A Mitochondrial-Targeted Nitroxide Is a Potent Inhibitor of Ferroptosis.
ABSTRACT: Discovering compounds and mechanisms for inhibiting ferroptosis, a form of regulated, nonapoptotic cell death, has been of great interest in recent years. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of XJB-5-131, JP4-039, and other nitroxide-based lipid peroxidation mitigators to prevent ferroptotic cell death in HT-1080, BJeLR, and panc-1 cells. Several analogues of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers XJB-5-131 and JP4-039 were synthesized to probe structure-activity relationships and the influence of subcellular localization on the potency of these novel ferroptosis suppressors. Their biological activity correlated well over several orders of magnitude with their structure, relative lipophilicity, and respective enrichment in mitochondria, revealing a critical role of intramitochondrial lipid peroxidation in ferroptosis. These results also suggest that preventing mitochondrial lipid oxidation might offer a viable therapeutic opportunity in ischemia/reperfusion-induced tissue injury, acute kidney injury, and other pathologies that involve ferroptotic cell death pathways.
Project description:Ferroptosis, a newly discovered form of cell death mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation, has recently been shown to have an impact on various cancer types; however, so far there are only few studies about its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The delicate equilibrium of ROS in cancer cells has found to be crucial for cell survival, thus increased levels may trigger ferroptosis in HCC. In our study, we investigated the effect of different ROS modulators and ferroptosis inducers on a human HCC cell line and a human hepatoblastoma cell line. We identified a novel synergistic cell death induction by the combination of Auranofin and buthionine sulfoxime (BSO) or by Erastin and BSO at subtoxic concentrations. We found a caspase-independent, redox-regulated cell death, which could be rescued by different inhibitors of ferroptosis. Both cotreatments stimulated lipid peroxidation. All these findings indicated ferroptotic cell death. Both cotreatments affected the canonical ferroptosis pathway through GPX4 downregulation. We also found an accumulation of Nrf2 and HO-1, indicating an additional effect on the non-canonical pathway. Our results implicate that targeting these two main ferroptotic pathways simultaneously can overcome chemotherapy resistance in HCC.
Project description:Energy stress depletes ATP and induces cell death. Here we identify an unexpected inhibitory role of energy stress on ferroptosis, a form of regulated cell death induced by iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. We found that ferroptotic cell death and lipid peroxidation can be inhibited by treatments that induce or mimic energy stress. Inactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a sensor of cellular energy status, largely abolishes the protective effects of energy stress on ferroptosis in vitro and on ferroptosis-associated renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury in vivo. Cancer cells with high basal AMPK activation are resistant to ferroptosis and AMPK inactivation sensitizes these cells to ferroptosis. Functional and lipidomic analyses further link AMPK regulation of ferroptosis to AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Our study demonstrates that energy stress inhibits ferroptosis partly through AMPK and reveals an unexpected coupling between ferroptosis and AMPK-mediated energy-stress signalling.
Project description:Ferroptosis is a form of regulated cell death triggered by lipid peroxidation after inhibition of the cystine/glutamate antiporter system Xc-. However, key regulators of system Xc- activity in ferroptosis remain undefined. Here, we show that BECN1 plays a hitherto unsuspected role in promoting ferroptosis through directly blocking system Xc- activity via binding to its core component, SLC7A11 (solute carrier family 7 member 11). Knockdown of BECN1 by shRNA inhibits ferroptosis induced by system Xc- inhibitors (e.g., erastin, sulfasalazine, and sorafenib), but not other ferroptosis inducers including RSL3, FIN56, and buthionine sulfoximine. Mechanistically, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated phosphorylation of BECN1 at Ser90/93/96 is required for BECN1-SLC7A11 complex formation and lipid peroxidation. Inhibition of PRKAA/AMPK? by siRNA or compound C diminishes erastin-induced BECN1 phosphorylation at S93/96, BECN1-SLC7A11 complex formation, and subsequent ferroptosis. Accordingly, a BECN1 phosphorylation-defective mutant (S90,93,96A) reverses BECN1-induced lipid peroxidation and ferroptosis. Importantly, genetic and pharmacological activation of the BECN1 pathway by overexpression of the protein in tumor cells or by administration of the BECN1 activator peptide Tat-beclin 1, respectively, increases ferroptotic cancer cell death (but not apoptosis and necroptosis) in vitro and in vivo in subcutaneous and orthotopic tumor mouse models. Collectively, our work reveals that BECN1 plays a novel role in lipid peroxidation that could be exploited to improve anticancer therapy by the induction of ferroptosis.
