Resting state electroencephalogram oscillatory abnormalities in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar patients and their relatives from the bipolar and schizophrenia network on intermediate phenotypes study.
ABSTRACT: Abnormal resting state electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillations are reported in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder, illnesses with overlapping symptoms and genetic risk. However, less evidence exists on whether similar EEG spectral abnormalities are present in individuals with both disorders or whether these abnormalities are present in first-degree relatives, possibly representing genetic predisposition for these disorders.Investigators examined 64-channel resting state EEGs of 225 SZ probands and 201 first-degree relatives (SZR), 234 psychotic bipolar (PBP) probands and 231 first-degree relatives (PBPR), and 200 healthy control subjects. Eight independent resting state EEG spectral components and associated spatial weights were derived using group independent component analysis. Analysis of covariance was conducted on spatial weights to evaluate group differences. Relative risk estimates and familiality were evaluated on abnormal spectral profiles in probands and relatives.Both SZ and PBP probands exhibited increased delta, theta, and slow and fast alpha activity. Post-hoc pair-wise comparison revealed increased frontocentral slow beta activity in SZ and PBP probands as well as SZR and PBPR. Augmented frontal delta activity was exhibited by SZ probands and SZR, whereas PBP probands and PBPR showed augmented fast alpha activity.Both SZ and PBP probands demonstrated aberrant low-frequency activity. Slow beta activity was abnormal in SZ and PBP probands as well as SZR and PBPR perhaps indicating a common endophenotype for both disorders. Delta and fast alpha activity were unique endophenotypes for SZ and PBP probands, respectively. The EEG spectral activity exhibited moderate relative risk and heritability estimates, serving as intermediate phenotypes in future genetic studies for examining biological mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of the two disorders.
Project description:Schizophrenia (SZ) and psychotic bipolar disorder (PBP) are disabling psychiatric illnesses with complex and unclear etiologies. Electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillatory abnormalities in SZ and PBP probands are heritable and expressed in their relatives, but the neurobiology and genetic factors mediating these abnormalities in the psychosis dimension of either disorder are less explored. We examined the polygenic architecture of eyes-open resting state EEG frequency activity (intrinsic frequency) from 64 channels in 105 SZ, 145 PBP probands and 56 healthy controls (HCs) from the multisite BSNIP (Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes) study. One million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were derived from DNA. We assessed eight data-driven EEG frequency activity derived from group-independent component analysis (ICA) in conjunction with a reduced subset of 10,422 SNPs through novel multivariate association using parallel ICA (para-ICA). Genes contributing to the association were examined collectively using pathway analysis tools. Para-ICA extracted five frequency and nine SNP components, of which theta and delta activities were significantly correlated with two different gene components, comprising genes participating extensively in brain development, neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. Delta and theta abnormality was present in both SZ and PBP, while theta differed between the two disorders. Theta abnormalities were also mediated by gene clusters involved in glutamic acid pathways, cadherin and synaptic contact-based cell adhesion processes. Our data suggest plausible multifactorial genetic networks, including novel and several previously identified (DISC1) candidate risk genes, mediating low frequency delta and theta abnormalities in psychoses. The gene clusters were enriched for biological properties affecting neural circuitry and involved in brain function and/or development.
Project description:The brain's default mode network (DMN) is highly heritable and is compromised in a variety of psychiatric disorders. However, genetic control over the DMN in schizophrenia (SZ) and psychotic bipolar disorder (PBP) is largely unknown. Study subjects (n = 1,305) underwent a resting-state functional MRI scan and were analyzed by a two-stage approach. The initial analysis used independent component analysis (ICA) in 324 healthy controls, 296 SZ probands, 300 PBP probands, 179 unaffected first-degree relatives of SZ probands (SZREL), and 206 unaffected first-degree relatives of PBP probands to identify DMNs and to test their biomarker and/or endophenotype status. A subset of controls and probands (n = 549) then was subjected to a parallel ICA (para-ICA) to identify imaging-genetic relationships. ICA identified three DMNs. Hypo-connectivity was observed in both patient groups in all DMNs. Similar patterns observed in SZREL were restricted to only one network. DMN connectivity also correlated with several symptom measures. Para-ICA identified five sub-DMNs that were significantly associated with five different genetic networks. Several top-ranking SNPs across these networks belonged to previously identified, well-known psychosis/mood disorder genes. Global enrichment analyses revealed processes including NMDA-related long-term potentiation, PKA, immune response signaling, axon guidance, and synaptogenesis that significantly influenced DMN modulation in psychoses. In summary, we observed both unique and shared impairments in functional connectivity across the SZ and PBP cohorts; these impairments were selectively familial only for SZREL. Genes regulating specific neurodevelopment/transmission processes primarily mediated DMN disconnectivity. The study thus identifies biological pathways related to a widely researched quantitative trait that might suggest novel, targeted drug treatments for these diseases.
