Functional and Structural Consequences of Nine CYP21A2 Mutations Ranging from Very Mild to Severe Effects.
ABSTRACT: We present the functional and structural effects of seven novel (p.Leu12Met, p.Arg16Cys, p.Ser101Asn, p.Ser202Gly, p.Pro267Leu, p.Gln389_Ala391del, and p.Thr450Met) and two previously reported but not studied (p.Ser113Phe and p.Thr450Pro) CYP21A2 mutations. Functional analyses were complemented with in silico prediction of mutation pathogenicity based on the recently crystallized human CYP21A2 structure. Mutated proteins were transiently expressed in COS-1 cells and enzyme activities towards 17-hydroxyprogesterone and progesterone were determined. Residual enzyme activities between 43% and 97% were obtained for p.Arg16Cys, p.Ser101Asn, p.Ser202Gly, p.Pro267Leu, and p.Thr450Met, similar to the activities of the well-known nonclassic mutations p.Pro453Ser and p.Pro482Ser, whereas the p.Leu12Met variant showed an activity of 100%. Conversely, the novel p.Ser113Phe, p.Gln389_Ala391del, and p.Thr450Pro mutations drastically reduced the enzyme function below 4%. The Km values for all novel variants were in the same order of magnitude as for the wild-type protein except for p.The450Met. The maximum velocity was decreased for all mutants except for p.Leu12Met. We conclude that p.Leu12Met is a normal variant; the mutations p.Arg16Cys, p.Ser101Asn, p.Ser202Gly, p.Pro267Leu, and p.Thr450Met could be associated with very mild nonclassic CAH, and the mutations p.Ser113Phe, p.Gln389_Ala391del, and p.Thr450Pro are associated with classic CAH. The obtained residual activities indicated a good genotype-phenotype correlation.
Project description:In about 95% of cases, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is caused by mutations in CYP21A2 gene encoding steroid 21-hydroxylase (21OH). Recently, we have reported four novel CYP21A2 variants in the Norwegian population of patients with CAH, of which p.L388R and p.E140K were associated with salt wasting (SW), p.P45L with simple virilising (SV) and p.V211M+p.V281L with SV to non-classical (NC) phenotypes. We aimed to characterise the novel variants functionally utilising a newly designed in vitro assay of 21OH enzyme activity and structural simulations and compare the results with clinical phenotypes. CYP21A2 mutations and variants were expressed in vitro. Enzyme activity was assayed by assessing the conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 11-deoxycortisol by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy. PyMOL 1.3 was used for structural simulations, and PolyPhen2 and PROVEAN for predicting the severity of the mutants. The CYP21A2 mutants, p.L388R and p.E140K, exhibited 1.1 and 11.3% of wt 21OH enzyme activity, respectively, in vitro. We could not detect any functional deficiency of the p.P45L variant in vitro; although prediction tools suggest p.P45L to be pathogenic. p.V211M displayed enzyme activity equivalent to the wt in vitro, which was supported by in silico analyses. We found good correlations between phenotype and the in vitro enzyme activities of the SW mutants, but not for the SV p.P45L variant. p.V211M might have a synergistic effect together with p.V281L, explaining a phenotype between SV and NC CAH.
Project description:Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of cortisol biosynthesis caused by CYP21A2 mutations. An increase in gene copy number variation (CNV) exists at the CYP21A2 locus. CNV of C4, a neighboring gene that encodes complement component 4, is associated with autoimmune disease susceptibility. In this study, we performed comprehensive genetic analysis of the RP-C4-CYP21-TNX (RCCX) region in 127 unrelated 21-OHD patients (100 classic, 27 nonclassic). C4 copy number was determined by Southern blot. C4 CNV and serum C4 levels were evaluated in relation to CYP21A2 mutations and relevant phenotypes. We found that the most common CYP21A2 mutation associated with the nonclassic form of CAH, V281L, was associated with high C4 copy number (p = 7.13 × 10(-16)). Large CYP21A2 deletion, a common mutation associated with the classic form of CAH, was associated with low C4 copy number (p = 1.61 × 10(-14)). Monomodular RCCX with a short C4 gene, a risk factor for autoimmune disease, was significantly less frequent in CAH patients compared to population estimates (2.8 vs. 10.6 %; p = 1.08 × 10(-4)). In conclusion, CAH patients have increased C4 CNV, with mutation-specific associations that may be protective for autoimmune disease. The study of CYP21A2 in relation to neighboring genes provides insight into the genetics of CNV hotspots, an important determinant of human health.
