Gamma-H2AX upregulation caused by Wip1 deficiency increases depression-related cellular senescence in hippocampus.
ABSTRACT: The PP2C family member Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1) critically regulates DNA damage response (DDR) under stressful situations. In the present study, we investigated whether Wip1 expression was involved in the regulation of DDR-induced and depression-related cellular senescence in mouse hippocampus. We found that Wip1 gene knockout (KO) mice showed aberrant elevation of hippocampal cellular senescence and of ?-H2AX activity, which is known as a biomarker of DDR and cellular senescence, indicating that the lack of Wip1-mediated ?-H2AX dephosphorylation facilitates cellular senescence in hippocampus. Administration of the antidepressant fluoxetine had no significant effects on the increased depression-like behaviors, enriched cellular senescence, and aberrantly upregulated hippocampal ?-H2AX activity in Wip1 KO mice. After wildtype C57BL/6 mice were exposed to the procedure of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), cellular senescence and ?-H2AX activity in hippocampus were also elevated, accompanied by the suppression of Wip1 expression in hippocampus when compared to the control group without CUMS experience. These CUMS-induced symptoms were effectively prevented following fluoxetine administration in wildtype C57BL/6 mice, with the normalization of depression-like behaviors. Our data demonstrate that Wip1-mediated ?-H2AX dephosphorylation may play an important role in the occurrence of depression-related cellular senescence.
Project description:Wip1 (protein phosphatase Mg(2+)/Mn(2+)-dependent 1D, Ppm1d) is a nuclear serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is induced by p53 following the activation of DNA damage response (DDR) signaling. Ppm1d(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) exhibit premature senescence under conventional culture conditions; however, little is known regarding the role of Wip1 in regulating cellular senescence. In this study, we found that even at a representative physiological concentration of 3% O2, Ppm1d(-/-) MEFs underwent premature cellular senescence that depended on the functional activation of p53. Interestingly, Ppm1d(-/-) MEFs showed increased H2AX phosphorylation levels without increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or DNA base damage compared with wild-type (Wt) MEFs, suggesting a decreased threshold for DDR activation or sustained DDR activation during recovery. Notably, the increased H2AX phosphorylation levels observed in Ppm1d(-/-) MEFs were primarily associated with S-phase cells and predominantly dependent on the activation of ATM. Moreover, these same phenotypes were observed when Wt and Ppm1d(-/-) MEFs were either transiently or chronically exposed to low levels of agents that induce replication-mediated double-stranded breaks. These findings suggest that Wip1 prevents the induction of cellular senescence at physiological oxygen levels by attenuating DDR signaling in response to endogenous double-stranded breaks that form during DNA replication.
Project description:The integrity of DNA is constantly challenged throughout the life of a cell by both endogenous and exogenous stresses. A well-organized rapid damage response and proficient DNA repair, therefore, become critically important for maintaining genomic stability and cell survival. When DNA is damaged, the DNA damage response (DDR) can be initiated by alterations in chromosomal structure and histone modifications, such as the phosphorylation of the histone H2AX (the phosphorylated form is referred to as gamma-H2AX). gamma-H2AX plays a crucial role in recruiting DDR factors to damage sites for accurate DNA repair. On repair completion, gamma-H2AX must then be reverted to H2AX by dephosphorylation for attenuation of the DDR. Here, we report that the wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1) phosphatase, which is often overexpressed in a variety of tumors, effectively dephosphorylates gamma-H2AX in vitro and in vivo. Ectopic expression of Wip1 significantly reduces the level of gamma-H2AX after ionizing as well as UV radiation. Forced premature dephosphorylation of gamma-H2AX by Wip1 disrupts recruitment of important DNA repair factors to damaged sites and delays DNA damage repair. Additionally, deletion of Wip1 enhances gamma-H2AX levels in cells undergoing constitutive oncogenic stress. Taken together, our studies show that Wip1 is an important mammalian phosphatase for gamma-H2AX and shows an additional mechanism for Wip1 in the tumor surveillance network.
Project description:Depression is considered a widespread neuropsychiatric disease associated with neuronal injury within specific brain regions. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has been widely used in depressed patients. Recently, fluoxetine has demonstrated neuroprotective effects apart from the effect on serotonin. However, the underlying mechanism involved in this neuroprotection remains unclear, in particular, whether fluoxetine exerts antidepressant effects via protecting against neuronal injury. Here, we found that treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) for 2 weeks ameliorated depression-like behaviors in a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced rat model of depression and was accompanied with an alleviation of glia activation and inhibition of interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interferon gamma (IFN-?), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region. Meanwhile, CUMS rats treated with fluoxetine showed reductions in neuronal apoptosis and a downregulation of the apoptotic protein Bax, cleaved caspase 3, and caspase 9 levels. These effects appear to involve a downregulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling within the DG hippocampus as the specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, SB203580, significantly suppressed apoptosis, as well as ameliorated depressive behaviors resulting from CUMS exposure. Moreover, fluoxetine could rescue neuronal deterioration and depression-like phenotypes caused by overexpression of p38 in DG. This finding extends our knowledge on the antidepressant-like effects of fluoxetine, which appear to at least partially profit from neuroprotection against inflammation and neuronal apoptosis via downregulation of the p38 MAPK pathway. The neuroprotective mechanisms of fluoxetine may provide some novel therapeutic avenues for stress-related neurological diseases.