Project description:Ferroptosis is form of regulated nonapoptotic cell death that is involved in diverse disease contexts. Small molecules that inhibit glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), a phospholipid peroxidase, cause lethal accumulation of lipid peroxides and induce ferroptotic cell death. Although ferroptosis has been suggested to involve accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lipid environments, the mediators and substrates of ROS generation and the pharmacological mechanism of GPX4 inhibition that generates ROS in lipid environments are unknown. We report here the mechanism of lipid peroxidation during ferroptosis, which involves phosphorylase kinase G2 (PHKG2) regulation of iron availability to lipoxygenase enzymes, which in turn drive ferroptosis through peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) at the bis-allylic position; indeed, pretreating cells with PUFAs containing the heavy hydrogen isotope deuterium at the site of peroxidation (D-PUFA) prevented PUFA oxidation and blocked ferroptosis. We further found that ferroptosis inducers inhibit GPX4 by covalently targeting the active site selenocysteine, leading to accumulation of PUFA hydroperoxides. In summary, we found that PUFA oxidation by lipoxygenases via a PHKG2-dependent iron pool is necessary for ferroptosis and that the covalent inhibition of the catalytic selenocysteine in Gpx4 prevents elimination of PUFA hydroperoxides; these findings suggest new strategies for controlling ferroptosis in diverse contexts.
Project description:Ferroptosis is a novel form of programmed cell death in which the accumulation of intracellular iron promotes lipid peroxidation, leading to cell death. Recently, the induction of autophagy has been suggested during ferroptosis. However, this relationship between autophagy and ferroptosis is still controversial and the autophagy-inducing mediator remains unknown. In this study, we confirmed that autophagy is indeed induced by the ferroptosis inducer erastin. Furthermore, we show that autophagy leads to iron-dependent ferroptosis by degradation of ferritin and induction of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) expression, using wild-type and autophagy-deficient cells, BECN1+/- and LC3B-/-. Consistently, autophagy deficiency caused depletion of intracellular iron and reduced lipid peroxidation, resulting in cell survival during erastin-induced ferroptosis. We further identified that autophagy was triggered by erastin-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ferroptosis. These data provide evidence that ROS-induced autophagy is a key regulator of ferritin degradation and TfR1 expression during ferroptosis. Our study thus contributes toward our understanding of the ferroptotic processes and also helps resolve some of the controversies associated with this phenomenon.
Project description:Ferroptosis, a novel form of programmed cell death, is characterized by iron-dependent lipid peroxidation and has been shown to be involved in multiple diseases, including cancer. Stimulating ferroptosis in cancer cells may be a potential strategy for cancer therapy. Therefore, ferroptosis-inducing drugs are attracting more attention for cancer treatment. Here, we showed that erianin, a natural product isolated from Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl, exerted its anticancer activity by inducing cell death and inhibiting cell migration in lung cancer cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated for the first time that erianin induced ferroptotic cell death in lung cancer cells, which was accompanied by ROS accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and GSH depletion. The ferroptosis inhibitors Fer-1 and Lip-1 but not Z-VAD-FMK, CQ, or necrostatin-1 rescued erianin-induced cell death, indicating that ferroptosis contributed to erianin-induced cell death. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Ca2+/CaM signaling was a critical mediator of erianin-induced ferroptosis and that blockade of this signaling significantly rescued cell death induced by erianin treatment by suppressing ferroptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that the natural product erianin exerts its anticancer effects by inducing Ca2+/CaM-dependent ferroptosis and inhibiting cell migration, and erianin will hopefully serve as a prospective compound for lung cancer treatment.