Project description:We present a family with 2 members who received long-term steroid treatment for presumed classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, until molecular testing revealed nonclassic CAH, not necessarily requiring treatment. A 17-year-old male presented to our clinic on glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid treatment for classic CAH. He was diagnosed at 4 years of age based on mild-moderate elevations of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), but without evidence of precocious adrenarche/puberty. Due to his diagnosis, his clinically asymptomatic 3-year-old sister was tested and also found to have elevated ACTH and 17-OHP levels and was started on glucocorticoids for classic CAH. Family history revealed a healthy sibling who had no biochemical evidence of CAH and consanguineous healthy parents. We questioned the diagnosis of classic CAH and performed an ACTH1-24 stimulation test, which showed a level of 17-OHP in the borderline range between classic and nonclassic CAH. Molecular testing, using sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis of CYP21A2, revealed that both affected siblings were compound heterozygotes for a whole-gene deletion and a, likely pathogenic (nonclassical), sequence variant, p.R124C. The asymptomatic father had the same genotype, while the mother showed one deleted copy and 2 active copies, making her an asymptomatic carrier. Our report demonstrates the importance of molecular testing in atypical cases of CAH, as well as the importance of both sequencing and deletion analysis. The results of molecular testing should be interpreted in clinical context, and treatment should be prescribed according to guidelines when available.
Project description:Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders in humans, and 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) accounts for 90 to 95% of all cases of CAH. Approximately 95% mutations are a consequence of recombination between the CYP21A2 and its highly homologous pseudogene CYP21A1P. Recently, other rare mutations have been identified, increasing the number of reported mutations to more than eighty. The in vitro enzyme assay for the detection of mutated 21-hydroxylase is a well-established method. In this study, we report the characterization of the R483Q mutation using a novel in vitro enzyme assay, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). With this system, we evaluated the activity of the R483Q mutation. The enzyme activities of 21-hydroxylase in the convertion of progesterone to deoxycorticosterone (DOC), and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) to 11-deoxycortisol (11-DOF), were measured as 2.00 ± 0.25% and 1.89 ± 0.30% of the wild type, respectively. This result was in agreement with that of a previous report, which measured the activities using the (3)H labeled steroid assay. Our results suggest that the R483Q mutation is compatible with the simple virilizing form of 21-OHD and that the LC-ESI-MS/MS assay using picolinoyl derivatives is an alternative to the existing (3)H-labeled steroid assay for the characterization of the CYP21A2 mutation.
Project description:In congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, a strong genotype-phenotype correlation exists in childhood. However, similar data in adults are lacking.The objective of the study was to test whether the severity of disease-causing CYP21A2 mutations influences the treatment and health status in adults with CAH.We analyzed the genotype in correlation with treatment and health status in 153 adults with CAH from the United Kingdom Congenital adrenal Hyperplasia Adult Study Executive cohort.CYP21A2 mutations were distributed similarly to previously reported case series. In 7 patients a mutation was identified on only 1 allele. Novel mutations were detected on 1.7% of alleles (5 of 306). Rare mutations were found on 2.3% of alleles (7 of 306). For further analysis, patients were categorized into CYP21A2 mutation groups according to predicted residual enzyme function: null (n = 34), A (n = 42), B (n = 36), C (n = 34), and D (n = 7). Daily glucocorticoid dose was highest in group null and lowest in group C. Fludrocortisone was used more frequently in patients with more severe genotypes. Except for lower female height in group B, no statistically significant associations between genotype and clinical parameters were found. Androgens, blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were not different between groups. Subjective health status was similarly impaired across groups.In adults with classic CAH and women with nonclassic CAH, there was a weak association between genotype and treatment, but health outcomes were not associated with genotype. The underrepresentation of males with nonclassic CAH may reflect that milder genotypes result in a milder condition that is neither diagnosed nor followed up in adulthood. Overall, our results suggest that the impaired health status of adults with CAH coming to medical attention is acquired rather than genetically determined and therefore could potentially be improved through modification of treatment.
Project description:The CYP21A2 gene encoding 21?hydroxylase is on chromosome 6p21.3 within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class III major histocompatibility complex and an association between congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21?hydroxylase deficiency and HLA class I and II alleles has been shown in genetically isolated populations. One-third of CAH causing alleles are 30-kb deletions due to homologous recombination events between active and pseudogenes resulting in chimeric genes. The aim of this study was to re-visit the association between the CYP21A2 variants and HLA polymorphisms in a large ethnically diverse cohort of patients with CAH who underwent comprehensive CYP21A2 genotyping, including specification of chimeric gene subtypes (CAH CH-1 through CH-9 of CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 chimeras; CAH-X CH-1 through CH-3 of TNXA/TNXB chimeras) in alleles with 30-kb deletions. The study population included 201 patients (86 males, 115 females, age 3-75?years) with CAH due to 21?hydroxylase deficiency (159 classic, 42 nonclassic) and 194 parents. Based on the availability of parental genotype, we determined the haplotypes of CYP21A2 mutations and HLA types in 95 probands (190 alleles). Five prevalent haplotype associations were found: p.V281L and B*14-C*08 (P?<?0.0001); p.I172N and DQB1*03 (P?=?0.035); and of the chimeric genes caused by 30-kb deletions: CH-1 and A*03 (P?=?0.033); CH-5 and C*06-DRB1*07 (P?<?0.0001); and CAH-X CH-1 and DQB1*03 (P?=?0.004). Our findings show that a number of associations between HLA alleles and haplotypes and CYP21A2 mutations, including large 30-kb deletions, exist commonly across ethnicities. These HLA associations may have clinical implications for patients with CAH and may provide insight into the genetics of this highly complex region of the human genome.