Project description:In the clinic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), like Fluoxetine, remain the primary treatment for major depression. It has been suggested that miR-16 regulates serotonin transporters (SERT) via raphe nuclei and hippocampal responses to antidepressants. However, the underlying mechanism and regulatory pathways are still obtuse. Here, a chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS) depression model in rats was established, and then raphe nuclei miR-16 and intragastric Fluoxetine injections were administered for a duration of 3 weeks. An open field test and sucrose preference quantification displayed a significant decrease in the CUMS groups when compare to the control groups, however these changes were attenuated by both miR-16 and Fluoxetine treatments. A dual-luciferase reporter assay system verified that hsa-miR-16 inhibitory effects involve the targeting of 3'UTR on the 5-HTT gene. Expression levels of miR-16 and BDNF in the hippocampus were examined with RT-PCR, and it was found that increased 5-HT2a receptor expression induced by CUMS can be decreased by miR-16 and Fluoxetine administration. Immunofluorescence showed that expression levels of neuron NeuN and MAP-2 in CUMS rats were lower. Apoptosis and autophagy levels were evaluated separately through relative expression of Bcl-2, Caspase-3, Beclin-1, and LC3II. Furthermore, CUMS was found to decrease levels of hippocampal mTOR, PI3K, and AKT. These findings indicate that apoptosis and autophagy related pathways could be involved in the effectiveness of antidepressants, in which miR-16 participates in the regulation of, and is likely to help integrate rapid therapeutic strategies to alleviate depression clinically. These findings indicate that miR-16 participates in the regulation of apoptosis and autophagy and could account for some part of the therapeutic effect of SSRIs. This discovery has the potential to further the understanding of SSRIs and accelerate the development of new treatments for depression.
Project description:Cells are constantly challenged by DNA damage and protect their genome integrity by activation of an evolutionary conserved DNA damage response pathway (DDR). A central core of DDR is composed of a spatiotemporally ordered net of post-translational modifications, among which protein phosphorylation plays a major role. Activation of checkpoint kinases ATM/ATR and Chk1/2 leads to a temporal arrest in cell cycle progression (checkpoint) and allows time for DNA repair. Following DNA repair, cells re-enter the cell cycle by checkpoint recovery. Wip1 phosphatase (also called PPM1D) dephosphorylates multiple proteins involved in DDR and is essential for timely termination of the DDR. Here we have investigated how Wip1 is regulated in the context of the cell cycle. We found that Wip1 activity is downregulated by several mechanisms during mitosis. Wip1 protein abundance increases from G(1) phase to G(2) and declines in mitosis. Decreased abundance of Wip1 during mitosis is caused by proteasomal degradation. In addition, Wip1 is phosphorylated at multiple residues during mitosis, and this leads to inhibition of its enzymatic activity. Importantly, ectopic expression of Wip1 reduced ?H2AX staining in mitotic cells and decreased the number of 53BP1 nuclear bodies in G(1) cells. We propose that the combined decrease and inhibition of Wip1 in mitosis decreases the threshold necessary for DDR activation and enables cells to react adequately even to modest levels of DNA damage encountered during unperturbed mitotic progression.