Project description:The adaptability of the human brain to the constantly changing environment is reduced in patients with psychotic disorders, leading to impaired cognitive functions. Brain signal complexity, which may reflect adaptability, can be readily quantified via resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals. We hypothesized that resting-state brain signal complexity is altered in psychotic disorders, and is correlated with cognitive impairment.We assessed 156 healthy controls (HC) and 330 probands, including 125 patients with psychotic bipolar disorder (BP), 107 patients with schizophrenia (SZ), 98 patients with schizoaffective disorder (SAD) and 230 of their unaffected first-degree relatives (76 BPR, 79 SADR, and 75 SZR) from four sites of the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) consortium. Using multi-scale entropy analysis, we determined whether patients and/or relatives had pathologic differences in complexity of resting-state fMRI signals toward regularity (reduced entropy in all time scales), or toward uncorrelated randomness (increased entropy in fine time scales that decays as the time scale increases) and how these complexity differences might be associated with cognitive impairment.Compared to HC subjects, proband groups showed either decreased complexity toward regularity or toward randomness. SZ probands showed decreased complexity toward regular signal in hypothalamus, and BP probands in left inferior occipital, right precentral and left superior parietal regions, whereas no brain region with decreased complexity toward regularity was found in SAD probands. All proband groups showed significantly increased brain signal randomness in dorsal and ventral prefrontal cortex (PFC), and unaffected relatives showed no complexity differences in PFC regions. SZ had the largest area of involvement in both dorsal and ventral PFC. BP and SAD probands shared increased brain signal randomness in ventral medial PFC, BP and SZ probands shared increased brain signal randomness in ventral lateral PFC, whereas SAD and SZ probands shared increased brain signal randomness in dorsal medial PFC. Only SZ showed increased brain signal randomness in dorsal lateral PFC. The increased brain signal randomness in dorsal or ventral PFC was weakly associated with reduced cognitive performance in psychotic probands.These observations support the loss of brain complexity hypothesis in psychotic probands. Furthermore, we found significant differences as well as overlaps of pathologic brain signal complexity between psychotic probands by DSM diagnoses, thus suggesting a biological approach to categorizing psychosis based on functional neuroimaging data.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>We quantified frequency-specific, absolute, and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF/fALFF) across the schizophrenia (SZ)-psychotic bipolar disorder (PBP) psychosis spectrum using resting functional magnetic resonance imaging data from the large BSNIP family study.<h4>Methods</h4>We assessed 242 healthy controls (HC), 547 probands (180 PBP, 220 SZ, and 147 schizoaffective disorder-SAD), and 410 of their first-degree relatives (134 PBPR, 150SZR, and 126 SADR). Following standard preprocessing in statistical parametric mapping (SPM8), we computed absolute and fractional power (ALFF/fALFF) in 2 low-frequency bands: slow-5 (0.01-0.027 Hz) and slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz). We evaluated voxelwise post hoc differences across traditional Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnostic categories.<h4>Results</h4>Across ALFF/fALFF, in contrast to HC, BP/SAD showed hypoactivation in frontal/anterior brain regions in the slow-5 band and hypoactivation in posterior brain regions in the slow-4 band. SZ showed consistent hypoactivation in precuneus/cuneus and posterior cingulate across both bands and indices. Increased ALFF/fALFF was noted predominantly in deep subcortical and temporal structures across probands in both bands and indices. Across probands, spatial ALFF/fALFF differences in SAD resembled PBP more than SZ. None of these ALFF/fALFF differences were detected in relatives.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Results suggest ALFF/fALFF is a putative biomarker rather than a familial endophenotype. Overall sensitivity to discriminate proband brain alteration was stronger for fALFF than ALFF. Patterns of differences noted in SAD were more similar to those observed in PBP. Differential effects were noted across the 2 frequency bands, more prominently for BP/SAD compared with SZ, suggesting frequency-sensitive physiologic mechanisms for the former.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>This study examined smooth pursuit eye movement (SPEM), prepulse inhibition (PPI), and auditory event-related potentials (ERP) to paired stimuli as putative endophenotypes of psychosis across the schizophrenia-bipolar disorder dimension.