Project description:Premature pubarche (PP) is the appearance of sexual hair in children before puberty. The PP phenotype may attribute to nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NC-CAH). In this study, we investigated the role of CYP21A2 gene variants in patients with PP in the Iranian population. Forty patients (13 males and 27 females), clinically diagnosed with PP, were analyzed for molecular testing of CYP21A2 gene variants. Direct sequencing was performed for the samples. Also, gene dosage analysis was performed for the cases. Fourteen patients (35%) had a mutation of p.Gln318X and p.Val281Leu, out of which 10% had regulatory variants. Approximately 10% of the patients were homozygous (NC-CAH). 78.5% (11/14) of patients had trimodular RCCX of which 5 patients had two copies of CYP21A1P pseudogene. The prevalence of p.Val281Leu was higher than p.Gln318X in PP patients. In conclusion, CYP21A2 variant detection has implications in the genetic diagnosis of PP phenotype. The genetic characterization of the CYP21A2 gene is important for characterizing the variable phenotype of carriers and genetic counseling of PP and NC-CAH patients.
Project description:This article presents the dataset regarding spectrum of mutations in 21-Hydroxylase deficient CAH patients as described in "The spectrum of CYP21A2 mutations in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in an Indian cohort" (R. Khajuria, R. Walia, A. Bhansali, R. Prasad, 2017) . This dataset features about the CAH patients in the cohort, their classification into subtypes and finally screening the exon-intron boundaries of 21-Hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2) to detect common mutations, novel mutations along polymorphisms in the CYP21A2 gene. The specified large set of primers and the parameters for the mutation detection allow the identification and molecular characterization of CYP21A2 gene in the CAH patients.
Project description:Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency accounts for 90-95% of CAH cases. In this work we performed an extensive survey of mutations and SNPs modifying the coding sequence of the CYP21A2 gene. Using bioinformatic tools and two plausible CYP21A2 structures as templates, we initially classified all known mutants (n?=?343) according to their putative functional impacts, which were either reported in the literature or inferred from structural models. We then performed a detailed analysis on the subset of mutations believed to exclusively impact protein stability. For those mutants, the predicted stability was calculated and correlated with the variant's expected activity. A high concordance was obtained when comparing our predictions with available in vitro residual activities and/or the patient's phenotype. The predicted stability and derived activity of all reported mutations and SNPs lacking functional assays (n?=?108) were assessed. As expected, most of the SNPs (52/76) showed no biological implications. Moreover, this approach was applied to evaluate the putative synergy that could emerge when two mutations occurred in cis. In addition, we propose a putative pathogenic effect of five novel mutations, p.L107Q, p.L122R, p.R132H, p.P335L and p.H466fs, found in 21-hydroxylase deficient patients of our cohort.
Project description:Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most frequent inborn error of metabolism and accounts for 90-95% of CAH cases. In the present work, we analyzed the functional consequence of four novel previously reported point CYP21A2 mutations -p.R132C, p.R149C, p.M283V, p.E431K- found in Argentinean 21-hydroxylase deficient patients. In addition, we report an acceptor splice site novel point mutation, c.652-2A>G, found in a classical patient in compound heterozygosity with the rare p.R483Q mutation. We performed bioinformatic and functional assays to evaluate the biological implication of the novel mutation. Our analyses revealed that the residual enzymatic activity of the isolated mutants coding for CYP21A2 aminoacidic substitutions was reduced to a lesser than 50% of the wild type with both progesterone and 17-OH progesterone as substrates. Accordingly, all the variants would predict mild non-classical alleles. In one non-classical patient, the p.E431K mutation was found in cis with the p.D322G one. The highest decrease in enzyme activity was obtained when both mutations were assayed in the same construction, with a residual activity most likely related to the simple virilizing form of the disease. For the c.652-2A>G mutation, bioinformatic tools predicted the putative use of two different cryptic splicing sites. Nevertheless, functional analyses revealed the use of only one cryptic splice acceptor site located within exon 6, leading to the appearance of an mRNA with a 16 nt deletion. A severe allele is strongly suggested due to the presence of a premature stop codon in the protein only 12 nt downstream.