Project description:Senescence is one of the main barriers against tumor progression. Oncogenic signals in primary cells result in oncogene-induced senescence (OIS), crucial for protection against cancer development. It has been described in premalignant lesions that OIS requires DNA damage response (DDR) activation, safeguard of the integrity of the genome. Here we demonstrate how the cellular mechanisms involved in oncogenic transformation in a model of glioma uncouple OIS and DDR. We use this tumor type as a paradigm of oncogenic transformation. In human gliomas most of the genetic alterations that have been previously identified result in abnormal activation of cell growth signaling pathways and deregulation of cell cycle, features recapitulated in our model by oncogenic Ras expression and retinoblastoma (Rb) inactivation respectively. In this scenario, the absence of pRb confers a proliferative advantage and activates DDR to a greater extent in a DNA lesion-independent fashion than cells that express only HRas(V12). Moreover, Rb loss inactivates the stress kinase DDR-associated p38MAPK by specific Wip1-dependent dephosphorylation. Thus, Rb loss acts as a switch mediating the transition between premalignant lesions and cancer through DDR modulation. These findings may have important implications for the understanding the biology of gliomas and anticipate a new target, Wip1 phosphatase, for novel therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Previous studies have demonstrated that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway has an important role in ketamine-induced, rapid antidepressant effects despite the acute administration of fluoxetine not affecting mTOR phosphorylation in the brain. However, the effects of long-term fluoxetine treatment on mTOR modulation have not been assessed to date. In the present study, we examined whether fluoxetine, a type of commonly used antidepressant agent, alters mTOR signaling following chronic administration in different brain regions, including the frontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus. We also investigated whether fluoxetine enhanced synaptic protein levels in these regions via the activation of the mTOR signaling pathway and its downstream regulators, p70S6K and 4E-BP-1. The results indicated that chronic fluoxetine treatment attenuated the chronic, unpredictable, mild stress (CUMS)-induced mTOR phosphorylation reduction in the hippocampus and amygdala of mice but not in the frontal cortex or the hypothalamus. Moreover, the CUMS-decreased PSD-95 and synapsin I levels were reversed by fluoxetine, and these effects were blocked by rapamycin only in the hippocampus. In conclusion, our findings suggest that chronic treatment with fluoxetine can induce synaptic protein expression by activating the mTOR signaling pathway in a region-dependent manner and mainly in the hippocampus.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Depression is one of the most common forms of mental illness and also a leading cause of disability worldwide. Developing novel antidepressant targets beyond the monoaminergic systems is now popular and necessary. LIM kinases, including LIM domain kinase 1 and 2 (LIMK1/2), play a key role in actin and microtubule dynamics through phosphorylating cofilin. Since depression is associated with atrophy of neurons and reduced connectivity, here we speculate that LIMK1/2 may play a role in the pathogenesis of depression.<h4>Methods</h4>In this study, the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), chronic restraint stress (CRS), and chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) models of depression, various behavioral tests, stereotactic injection, western blotting, and immunofluorescence methods were adopted.<h4>Results</h4>CUMS, CRS, and CSDS all significantly enhanced the phosphorylation levels of LIMK1 and LIMK2 in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) but not the hippocampus of mice. Administration of fluoxetine, the most commonly used selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in clinical practice, fully reversed the effects of CUMS, CRS, and CSDS on LIMK1 and LIMK2 in the mPFC. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of LIMK1 and LIMK2 in the mPFC by LIMKi 3 infusions notably prevented the pro-depressant effects of CUMS, CRS, and CSDS in mice.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In summary, these results suggest that LIMK1/2 in the mPFC has a role in chronic stress-induced depressive-like effects in mice and could be a novel pharmacological target for developing antidepressants.
Project description:We performed high-throughput profiling of gene expression in rat hippocampus in response to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and albiflorin treatment. Total 415 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in rat hippocampus in response to albiflorin treatment compared with CUMS rats treated with saline (CUMS-Sal). We conducted the integrated metabolomics and transcriptomics analysis and found the correction of 16 biochemical pathways by albiflorin such as sphingolipids, phospholipids, tryptophan metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, and purine and pyrimidine metabolism. Our study provided deep insights into the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid antidepressant actions of albiflorin. Overall design: Rats were exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for 5-weeks. At the last week of the exposure, rats were treated with saline, fluoxetine (7 mg/kg/d) or albiflorin (7 mg/kg/d) for 7 days. Total 4 groups were set up: rats without CUMS exposure and with saline treatment (Control-Sal), rats received CUMS and saline (CUMS-Sal), rats received CUMS and fluoxetine (CUMS-Flx) and rats received CUMS and albiflorin (CUMS-Alb). Three replicates were used for each group.
Project description:DNA double strand breaks (DSB) may be caused by ionizing radiation. In contrast, UV exposure forms dipyrimidine photoproducts and is not considered an inducer of DSB. We found that uniform or localized UV treatment induced phosphorylation of the DNA damage related (DDR) proteins H2AX, ATM and NBS1 and co-localization of ?-H2AX with the DDR proteins p-ATM, p-NBS1, Rad51 and FANCD2 that persisted for about 6h in normal human fibroblasts. This post-UV phosphorylation was observed in the absence of nucleotide excision repair (NER), since NER deficient XP-B cells (lacking functional XPB DNA repair helicase) and global genome repair-deficient rodent cells also showed phosphorylation and localization of these DDR proteins. Resolution of the DDR proteins was dependent on NER, since they persisted for 24h in the XP-B cells. In the normal and XP-B cells p53 and p21 was detected at 6h and 24h but Mdm2 was not induced in the XP-B cells. Post-UV induction of Wip1 phosphatase was detected in the normal cells but not in the XP-B cells. DNA DSB were detected with a neutral comet assay at 6h and 24h post-UV in the normal and XP-B cells. These results indicate that UV damage can activate the DDR pathway in the absence of NER. However, a later step in DNA damage processing involving induction of Wip1 and resolution of DDR proteins was not observed in the absence of NER.