<h4>Methods</h4>Sixty-four schizophrenia probands (SZP), 40 psychotic bipolar I disorder probands (BDP), 31 relatives of SZP (SZR), 26 relatives of BDP (BDR), and 53 healthy controls (HC) were tested. Standard clinical characterization, SPEM, PPI, and ERP measures were administered.<h4>Results</h4>There were no differences between either SZP and BDP or SZR and BDR on any of the SPEM, PPI, or ERP measure. Compared with HC, SZP and BDP had lower SPEM maintenance and predictive pursuit gain and ERP theta/alpha and beta magnitudes to the initial stimulus. PPI did not differ between the psychosis probands and HC. Compared with HC, SZR and BDR had lower predictive pursuit gain and ERP theta/alpha and beta magnitudes to the first stimulus with differences ranging from a significant to a trend level. Neither active symptoms severity nor concomitant medications were associated with neurophysiological outcomes. SPEM, PPI, and ERP scores had low intercorrelations.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These findings support SPEM predictive pursuit and lower frequency auditory ERP activity in a paired stimuli paradigm as putative endophenotypes of psychosis common to SZ and BD probands and relatives. PPI did not differ between the psychosis probands and HC. Future studies in larger scale psychosis family samples targeting putative psychosis endophenotypes and underlying molecular and genetic mediators may aid in the development of biology-based diagnostic definitions.
Project description:We evaluated whether abnormal frequency composition of the resting state electroencephalogram (EEG) in schizophrenia was associated with genetic liability for the disorder by studying first-degree biological relatives of schizophrenia patients. The study included a data-driven method for defining EEG frequency components and determined the specificity of resting state EEG frequency abnormalities by assessing schizophrenia patients, bipolar disorder patients, and relatives of both patient groups. Schizophrenia patients and their relatives, but not bipolar patients or their relatives, exhibited increased high-frequency activity (beta) providing evidence for disturbances in resting state brain activity being specific to genetic liability for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients exhibited augmented low-frequency EEG activity (delta, theta), while bipolar disorder patients and the 2 groups of relatives generally failed to manifest similar low-frequency EEG abnormalities. The Val(158)Met polymorphism for the catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) gene was most strongly associated with delta and theta activity in schizophrenia patients. Met homozygote schizophrenia patients exhibited augmented activity for the 2 low-frequency bands compared with control subjects. Excessive high-frequency EEG activity over frontal brain regions may serve as an endophenotype that reflects cortical expression of genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia. Low-frequency resting state EEG anomalies in schizophrenia may relate to disorder-specific pathophysiology in schizophrenia and the influence of the COMT gene on tonic dopamanergic function.
Project description:The complex molecular etiology of psychosis in schizophrenia (SZ) and psychotic bipolar disorder (PBP) is not well defined, presumably due to their multifactorial genetic architecture. Neurobiological correlates of psychosis can be identified through genetic associations of intermediate phenotypes such as event-related potential (ERP) from auditory paired stimulus processing (APSP). Various ERP components of APSP are heritable and aberrant in SZ, PBP and their relatives, but their multivariate genetic factors are less explored.We investigated the multivariate polygenic association of ERP from 64-sensor auditory paired stimulus data in 149 SZ, 209 PBP probands, and 99 healthy individuals from the multisite Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes study. Multivariate association of 64-channel APSP waveforms with a subset of 16 999 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (reduced from 1 million SNP array) was examined using parallel independent component analysis (Para-ICA). Biological pathways associated with the genes were assessed using enrichment-based analysis tools.Para-ICA identified 2 ERP components, of which one was significantly correlated with a genetic network comprising multiple linearly coupled gene variants that explained ~4% of the ERP phenotype variance. Enrichment analysis revealed epidermal growth factor, endocannabinoid signaling, glutamatergic synapse and maltohexaose transport associated with P2 component of the N1-P2 ERP waveform. This ERP component also showed deficits in SZ and PBP.Aberrant P2 component in psychosis was associated with gene networks regulating several fundamental biologic functions, either general or specific to nervous system development. The pathways and processes underlying the gene clusters play a crucial role in brain function, plausibly implicated in psychosis.
