obese (sampled before and after bariatric surgery) and lean patients into principal components was performed, and the relation between this projection and surgery outcome was studied. The projection revealed three different microbiome profiles belonging to lean, obese, and obese individuals who underwent bariatric surgery, with the postsurgery microbiome more different from the lean microbiome than the obese microbiome. The same projection allowed for a prediction of BMI loss following bariatric surgery, using only the presurgery microbiome. The microbial changes following surgery were an increase in the relative abundance of <i>Proteobacteria</i> and <i>Fusobacteria</i> and a decrease in <i>Firmicutes</i>. The gut microbiome can be decomposed into main components depicting the patient's development and predicting in advance the outcome. Those may be translated into the better clinical management of obese individuals planning to undergo metabolic surgery. <b>IMPORTANCE</b> BMI and diabetes can affect the gut microbiome composition. Bariatric surgery has large variabilities in the outcome. The microbiome was previously shown to be a good predictor for multiple diseases. We analyzed here the gut microbiome before and after bariatric surgery and showed the following. (i) The microbiome before surgery can be used to predict surgery outcomes. (ii) The postsurgery microbiome drifts further away from the lean microbiome than the microbiome of the presurgery obese patients. These results can lead to a microbiome-based presurgery decision whether to perform surgery.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Long-term changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk after bariatric surgery are not well characterized.<h4>Objective</h4>To report sex-specific changes in CVD risk after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB).<h4>Setting</h4>Observational cohort study at ten hospitals throughout the United States.<h4>Methods</h4>Between 2006 and 2009, 1770 adults enrolled in a prospective cohort study underwent RYGB at 1 of 10 U.S. hospitals. Research assessments were conducted presurgery and annually postsurgery over 7 years. Sex specific-predicted 10-year and lifetime CVD risk were calculated using the Framingham10-year and lifetime risk scores, Framingham-body mass index, and atherosclerotic CVD scoring algorithms among participants with no history of CVD. Of 1566 eligible participants, 1234 (75.9%) with CVD risk determination pre- and postsurgery were included (1013 females, 221 males).<h4>Results</h4>Based on the Framingham10-year and lifetime risk scores, the percentage of females with predicted high (>20%) 10-year CVD risk declined from presurgery (6.5% [95% confidence interval: 6.7-7.5]) to 1 year postsurgery (1.0% [95% confidence interval: .8-1.2]; P < .001), then increased 1 to 7 years postsurgery (to 2.8% [95% confidence interval: 1.6-3.3]; P = .003), but was lower 7 years postsurgery versus presurgery (P < .001). Time trends for percentage of high-risk participants and mean CVD risk scores were similar for both sexes and other evaluated CVD risk scores. For example, among males mean lifetime atherosclerotic CVD score declined from presurgery to 1 year postsurgery, then increased 1 to 7 years postsurgery. However, there was a net decline from presurgery (P < .001).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Among both females and males, predicted 10-year and lifetime CVD risk was substantially lower 7 years post RYGB than presurgery, suggesting RYGB surgery can lead to sustained improvements in short- and long-term CVD risk.
Project description:The variability and durability of improvements in pain and physical function following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) are not well described.To report changes in pain and physical function in the first 3 years following bariatric surgery, and to identify factors associated with improvement.The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 is an observational cohort study at 10 US hospitals. Adults with severe obesity undergoing bariatric surgery were recruited between February 2005 and February 2009. Research assessments were conducted prior to surgery and annually thereafter. Three-year follow-up through October 2012 is reported.Bariatric surgery as clinical care.Primary outcomes were clinically meaningful presurgery to postsurgery improvements in pain and function using scores from the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) (ie, improvement of ?5 points on the norm-based score [range, 0-100]) and 400-meter walk time (ie, improvement of ?24 seconds) using established thresholds. The secondary outcome was clinically meaningful improvement using the Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (ie, improvement of ?9.7 pain points and ?9.3 function points on the transformed score [range, 0-100]).Of 2458 participants, 2221 completed baseline and follow-up assessments (1743 [78.5%] were women; median age was 47 years; median body mass index [BMI] was 45.9; 70.4% underwent RYGB; 25.0% underwent LAGB). At year 1, clinically meaningful improvements were shown in 57.6% (95% CI, 55.3%-59.9%) of participants for bodily pain, 76.5% (95% CI, 74.6%-78.5%) for physical function, and 59.5% (95% CI, 56.4%-62.7%) for walk time. Additionally, among participants with severe knee or disability (633), or hip pain or disability (500) at baseline, approximately three-fourths experienced joint-specific improvements in knee pain (77.1% [95% CI, 73.5%-80.7%]) and in hip function (79.2% [95% CI, 75.3%-83.1%]). Between year 1 and year 3, rates of improvement significantly decreased to 48.6% (95% CI, 46.0%-51.1%) for bodily pain and to 70.2% (95% CI, 67.8%-72.5%) for physical function, but improvement rates for walk time, knee and hip pain, and knee and hip function did not (P for all ?.05). Younger age, male sex, higher income, lower BMI, and fewer depressive symptoms presurgery; no diabetes and no venous edema with ulcerations postsurgery (either no history or remission); and presurgery-to-postsurgery reductions in weight and depressive symptoms were associated with presurgery-to-postsurgery improvements in multiple outcomes at years 1, 2, and 3.Among a cohort of participants with severe obesity undergoing bariatric surgery, a large percentage experienced improvement, compared with baseline, in pain, physical function, and walk time over 3 years, but the percentage with improvement in pain and physical function decreased between year 1 and year 3.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00465829.
Project description:Limited evidence suggests bariatric surgery may not reduce opioid analgesic use, despite improvements in pain.To determine if use of prescribed opioid analgesics changes in the short and long term after bariatric surgery and to identify factors associated with continued and postsurgery initiated use.Ten U.S. hospitals.The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 is an observational cohort study. Assessments were conducted presurgery, 6 months postsurgery, and annually postsurgery for up to 7 years until January 2015. Opioid use was defined as self-reported daily, weekly, or "as needed" use of a prescribed medication classified as an opioid analgesic.Of 2258 participants with baseline data, 2218 completed follow-up assessment(s) (78.7% were female, median body mass index: 46; 70.6% underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass). Prevalence of opioid use decreased after surgery from 14.7% (95% CI: 13.3-16.2) at baseline to 12.9% (95% CI: 11.5-14.4) at month 6 but then increased to 20.3%, above baseline levels, as time progressed (95% CI: 18.2-22.5) at year 7. Among participants without baseline opioid use (n = 1892), opioid use prevalence increased from 5.8% (95% CI: 4.7-6.9) at month 6 to 14.2% (95% CI: 12.2-16.3) at year 7. Public versus private health insurance, more pain presurgery, undergoing subsequent surgeries, worsening or less improvement in pain, and starting or continuing nonopioid analgesics postsurgery were significantly associated with higher risk of postsurgery initiated opioid use.After bariatric surgery, prevalence of prescribed opioid analgesic use initially decreased but then increased to surpass baseline prevalence, suggesting the need for alternative methods of pain management in this population.