Project description:Ferroptosis is widely involved in degenerative diseases in various tissues including kidney, liver and brain, and is a targetable vulnerability in multiple primary and therapy-resistant cancers. Accumulation of phospholipid hydroperoxides in cellular membranes is the hallmark and rate-limiting step of ferroptosis; however, the enzymes contributing to lipid peroxidation remain poorly characterized. Using genome-wide, CRISPR-Cas9-mediated suppressor screens, we identify cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) as necessary for ferroptotic cell death in cancer cells exhibiting inherent and induced susceptibility to ferroptosis. By genetic depletion of POR in cancer cells, we reveal that POR contributes to ferroptosis across a wide range of lineages and cell states, and in response to distinct mechanisms of ferroptosis induction. Using systematic lipidomic profiling, we further map POR's activity to the lipid peroxidation step in ferroptosis. Hence, our work suggests that POR is a key mediator of ferroptosis and potential druggable target for developing antiferroptosis therapeutics.
Project description:To evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation of acute ionizing radiation damage by mitochondrion-targeted small molecules.We evaluated the ability of nitroxide-linked alkene peptide isostere JP4-039, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor-linked alkene peptide esostere MCF201-89, and the p53/mdm2/mdm4 protein complex inhibitor BEB55 to mitigate radiation effects by clonogenic survival curves with the murine hematopoietic progenitor cell line 32D cl 3 and the human bone marrow stromal (KM101) and pulmonary epithelial (IB3) cell lines. The p53-dependent mechanism of action was tested with p53(+/+) and p53(-/-) murine bone marrow stromal cell lines. C57BL/6 NHsd female mice were injected i.p. with JP4-039, MCF201-89, or BEB55 individually or in combination, after receiving 9.5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI).Each drug, JP4-039, MCF201-89, or BEB55, individually or as a mixture of all three compounds increased the survival of 32D cl 3 (p = 0.0021, p = 0.0011, p = 0.0038, and p = 0.0073, respectively) and IB3 cells (p = 0.0193, p = 0.0452, p = 0.0017, and p = 0.0019, respectively) significantly relative to that of control irradiated cells. KM101 cells were protected by individual drugs (p = 0.0007, p = 0.0235, p = 0.0044, respectively). JP4-039 and MCF201-89 increased irradiation survival of both p53(+/+) (p = 0.0396 and p = 0.0071, respectively) and p53(-/-) cells (p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0188, respectively), while BEB55 was ineffective with p53(-/-) cells. Drugs administered individually or as a mixtures of all three after TBI significantly increased mouse survival (p = 0.0234, 0.0009, 0.0052, and 0.0167, respectively).Mitochondrial targeting of small molecule radiation mitigators decreases irradiation-induced cell death in vitro and prolongs survival of lethally irradiated mice.
Project description:The amino acid antiporter system Xc- is important for the synthesis of glutathione (GSH) that functions to prevent lipid peroxidation and protect cells from nonapoptotic, iron-dependent death (i.e., ferroptosis). While the activity of system Xc- often positively correlates with the expression level of its light chain encoded by SLC7A11, inhibition of system Xc- activity by small molecules (e.g., erastin) causes a decrease in the intracellular GSH level, leading to ferroptotic cell death. How system Xc- is regulated during ferroptosis remains largely unknown. Here we report that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a common stress sensor, can promote ferroptosis induced by erastin. ATF3 suppressed system Xc-, depleted intracellular GSH, and thereby promoted lipid peroxidation induced by erastin. ATF3 achieved this activity through binding to the SLC7A11 promoter and repressing SLC7A11 expression in a p53-independent manner. These findings thus add ATF3 to a short list of proteins that can regulate system Xc- and promote ferroptosis repressed by this antiporter.
Project description:In cancer cells the small compounds erastin and RSL3 promote a novel type of cell death called ferroptosis, which requires iron-dependent accumulation of lipid reactive oxygen species. Here we assessed the contribution of lipid peroxidation activity of lipoxygenases (LOX) to ferroptosis in oncogenic Ras-expressing cancer cells. Several 12/15-LOX inhibitors prevented cell death induced by erastin and RSL3. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated silencing of ALOX15 significantly decreased both erastin-induced and RSL3-induced ferroptotic cell death, whereas exogenous overexpression of ALOX15 enhanced the effect of these compounds. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that the ALOX15 protein consistently localizes to cell membrane during the course of ferroptosis. Importantly, treatments of cells with ALOX15-activating compounds accelerated cell death at low, but not high doses of erastin and RSL3. These observations suggest that tumor ferroptosis is promoted by LOX-catalyzed lipid hydroperoxide generation in cellular membranes.