Project description:Concurrent EEG and fMRI acquisitions in resting state showed a correlation between EEG power in various bands and spontaneous BOLD fluctuations. However, there is a lack of data on how changes in the complexity of brain dynamics derived from EEG reflect variations in the BOLD signal. The purpose of our study was to correlate both spectral patterns, as linear features of EEG rhythms, and nonlinear EEG dynamic complexity with neuronal activity obtained by fMRI. We examined the relationships between EEG patterns and brain activation obtained by simultaneous EEG-fMRI during the resting state condition in 25 healthy right-handed adult volunteers. Using EEG-derived regressors, we demonstrated a substantial correlation of BOLD signal changes with linear and nonlinear features of EEG. We found the most significant positive correlation of fMRI signal with delta spectral power. Beta and alpha spectral features had no reliable effect on BOLD fluctuation. However, dynamic changes of alpha peak frequency exhibited a significant association with BOLD signal increase in right-hemisphere areas. Additionally, EEG dynamic complexity as measured by the HFD of the 2-20 Hz EEG frequency range significantly correlated with the activation of cortical and subcortical limbic system areas. Our results indicate that both spectral features of EEG frequency bands and nonlinear dynamic properties of spontaneous EEG are strongly associated with fluctuations of the BOLD signal during the resting state condition.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The physiopathological mechanism underlying the tinnitus phenomenon is still the subject of an ongoing debate. Since oscillatory EEG activity is increasingly recognized as a fundamental hallmark of cortical integrative functions, this study investigates deviations from the norm of different resting EEG parameters in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. RESULTS: Spectral parameters of resting EEG of male tinnitus patients (n = 8, mean age 54 years) were compared to those of age-matched healthy males (n = 15, mean age 58.8 years). On average, the patient group exhibited higher spectral power over the frequency range of 2-100 Hz. Using LORETA source analysis, the generators of delta, theta, alpha and beta power increases were localized dominantly to left auditory (Brodmann Areas (BA) 41,42, 22), temporo-parietal, insular posterior, cingulate anterior and parahippocampal cortical areas. CONCLUSIONS: Tinnitus patients show a deviation from the norm of different resting EEG parameters, characterized by an overproduction of resting state delta, theta and beta brain activities, providing further support for the microphysiological and magnetoencephalographic evidence pointing to a thalamocortical dysrhythmic process at the source of tinnitus. These results also provide further confirmation that reciprocal involvements of both auditory and associative/paralimbic areas are essential in the generation of tinnitus.
Project description:The corpus callosum has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, it is unclear whether corpus callosum alterations are related to the underlying familial diathesis for psychotic disorders. We examined the corpus callosum and its subregion volumes and their relationship to cognition, psychotic symptoms, and age in probands with schizophrenia (SZ), psychotic bipolar disorder (PBD), and schizoaffective disorder; their first-degree relatives; and healthy control subjects.We present findings from morphometric and neurocognitive analyses of 1381 subjects (SZ probands, n = 224; PBD probands, n = 190; schizoaffective disorder probands, n = 142; unaffected relatives, n = 483 [SZ relatives, n = 195; PBD relatives, n = 175; schizoaffective disorder relatives, n = 113]; control subjects, n = 342). Magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo T1 scans across five sites were obtained using 3-tesla magnets. Image processing was done using FreeSurfer Version 5.1. Neurocognitive function was measured using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia scale.Anterior and posterior splenial volumes were significantly reduced across the groups. The SZ and PBD probands showed robust and significant reductions, whereas relatives showed significant reductions of intermediate severity. The splenial volumes were positively but differentially correlated with aspects of cognition in the probands and their relatives. Proband groups showed a significant age-related decrease in the volume of the anterior splenium compared with control subjects. Among the psychosis groups, the anterior splenium in probands with PBD showed a stronger correlation with psychotic symptoms, as shown by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. All five subregions showed significantly high familiality.The splenial volumes were significantly reduced across the psychosis dimension. However, this volume reduction impacts cognition and clinical manifestation of the illnesses differentially.